Radiant tube and particle accelerator having radiant tube

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: radiant tube (4) for guiding a charged particle stream (10), having a hollow cylindrical isolation core (6) directly surrounding a beam-guiding hollow volume (8), the isolation core (6) being formed from a dielectrically acting carrier substrate (14) and an electrical conductor (16) held therein, and a metal housing (5) surrounding the isolation core (6), wherein the conductor (16) is divided into a plurality of conductor loops (20) completely encompassing the circumference of the isolation core (6) at different axial positions and galvanically connected to each other, wherein the conductor (16) in at least two spaced-apart points, particularly at the side of the ends, is galvanically connected to the housing (5), wherein metal layers are embedded in the carrier substrate (14), said metal layers being arranged one behind the other along the axis of the radiant tube (4) and inductively connected to each other through the electrical conductor (16).

EFFECT: reduced probability of breakdown.

6 cl, 1 dwg

 

The invention relates to a radiating tube for directing the beam of charged particles, and the particle accelerator, such radiating tube.

Such radiant tube is provided, in particular, in the accelerator for charged particles. The beam of charged particles may contain, for example, the electrons, the nuclei of atoms, ionized atoms, charged charged molecules or fragments of molecules. The accelerated beam of charged particles takes place on the pilot beam is a hollow volume, which is surrounded by a radiating tube. Hollow volume is usually evacuated during operation of the particle accelerator. This is usually provided consistent with the radiating tube system vacuum pumps.

Radiant tube, which separates the hollow volume and the beam of charged particles from the environment, electrostatically loaded accelerating electric field. By increasing the electric field strength increases the likelihood of release of electrons scattering from the surface of the inner wall of the radiating tube. This process occurs first, and preferably in the so-called moustache. Whiskers are needle-like single crystals with a diameter of several microns and a length of several hundred microns, which occur at all, particularly on metal surfaces. On top of the needle-like single crystal occurs an increased electric field. W� this from the top of the mustache released electrons scattering. The electron scattering, as well as the beam of charged particles are accelerated by the electric field. If such electrons scattering fall to the inside wall of the radiating tube, generated secondary electrons are produced. The process is seminarstrasse. End up going through the ignition of the arc on the inner wall and thereby the failure of accelerating charged particles in an electric field.

To solve this problem from US 6331194 B1 known radiant tube in which a hollow volume that directs the beam of charged particles is directly surrounded by a hollow cylindrical insulating core, which is called a high gradient insulator, HGI. Insulating core contains many made of dielectric thin rings (thickness of about 0.25 mm), which on the front side is provided with a thin metal conductive layer (thickness to about 40,000 angstroms). For the manufacture of insulating ring core are drawn up in a hollow cylinder. Under the influence of pressure and temperature adjacent to each other metal layers adjacent rings are melted and connected with the formation of the metal rings.

Insulator HGI increases the resistance to dielectric breakdown radiating tube. Namely, if the inner wall of the insulator HGI arise secondary electrons, charged neighboring metal calcitrate HGI. Thus, electric charge is distributed over all directly loaded secondary electrons of the metal rings. This leads to the averaging of the electric charge on the inner wall of the insulator HGI and thereby lessen the tendency of the multiplication of the secondary electrons.

Distribution of electric charge on the adjacent thin metal ring is purely capacitive distribution. Thus, the principle is valid only for rare and short voltage pulses. Charging the metal rings are not effectively prevented, since a metal ring embedded in the dielectric insulating core and thereby made the charge can only slowly drain through paths of surface leakage. Thus, linear accelerator with a high repetition frequency of the accelerating pulse leads to an increase in the probability of breakdown.

From the document US 2569154 known As the discharge tube for generating a beam of electrons. The discharge tube comprises a tubular insulating shell, directly surrounding the guide beam hollow volume. Insulating sheath formed from dielektricheskii current carrier substrate, in particular ceramics. In the carrier substrate is introduced located one after another along the axis of the insulating sheath of metal layers, through which electric�ical conductor inductively connected to each other. Through the conductor layers electrically connected between the cathode and the anode and between the cathode and the anode applied voltage for generating a gas discharge, and to accelerate the released electrons. In an alternative implementation of the discharge tube contains held in the carrier substrate electrical conductor, which is decomposed in a set of conductive loops, the perimeter of the insulating core at different axial positions and connected electrically with the formation of the helical coil.

From US 3761720 And the known high-voltage insulator for generator or accelerator of the van de Graaff. High voltage insulator surrounds the tubular insulation sheath. Insulating sheath formed of a dielectric carrier substrate, into which are inserted along the axis of the metal layers which an electrical conductor inductively connected to each other. Through the conductor layers electrically connected between the bearing voltage pole and the ground. For recognition and localization of defects in high-voltage insulator is applied to it high test voltage, which in a hollow volume in areas of defects electrons are released. Through the detection and spectral estimates they produced bremsstrahlung is the detection and localization of maldetect.

