Method to create modular volumetric and spatial structure

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction, in particular, to structures of complex volumetric and spatial ceilings and walls. The novelty of the invention consists in the method to develop a volumetric and spatial structure using standardised composite modules. In accordance with the proposed method the standardised modules are manufactured in advance, at the specialised production plant, not taking into account their specific use. Further on the construction object they assemble a complex volumetric and spatial structure from the modules in accordance with the specific project. Development of the complex volumetric and spatial structure from the set of modules is possible due to usage of standardised dimensions of coupled parts and collections of previously developed standard projects.

EFFECT: advantage of the proposed invention consists in simplification and cheapening of design and production of complex volumetric and spatial structures on a construction object, reduction of material wastes.

3 cl, 2 dwg


The invention relates to the field of construction, in particular to the structure of complex spatial ceilings and walls.

Currently for the organization of residential and public areas buildings is widely used different ways of building three-dimensional structures, with the use of different building materials: brick, building blocks, monolithic structures, structural panels, planar materials and frames. The greatest distribution organization for residential and public areas has a way of construction of spatial structures based on the use of a metal frame and gypsum boards. In this way, form (create) the walls and ceilings of rooms, walls, overhangs and other architectural elements, giving the premises a shape and form that best meets the customer requirements.

The method of construction of three-dimensional structures made of inlaid metal frame and gypsum Board is widely used and is described in detail in the regulatory, technical and training materials. In particular, this method is exhaustively described in the following sources:

- L. S. Konev Drywall: arches, walls, ceilings, installation, tools, technology. Series: Building and repairing - tips. - Odessa, Literary BU�Ivar, 2010. - 320 p.: ill. / A practical guide.

- V. I. Rudenko Ceilings hookerton: device and design. - Rostov-on-don: Phoenix, 2006. - 256 p / Travariant.

- Technology. Surfaces of complex shapes. Building together with Knauf / informational-educational edition Knauf. - M.: Knauf, 2000. - (Copy attached).

- GOST 6266-97. The sheets of plasterboard. Specifications.

- GOST R 51829-2001. The sheets of plasterboard. Specifications.

- A set of rules for design and construction. Cladding structures with application of gypsum Board. - M: SP 55-101-2000.

- A set of rules for design and construction. Design and application of gypsum Board. - M: SP 55-102-2001, etc.

Method of creating three-dimensional design of a metal frame and drywall selected as a prototype and presents a staged production of on-site metal frame generated from standardized metal profiles, which are then covered with sheets of drywall that are attached to the metal frame by means of fasteners. This metal frame is attached to structural elements of buildings and are made with consideration of the peculiarities of the spatial structure, creating in advance in the frame elements which form the basis for the surface of�hemno-spatial structure. Sheets of drywall attached to the frame in one or two layers, creating a surface spatial structure facing the man. After the erection of the spatial structure of the surface of the structure subjected to further processing (shpatljujut, paint, etc.), improving its quality.

In the same way from giocatore and metal mosaic frame is made "suspended ceilings, which are fastened to the lower surface of the slab structure. Such ceilings may have very well-developed, multi-level design. The shape of the pieces forming the ceiling is also very diverse, they use lines, arcs, angles, circles, ellipses, etc., elements. The production of such multi-level ceiling or wall requires significant time and labor costs. In addition, for the production of complex multi-level structures with niches, ledges and curved surfaces, require highly skilled workers that manufacture this design. The creation of spatial structures, different art style and harmonious proportions, requires the developer of artistic taste and special education. Production of complex spatial structures always requires a preliminary design�tion, computer modeling and visualization. Negative factor increasing the cost of construction as a whole, is also increased compared to the simple construction of wall or ceiling material consumption (frame, drywall, putties, hardware, etc.). All these factors increase the full final cost of the three-dimensional structure. Division of work on the successive stages of designing and manufacturing increases deadlines designs to the customer. Describes a set of negative factors - the complexity of design and manufacture, high cost and the duration of the project execution and the structure itself is a disadvantage of the method of construction of spatial structures of complex shape made of inlaid metal frame and plasterboard.p>

The aim of the invention is the method of construction of complex spatial structures - is to reduce labor costs for design and fabrication of three-dimensional design, simplifying the manufacture of the spatial structure and the reduction of the full cost of the constructed three-dimensional design while maintaining consumer qualities inherent in the prototype.

