Enterosorbent and method of its obtaining

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes milling glauconite with the content of rock from 20 to 95%, selection of a fraction of 1.0-10 mcm, preparation of a 40-80% suspension of glauconite in water. The obtained suspension is processed by ultrasound with a frequency of 15-25 kHz for 2-5 minutes. As a result obtained is a glauconite-based enterosorbent, which represents a 40-80% suspension of the glauconite 1.0-10 mcm fraction in water.

EFFECT: obtaining the glauconite-based enetrosorbent, which has the increased sorption ability in the form of a stable water suspension of glauconite.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to biotechnology, namely to enterosorbents and technologies of their production, and is intended for use in health care for the normalization of the gastrointestinal tract and other body systems as well as related sectors of the economy (veterinary medicine, chemistry, cosmetics, pharmacy and food industry).

Chelators - products used for binding of metabolites, toxins and other substances in the digestive tract. They are usually, in solving optimization problems of nutrition of humans and animals, and also to reduce intake of environmentally harmful substances (including radionuclides, pesticides, heavy metals), the prevention and treatment of several diseases such as dysentery, viral hepatitis, drug and food allergies, asthma, diabetes, disorders of lipid metabolism.

As enterosorbents currently widely used various minerals, such as zeolites, bentonites, activated carbon, microcrystalline cellulose, zeolites, lignins and their derivatives.

The most well known use of enterosorbent activated carbon (Activated charcoal) (Reference VIDAL. Drugs in Russia. - M.: OVPEE - Astra Pharm Service, 2000 - P. E-8), widely used in hee�tiles, food, pharmaceutical industries and in medicine. However, it has relatively low sorption activity and low selectivity of the sorption of the action of such substances as cholesterol, bilirubin, urea, uric acid, are generally removed from the body by the excretory organs. In its application, possible constipation, diarrhea; and if long - term use, the vitamin deficiencies, malabsorption from the gastrointestinal tract nutrients. Activated charcoal is contraindicated in ulcerative lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, with gastric bleeding.

Known drug (RU 2124358, 1999) for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases with aluminium phosphate as busy, but it only has effect on the reduction of acidity and is ineffective for removal from the body of toxic substances. Also known drug (BG around 61,500, 1997), which as enterosorbent use a mixture of aluminum hydroxide and magnesium in combination with lysozyme. It possesses bactericidal properties due to the presence of lysozyme, however, cannot absorb and excrete harmful toxic substances, and normalize the functions of the gastrointestinal tract.

It is known to use as chelators of shungite (EN 2423984, 2011) with the content of silicon dioxide �t 20 to 50 wt.%, while the average median particle size of the enterosorbent amounts to 15.0·10-6m zeolite-based opal-cristobalite breed (EN 2319488, 2008). The effective sorbents for use in combined radiation-thermal lesions of humans and animals, to relieve alcohol and drug intoxication, as an antibacterial agent as a means for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases of agricultural animals and birds, but their efficiency is not high enough.

One of the promising chelators is glauconite. The name earth comes from the Greek "glaukos" bluish - green. Glauconite clay mineral of variable composition with a high content of ferrous and ferric iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, which typically contains more than fifty trace elements, among which copper, silver, Nickel, cobalt, manganese, zinc, molybdenum, arsenic, chromium, tin, beryllium, cadmium and other (http:www.saratov-bi.ru/news/2013-04-16-000000). Fluctuations in composition are associated with isomorphic substitutions. By decision of the International nomenclature Committee of the glauconite should be called glandular dioctahedral mica. The content of the main components is normally in the range, %: Si2- 47-50,5; Al2O3- 5-10; Fe2O3- 15-22; FeO - 2-4; MgO - 3-4; aO - 0-0,8; Na2O - 0-0,5; K2O - 6-8; H2O - 7-9 (EN 2291702, 2007).

All trace elements are easily recoverable in the form of exchangeable cations that are replaced are in abundance in the environment. This property was attributed to the high sorption properties of glauconite in relation to toxins, petroleum products, heavy metals, radionuclides.

