Method of preparing rock extraction for open-pit coal mining

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary loosening of a block of rocks and half-rocks by simultaneous massive drilling holes in it with the maximum density across the whole area of the block prepared for extraction, using a multibar drilling unit, followed by the extraction of rock by machine ways destroying the rock solid blocks between the holes.

EFFECT: complete elimination of harmful effects on the environment and the operational staff at drilling and blasting loosening rocks.

2 cl

 

The invention relates to the mining industry, and specifically to the extraction of coal by opencast methods.

Known methods of preparation of rocks to the recess, namely: mechanical, blasting and hydraulic.

Mechanical methods include preliminary loosening of shovels, draglines, bucket-wheel excavators, bulldozers (see V. F. Anikin, U. S. Husin, M. S. Trendafilov. Hydrocrane operations at the quarry mining industry. M.: Nedra, 1973, p. 31).

Rocky, semi and dense argillaceous rocks pre-loosen the drilling and blasting method, which includes the drilling of wells with the surface of the block to a predetermined level block loading wells of explosives and blasting, which is the loosening of the rock mass (see V. F. Anikin, U. S. Husin, M. S. Trendafilov. Hydrocrane operations at the quarry mining industry. M.: Nedra, 1973, p. 38). Further destruction of rocks and their excavation is carried out hydraulically.

Drilling and blasting method of loosening of rocks is accompanied by the abundance of the harmful effects of the explosion on the environment (seismic, shock air blast, fragmentation of the breed), and a negative impact on the safety of the operating personnel.

The objective of the proposed method �podgotovki of rocks for their seizure is the complete elimination of these types of harmful impacts on the environment and staff.

The problem is solved in that the preliminary loosening of the rock block and semi-bedrocks carried out by massive simultaneous drilling of wells with a maximum density over the entire area of the block, prepared for extraction, followed by the excavation of rocks by machine methods, such as excavators, destroying the pillars of rock between the wells.

Preparation breeds implementing the device, the idea of which can be easily seen directly from the presentation of the process of preparation of rocks as follows.

On working on the block ledge with a crane lowered the so-called mnogoshagovyi drill Assembly (IBA), representing a planar platform, the lower outer surface which is attached to the maximum number of drill rod for drilling in a vertical plane, equipped with augers to remove drilling fines, the number of wells in each case is determined experimentally. For very hard rocks can be used thermobulb or plasmopara at IBA, the number of which is also determined experimentally. The external circuit unit, the IBA will be equipped with the necessary quantity of hydraulic jacks to hold it in a horizontal plane on the surface of the block after his release from under�bit of the crane, and to compensate the reactive moment generated upon contact of the working bodies of the IBA with the surface to be mined block. The operating cycle begins with the simultaneous switching of all drill rods, then, driving a hydraulic Jack, lower the IBA before contact its working bodies with the surface of the block. After immersion of the working of the organs to a predetermined level block hydraulic jacks raise the IBA over the unit and then transfer it with a crane for the next part of the block of the ledge and the process repeats.

The graphical result of the study revealed that in the area of the IBA, is equal to one square meter, can be evenly accommodate up to 40 hammers for drilling wells with a diameter of 60 mm and a depth of 3 meters, while the transverse dimensions interwell pillars are in the order of 100×100 mm, which clearly indicates a sufficient preliminary "loosening" of the block and its fragility for the destruction of native ways, such as excavators, draglines, bucket-wheel excavators or bulldozers, water jets.

1. Method of preparation of rocks for excavation for the extraction of coal by opencast methods, including preliminary loosening mined block, characterized in that the preliminary loosening of rocks in the block is carried out by simultaneous massive Buren� wells throughout the area of the block, prepared for extraction, after which a final loosening produced by machine methods, destroying the pillars of rock between the wells.

2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that during a massive drilling on the area unit equal to one square meter, perhaps even up to 40 wells with a diameter of 60 millimeters and a depth of 3 meters with provision interwell pillars with cross-section dimensions of 100×100 mm.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining.

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FIELD: mining.

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FIELD: mining.

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FIELD: mining industry.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

10 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.

SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

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