The problem is solved by applying the method of construction of spatial design�the use of parts of the model spatial structures (hereinafter referred to modules). These modules are made in advance on the specialized production and delivered to the installation site, then they make up and fastened to the supporting elements of the structure. Being connected together, the modules form a single three-dimensional design. The modules are made in the production of mass-produced, standard forms and sizes, without taking into account project specific spatial structure. In designing a specific spatial structure using standard solutions and techniques that are implemented through the use of standard forms and sizes.

Features of the claimed invention are that:

- standard parts (modules) of the spatial structures are simple stereometric forms, namely: straight and curved G - and C-shaped beams, niches and niches of various sizes and sectors and parts, other forms;

- standard parts (modules) of the spatial structure have the same values for the dimensions of height and depth. In accordance with these dimensions, the modules are combined into a model group - "the collection". "Collections" are a set of ready-made solutions for the formation of three-dimensional structures which may be made of modules, included in this collection.

- part of the model (mod�) spatial structures are standardized in size and shape of the mating part, that allows you to collect from a variety of standard modules of the spatial structure depending on the customer's preferences;

- standard parts (modules) of the spatial structure can have an improved surface formed at the time of production, making this surface does not require additional processing (the amount of additional work is reduced);

- standard parts (modules) of the spatial structures are standardized mounting dimensions and standardized, manufactured during the production pilot holes and fasteners;

- standard parts (modules) of the spatial structure can be made of porous materials (porous or cellular concrete at various binders, porous or foamed plastics) or materials with low specific gravity, which allows their use in modern construction without overloading slab structures and applying conventional construction fasteners;

- standard parts (modules) of the spatial structure can be manufactured using common technologies and materials, in particular the use of plaster as a material of modules allows you to meet modern environmental requirements;

- standard parts (modules) spatial co�instruction may have in your body niches for communications or have integrated communications, allows you to give the spatial construction of additional properties (ventilation, lighting);

- standard parts (modules) of the spatial design can have in the composition of the material from which they are made, additive-changing (improving) the consumer properties of the product, coloring product or giving it new properties as water resistance, resistance to growth of microorganisms, other properties;

- three-dimensional structure composed of standard parts (modules) that can form a complex multi-level suspended ceiling or complex multi-tier wall or a partition.

An advantage of the claimed invention is to simplify the design and manufacture of complex three-dimensional structures, reducing design time and production, reduction of waste material. In addition, a new method of construction of spatial structures enables the use of unskilled labor labor for the design and production of specific complex spatial structures, there is no loss of quality of the final product due to the fact that the creation of a catalogue of model projects performed by qualified specialists, and the size of the standard modules are standardized and �otbrosami through the use of reusable formwork. Also the advantage of the proposed method of construction of complex three-dimensional structures is to improve consumer properties of the areas where applied spatial structure composed of standard parts (modules), due to the fact that ready-made solutions for forming three-dimensional structures of the ceiling or walls of different artistic style and harmonious proportions. In addition, a variety of ready-made solutions based on the model parts of the same collection and the ability to create based on the model of the individual parts of the solution contributes to the uniqueness of the design space, which is an important consumer quality residential and public premises. This achieves a reduction of the spatial design through cost reduction in the production and use of less skilled labor when installing modules. Happens time savings due to ease of installation of modules on the template. These modules can be installed by consumers themselves.

Sketch the General form of the spatial structure of the model parts (modules) designed as suspended ceiling of the living room shown in Fig.1, where the following notation:

1 - the walls of the room (living room);

2 - overlap of room�ia;

3 - a doorway;

4 - typical modules ⊥-shaped ring segments, the length of which corresponds to an arc with an angular measure 0,3927 glad;

5 - model of the beam is L-shaped;

6 - insert plasterboard.

The implementation of the invention in the form of an innovative method of construction of complex three-dimensional structures, consists of two stages:

- stage 1 - production of standard modules;

- stage 2 - create a complex spatial structure.