It is known the use of glauconite as a reactant in the processing of beverages for the purpose of clarification (EN 94021998, 1996), in foundry molding mixtures as substances intended to increase the suppleness of the mixture, with the aim of improving the quality of foundry cores and molds /SU 1388184, 1988); to reduce the hardness of the water, fertilizing the soil, the manufacture of paints (SES, Moscow, "Soviet encyclopedia", 1990, p. 313). In crop production it is used for reduction of pesticide residues in plants, improve seed germination, increase of bio-mass plants, as compound fertilizers are gradual steps for many crops (rice, millet, wheat, potatoes, corn, tomatoes and other), for the increase of green mass of annual grasses to improve water-physical status of the soil, to enhance the activity of soil microflora, increasing the germination and yield of legumes, root crops, tomatoes, cucumbers (Atlas unconventional agrochemical mi�of mineral raw materials of the USSR Ministry of Geology of the USSR; The Union reports. nauch.-issled. Institute of Geology and non-metallic minerals; Comp. P. O. Alamitos, A. I. Burov, I. S. Gusiev, etc.: edited by W. G. Destinova, A. S. Filko, V. F. Semenov. - M.: Nedra, 1989, 64 p., O. E. Akin, A. I. Kovalchuk Experimental research work on the use of opal-cristobalite breeds for growing plants / Report. NGO "Sredneuralskaya" (Uralniiskhoz) IgG RAS, Ekaterinburg, 1998). Studies conducted on laboratory animals scientists of the Ural state Academy of veterinary medicine, found that glauconite has no toxic effects and on the classification of chemicals by hazard in accordance with the state standard 12.1.007.76 belongs to the class 4 - slightly dangerous substances (Maltseva L. F., Sunagatullin F. A., Ovchinnikov A. A., Rasetti S. A. Irritating and allergenic action of glauconite Carian field // Mat. Dokl. All-Russian. Conf. devoting to research and development. the 20th anniversary of Urals. branch of VIEWSHE. - Moscow, Chelyabinsk. - 1999. - p. 115-116,. Sunagatullin F. A., Ovchinnikov A. A., Rasetti S. A., Maltseva L. F. Acute and chronic toxicity of glauconite // Mat. Dokl. All-Russian. Conf. devoting to research and development. the 20th anniversary of Uralsk. Branch of VIEWSHE. - Moscow, Chelyabinsk. - 1999, pp. 152-154).

Currently in medicine and veterinary medicine glauconite is used mainly as a component of various complex preparations used�both in human and veterinary medicine. Thus, it is proposed its use in the feed additive composition containing glauconite and probiotic "Biosporin" (EN 2319391, 2008) to increase protective forces and the natural resistance of the body of pigs.

A suspension of glauconite in an aqueous solution of agar is proposed for the treatment of calves, patients with dyspepsia (EN 2188652, 2002). For the prevention and treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract offered the drug "toxi-Biovit" (EN 2475254, 2012) containing sterilized culture fluid of a number of microorganisms, 50,0-55,0% glauconite and excipients.

The disadvantage of these drugs is the instability during storage, caused a large proportion of glauconite, as well as lack of efficiency due to insufficient development of the surface of the earth.

The closest in technical essence to the claimed invention is enterosorbent (EN 2204396, 2003), consisting of glauconite concentrate that is used as the active substance for the prevention and treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. It can be applied both independently and as part of: medicinal products for the treatment of diseases of the digestive tract and feed for the prevention of gastrointestinal diseases in animals. Applies glauconitic concentrate in the form of powders, suspensions, emulsions, however, suspension glauconycteris due to the high density of the mineral.

Closest to the claimed method of obtaining enterosorbent is the technology on which glauconite is produced by grinding in the mill, the fraction collected with a particle size of 0.01 to 0.1 mm (EN 2188652, 2002), followed by cooking in a 0.5% aqueous solution of agar.

The disadvantages of enterosorbents on the basis of glauconite and the method of their production are the problem of their suspendirovanie in pure form and the instability of the resulting suspension due to its high density and lack of effectiveness of the final product.

The technical task of the invention is the creation of new enterosorbent on the basis of glauconite, which has a higher sorption capacity in the form of a stable aqueous suspension of glauconite that do not require special storage conditions (including freezing and thawing).

The technical result, in respect of the sorbent was achieved with the establishment of the enterosorbent, representing 40-80% suspension in water fraction from 1.0 to 10 μm of glauconite, activated ultrasonic cavitation effect.

Suspension with a concentration of glauconite less than 40% does not allow to use in the sorption capacity of the sorbent to the maximum extent suspension with a concentration of glauconite over 80% - storage stable. The use of more coarse-grained fracc�and reduces the stability of the suspension, the use of particles with size less than 0.1 μm is difficult for technological reasons.

The technical result concerning the method of obtaining enterosorbent consists in crushing the glauconite content of rocks from 20 to 95% in a ball mill with a sampling fraction of 0.001-0.01 mm, mixing it with water and treating the resulting mixture with ultrasound with a frequency of 15-25 kHz within 2-5 minutes.

The ultrasound frequency 15-25 kHz is chosen experimentally based on the technical capabilities of the author. Treatment less than 2 minutes reduces the specific surface of the enterosorbent, processing more than 5 minutes does not give significant effect.

The result is a stable suspension, characterized by high sorption properties due to the increased surface area of the granules of glauconite, convenience and efficacy in the form of a slurry and stored in a wide temperature range from minus 30 to plus 50°C.