Step 1. Production of standard modules. In accordance with the production plan, among other standard modules, the company produces and sends to the warehouse, and then the distribution network, the following standard modules:

- standard module ⊥-shaped section, which is a segment of a ring, the length of which corresponds to an arc with an angular measure 0,3927 happy

- model module - beam L-shaped cross-section, a length of 2 meters.

Step 2. The creation of complex three-dimensional structure. Using the catalogue of model projects of complex spatial structures, the consumer chooses the most suitable option for him. In accordance with the specification of the model project and given the size and characteristics of the room where it will be mounted on three-dimensional design, the consumer becomes necessary for the implementation of this project Timofyevna. Further, in accordance with the specification of the model project produces the layout and fabrication of the locating holes, trim, beams L-shaped section to size and fix the modules to the supporting surface (in the example to the ceiling). Mounted on the ceiling modules together form a complex three-dimensional design.

Structurally, a modular three-dimensional design are created as follows (the example of living room).

Dwelling, in particular the living room of an apartment building, formed by the walls 1, the ceiling of the upper floor 2 and the ceiling of the lower floor (Fig.1 not represented) and has a doorway 3, organized in the open vestibule leading into the adjacent room. On the ceiling of the upper floor, there is a complex modular three-dimensional design - tiered ceiling with securisee illumination. This modular three-dimensional design - multi-level suspended ceiling consists of modules ⊥-shaped section 4, beams L-shaped section 5, a metal frame (Fig.1 not visible) and gypsum Board 6. Modules beams 4 and 5 made of foamed gypsum - porous concrete based on gypsum binder and form the basis of a modular three-dimensional structure. Conditionally modular space-space�ing the design can be divided into several parts. One characteristic of the sector ring with an arc length of 90° (to 1.57 rad), located above the entrance to the room. This part of the modular three-dimensional structure consists of four identical standard modules ⊥-shaped section 4 (the boundaries of each module are shown in Fig.1 by a dotted line). Here the modules are adjacent to each other without gaps, forming a solid body modular three-dimensional structure. The other part of the modular three-dimensional structure consists of four rays extending from the arc to the normals. Each of these beams is formed by the two beams L-shaped section 5, located backs to each other. Here the beams L-shaped section 5 is formed edge modular three-dimensional structure. The free space between the beams 5 is closed by sheets of drywall 6, of the appropriate size (the boundaries of each module - beams, indicated in Fig.1 by a dotted line). Standard modules ⊥-shaped section beams 4 and L-shaped section 5 are in his body rigid space frame (Fig.1 not visible), placed in the body of the modules on the stage of production that serves to improve the consumer properties of products, enhance the design and ease of installation. The frame beams L-shaped section 5, among other things, comes out from the back of beyond the body of the beam is L-shaped section 5. Thanks to this� there is a possibility of connection of two adjacent beams L-shaped section 5 is movable between a metal frame and mount to the frame 6 sheets of drywall appropriate shape and size for hiding internal the space between the beams L-shaped section 5. Standard modules ⊥-shaped section beams 4 and L-shaped section 5 is attached to the ceiling of the upper floor by means of anchor fasteners. Anchoring set via formed during the production technological holes in the body of the modules. After installing the anchoring hole trying to hide with available technologies finishes. To make the modules 4 and 5 improved consumer quality in the foamed gypsum composition, at the stage of mixing the plaster test introduced a reinforcing additive fibromyoma. Modules beams 4 and 5 have a surface layer of cardboard due to improve consumer properties of products, reducing the need for additional surface treatment modules 4 and 5. In this part of the modular three-dimensional structures are made with no gaps - conjugation modules ⊥-shaped section 4 between themselves and between modules and walls, and a part of a modular three-dimensional structures are made with gaps at the junction of the beams L-shaped section 5 to the modules ⊥-shaped section 4. The point of connection beams 5 to the 4 modules further treated with putty to conceal the point of connection. Furthermore, additional processing overhead abutting beams L-shaped section 5 to l�Stam 6 drywall. After installation of the entire spatial design defects eliminate traditional operations (putty, sanding), and the color design in accordance with the artistic intent of the customer. In the body of the modules ⊥-shaped section beams 4 and L-shaped section 5 in their manufacture form the technological channels and cavities required for the wiring that feeds the lighting device, and to accommodate power supplies and control lighting devices. Lighting devices are flexible led strip having on its rear side an adhesive layer, by means of which the LEDs are attached to utility valve, integrated into the body of the modules beams 4 and 5 in their manufacture so that the front part of the engineering of valves located on the surface of the modules beams 4 and 5. Engineering rebar used in this case, for secure attachment of LEDs and for removal from the LEDs excessive heat.