The use of ultrasound for the dispersion due to the specific cavitation phenomena accompanying the propagation of ultrasonic oscillations in liquid media (ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/). Thus formed in the liquid gas bubbles (cavities) in which as consider, electrical discharges occur, the ionization of molecules and atoms, the pressure increase and the�of oratory. Gas (cavitation) bubbles are easier to form on the boundary of the liquid with the solid, acting vigorously on the surface of the last. In the process of ultrasonic treatment changes the surface of the suspended mineral, and the resulting finely divided products differ both in the composition and structure of the surface.

The presence of a layered structure of glauconite, unlike zeolites, which are characterized by a frame structure, leads to the fact that some intramolecular forces are not balanced by interaction with ions contained in the solution or air. As a result, they accumulate on the active surfaces of the platelets that make up the crystal, so that after the cavitation treatment significantly increased active surface area of the sorbent.

The nature and advantages of the method are illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1. Glauconite was pulverized in a ball mill to select size of 1-10 μm, and then subjected to magnetic separation at magnetic drum type separators SBM NPO "Erg" variable induction, from 200 to 250 MT and the field gradient from 50 to 70 MT/cm for the selection of the breed, containing from 20 to 95% of the content of glauconite.

Then in container filled with purified water and then filled prepared glauconite Ministers in�the sections on weight 70/30-40/60-50/50-80/20-85/15, and then the mixture is exposed to ultrasound of a frequency of 15-25 kHz, the delay time is 2-5 min. ultrasonic Power 3 W/cm2. The moisture content of the resulting slurry is in the range from 25 to 65%.

Sorption activity of the enterosorbent obtained, IONEX suspension (is), is defined as the specific surface, causing its activity. The specific surface of the sorbent during the sorption of nitrogen, calculated according to the BET method (method proposed by Brunauer, Emmett and Taylor), are shown in table 1.

Table 1
The influence of the production conditions on the properties of enterosorbent
The ratio of glauconite:waterConditions of processingThe specific surface of the sorbent, m2/gThe duration of storage without delamination, d
FrequencyThe duration of treatment, min
30:7015-25 kHz473,2±5,211
40:6015-25 kHz 480,2±3,010
50:5015-25 kHz481,2±3,010
80:2015-25 kHz476,3±3,49
85:1515-25 kHz481,15±3,046
50:5015-25 kHz157,5±2,13
50:5015-25 kHz279,3±3,210
50:5015-25 kHz581,2±3,0410

Example 2. Determination of the adsorption activity conducted in relation to the methylene blue dye (marker of low molecular weight toxins) and to the dye Congo red. The results are shown in table 2:

Table 2
Adsorption activity of the enterosorbent (ratio of glauconite:water 50:50)
ProductAdsorption activity, mg/gSerum albumin (NAV 0.5% aqueous solution) at an initial concentration of protein solution 1000 mg/l
methylene blueCongo red
Enterosorbent550±19,06,2±0,362±9,5

Enterosgel18,2±1,017,4±0,712±1,5
Neolit37,1±0,53,8±0,565,3±9,4
Zeolite510±15,04,8±0,572±8,5
Smectite577±11,045,5±0,285,5±6,1
Activated charcoalof 200.2±9,8 1,1±0,161,6±9,7
Polyphepanum48,9±9,92,5±0,484,6±6,5
POLYSORB41,7±5,01,5±0,3372,5±7,3

From the experimental results it follows that IP on the adsorption activity is significantly superior to the sorption activity of commercially available analogues.

The suspension of dispersed natural glauconite, has high enterosorbiruyuschee ability, non-specific detoxification effect and probiotic activity. It binds and removes from the body of pathogenic bacteria and bacterial toxins, drugs, poisons, heavy metals, alcohol, allergens, and also the excess of certain metabolic products, including bilirubin, cholesterol, urea, metabolites, responsible for the development of endogenous toxemia. Unlike antibiotics leads to the development of dysbiosis. It is not toxic and is not absorbed completely eliminated from the intestine within 24 hours.

1. The method of obtaining enterosorbent on the basis of glauconite, which includes the grinding of glauconite, a selection of his faction, mixing with the liquid fazoli suspending the resulting mixture, characterized in that after grinding the glauconite content of rocks from 20 to 95% of the fraction collected from 1.0 to 10 microns, is prepared 40-80% suspension of glauconite in the water, and then the resulting mixture is treated with ultrasound with a frequency of 15-25 kHz within 2-5 minutes.

2. Enterosorbent on the basis of glauconite, obtained by the method according to claim 1, representing 40-80% suspension in water fraction from 1.0 to 10 μm of glauconite, activated ultrasonic cavitation effect.



 

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