Variant specific implementation of the modular three-dimensional design using standard modules shown in Fig.2.

Thus, the present invention compared to the prototype method and other methods of spatial structure allows to simplify the installation of three-dimensional design�tion and improvement of the quality of the final design and consumer properties of the room through the creation of three-dimensional design, different art style, harmonious proportions and dimensional accuracy of the modules.

The technical result of the application of the present invention is expressed in lower labor costs for the production of modular three-dimensional design, simplifying its manufacture and installation, increasing the quality of the final product due to a better matching of the dimensions of the final product and its parts to the project.

1. Method of creating a modular three-dimensional structures of walls, ceilings, partitions and other structures of residential, public, industrial and other premises, which form a plane surface, corners, ledges, niches, and other elements and parts forming the three-dimensional structure, wherein the three-dimensional structure consists of standardized, mating modules, which are made in advance in the workplace in accordance with the production plan without taking into account project-specific three-dimensional structures of arbitrary shape and with an arbitrary surface that can be smooth, textured or sonority, of concrete on the basis of different binding agents, including the lungs and/or porous concrete and/or concrete with fillers, including gypsum, hasovitsa or foamed gypsum different densities, and�and made of plastics, including a porous or foamed plastics, or other materials, three-dimensional design are creating on-site, collect the individual modules into a single unit in accordance with the individual or the typical project is attached to the surface or to the frame, which are made in advance, or directly to structural elements of the structure, match the modules to each other without gaps or with the required clearances, and thus create a uniform surface, suitable for operation without finishing or which are the basis for further decoration.

2. Method of creating a modular three-dimensional structure according to claim 1, characterized in that during the production of standardized modules they give a hardened surface or surface layer having different characteristics from material volume, or surface layer of cardboard or other suitable material, body material modules introduce a reinforcing additive, the material of the modules stained by weight and/or injected into a mass of material specific additives that impart specific properties, in the body of the modules integrate a framework that improves the quality of consumer products and provide a more easy and reliable mounting of the modules, in this part of the frame if necessary�spine taken out of the modules to bond with other parts of the carcasses of all modular three-dimensional structure or to bond with other parts or armatures of building elements, in the body of the modules are made technological holes, cavities and channels, which is the communication of or intended for installation of utilities and installation of lighting devices, engineering fittings, and other devices, mechanisms, or devices, on the surface or in the body of the modules integrate communications, engineering construction, engineering fittings, power management and distribution, antennas and any other products, devices and mechanisms, including lighting equipment, including light sources, which use different LEDs, gas discharge bulb or glow-actively or passively materials, lighting equipment, communication and other devices and modules together form a single unit.

3. Method of creating a modular three-dimensional structure according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that when you create the modular three-dimensional structure of the object standardised modules placed around the perimeter of the modular three-dimensional structure and form so its edge or modules have independently from each other, with the space between modules or between modules and components of the structure of the closed material,
forming surface, the resulting gaps, further hiding�s building materials.


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FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, in particular to building. Building comprises walls, foundation, floor slabs resting on pillars united with butt joints along their height. Pillars on end surfaces are arranged with truncated pyramids inverted to each other with smaller bases. Fixing elements are installed on smaller bases of pyramids and are rigidly connected to each other. Fixing elements have central holes. Tube is installed in central holes arranged in lower pyramid of lower pillar. Connection rod, which is rigidly connected to upper pyramid, is installed in tube and in central holes of fixing elements. Butt joint of pillars comprises binding element, outlets of lower pillar working fixtures and units of upper pillar working fixture outlets. Each of upper pillar working fixture outlet units includes the following components that are serially installed in pillar and are rigidly connected to each other - rod, insert and L-shaped outlet of fixture. L-shaped outlet of fixture is rigidly connected to appropriate rod of lower pillar fixture outlet. Binding element interacts with side surfaces of truncated pyramids, outlets of pillar working fixtures, pillars and floor slab. L-shaped outlets of fixtures in units arranged parallel to single side facet of pillar are coaxially inverted by their shelves to each other. Sum of distance from upper pillar facet to nearest rod of upper pillar working fixture unit outlet, diametre of upper pillar fixture rod and distance between upper pillar fixture rod and L-shaped outlet of fixture exceeds not more than by thickness of insert between rod of upper pillar fixture and L-shaped outlet of fixture, sum of distance from lower pillar facet to nearest rod of lower pillar working fixture outlet rod and diametre of lower pillar fixture rod.

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2 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: construction.

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5 dwg

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3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, in particular to diaphragms of jointless ossature buildings. Diaphragm is installed between columns, foundation, intercolumn and above-column slabs and is connected to them by means of embedded components and reinforcing bars. Diaphragm is made of central and two side parts connected between each other in the same vertical plane. Width of diaphragm central part is equal to length of intercolumn slab. Central part of diaphragm from three sides - upper one and two side ones, and every side part of diaphragm from two sides - upper and side ones from the side of central diaphragm are equipped with loop projections. Lateral sides of central part is connected to side parts by means of reinforcing rods. Reinforcing rods are installed between slabs vertically in openings that are formed by loop projections during joining of parts towards each other. Ends of reinforcing bars are installed in splined seams of intercolumn and above-column slab joints. Every side part of diaphragm from the side of column is equipped with embedded "П"-shaped components. Columns, between which diaphragm is installed, are equipped with plate embedded elements. Embedded elements of columns are installed opposite to "П"-shaped embedded elements of diaphragm side parts and are rigidly fixed to them. In every intercolumn slab installed above central part of diaphragm, square opening is provided, being edged with angle. Opening contains fastening element arranged in the form of two grids of L-shape. Grids are connected to angle and loop projections of diaphragm central part. Central part of diaphragm is connected to side parts of diaphragm with the help of reinforcing bars that are passed horizontally through openings of all upper reinforcing projections of all diaphragm parts. Splined seams between parts of diaphragm and adjacent splined connections of slabs, and also joints of intercolumn slab and diaphragm are filled with concrete.

EFFECT: higher reliability of structural joints and seismic stability, lower labour intensiveness of structure erection.

1 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: constructional engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to constructional engineering, in particular to butt connection of modular columns to coverage and to method thereof. Butt connection includes bottom segments of lower and upper columns vertically fixed on reinforced concrete framing axis with height fracture, and coverage placed between end faces of columns. Screw-threaded longitudinal reinforcement escapes pass through coverage. Escapes ends are fitted with screw nuts to lateral steel sheet in recesses provided in upper column. The sheet is rigidly connected to end face of the upper column. Then recesses are calked with rapid-hardening fine concrete. Over coverage top there are aligner nuts provided for upper column support. Coverage has centre tube to grout rapid-hardening fine concrete. Also, coverage is supplied with openings with anchored metal pipes. Lower column longitudinal reinforcement escapes pass through each metal pipe. Metal bolsters are fixed in opening metal pipes under coverage and under each aligner nut over coverage in rapid-hardening fine concrete layer on longitudinal reinforcement escapes. Bolsters are made as truncated cones with theirsmaller bases directed towards each other. Metal gaskets are fixed between end face of lower column and bolsters.

EFFECT: increased reliability, construction accuracy, more rapid construction and reduced steel intensity.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly for residential and public building erection.

SUBSTANCE: composite frame comprises reinforced concrete columns with orifices formed at story floor areas, composite prestressed crossbars having horizontal depressions of triangular cross-sections in end sides thereof; floor panels arranged so that a gap is created between ends thereof. Floor panels and column orifices are grouted together with frame reinforcement bar ends inserted in them. Reinforced concrete columns extending through several stories have continuous reinforcement formed of prestressed bars extending along the full column length including areas near orifices. In this areas reinforcement bars pass through thick-walled tubes having steel support plates and embedded in column body for anchoring length.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of columns and buildings, increased earthquake resistance.

3 cl, 11 dwg