From WO 2006043366 A1 known radiant tube to particle accelerator containing a tubular insulating shell formed of a dielectric carrier substrate. In the carrier substrate is introduced located one after another along the axis of the radiating tube an annular accelerating electrode, electrically connected to each other an electrical conductor wound around the external periphery of the insulating shell.

The basis of the invention is to create a radiating tube, which has a low probability of breakdown. In addition, the basis of the invention is the creation of a particle accelerator, such radiating tube.

Relative to the radiating tube problem is solved according to the invention using the combination of characteristics paragraph 1 of the invention. For this purpose, the guide beam hollow volume is directly surrounded by a hollow cylindrical insulating core. The insulating core is formed from dielektricheskii current carrier substrate and held therein an electrical conductor. The conductor is divided into a plurality of conductive loops, which runs completely around the perimeter of the insulating core in different axial positions. Separate conductive loop electrically connected with each other. Radiant tube is surrounded by a metal casing. This metal building� can be manufactured, for example, from a sealed relative to each other of the segments of the tube and provides a simple evacuation using a vacuum pump to create the guide beam evacuated hollow volume. The metal housing may contain envisaged to create an accelerating electric field of the device or to form a part of such a device.

As an electrical conductor it is possible to use metal such as copper, gold or the like as the dielectric can be used, for example, SiO2, Al3About2, polycarbonate, polyacrylate, glass or ceramics.

In dielektricheskii valid carrier substrate is introduced successively one after another along the radiant tube metal layers, for example metal plates. Metal layers act as intermediate electrodes. Metal layers are connected electrically with each other an electrical conductor. Thus, the design corresponds essentially mentioned in the beginning of the insulator HGI. Due to the galvanic connection between metal layers can drain possibly colliding electrons.

However, the connection of low resistance metal layers would in inductive particle accelerator, such radiant tube to the load of the induction generator IR decreasing accelerating voltage. However, due to the passing of conductive loops of electrical conductor may be provided that the metal layers on the surface of the radiating tube connected essentially inductive. It is preferable, in particular, when the pulse operation of the radiating tube. Thus, capacitive coupling sections of the insulator close to the metal electrode. However, the possible charges can flow for a short time (however long relative to the period of acceleration), so suppressed chemodiversity process of breakdown at high repetition rates.

If converted to the hollow volume of the inner wall of the insulating core secondary electrons arise, several adjacent conductive loops are impacted directly and point electric charge of the secondary electrons. The electric charge is distributed in the circumferential direction on these conductive loops. Since all of the conductive loop electrically connected to each other, the charge is distributed also to the conductive loops that do not come directly in contact with secondary electrons. Thus, effectively decreases the likelihood of multiplication of secondary electrons and breakdown of the insulator. Thus, a particle accelerator, such radiant tube provides the work with a high repetition rate of the pulse�in acceleration and/or high energy field without substantially increasing the probability of breakdown.

Held on a dielectric carrier substrate electrical conductor in at least one location can be electrically connected with a metal case.

In modifications of this embodiment, at least two spaced apart points of the electrical conductor electrically connected to the housing. Thus, inside electrical conduit there is no potential gradient.

In a preferred modification of the conductive loop electrical conductor wound in the form of a helix around the longitudinal median axis of the hollow cylindrical insulating core to form a helical coil. Thus, the conductor acts as an inductance and damping of high-frequency components of the accelerating electric field.

In an embodiment of the electrical conductor embedded in dielektricheskii valid carrier substrate. For the manufacture of insulating core provided, for example, a mold that has the shape of a hollow cylinder with a cylindrical core for the formation of the annular space. In the annular space is introduced, for example, curved in the form of a helical spiral electrical conductor, which consists of a metal wire. Then fill the annular space dielectric carrier podozhgla education hollow cylindrical insulating core with an electrical conductor. The dielectric is, for example, is capable of flowing plastic, such as resin or the like, which after filling in the form solidified. However, it can also be powdered dielectric filling in the form is capable of flowing bulk material in a mold, and solidifying with the application of temperature and/or pressure.

In another embodiment, the electrical conductor is fixed, in particular glued, on the inner wall of the hollow cylindrical carrier substrate. The electrical conductor may also be printed or napalan.

In another embodiment, as an electrical conductor, and a dielectric carrier substrate is made in the form of wire strips and for the formation of a hollow cylindrical insulating core is wound into each other in the form of a double helix. For the manufacture of insulating core of this form both the strip is wound, for example, around the cylinder as mounting accessories, and then fasten with each other.

All of these ways of making a hollow insulating core enable simple and thus cheap execution.

In the finished condition of the electrical conductor is preferably completely permeates the carrier substrate. In other words, as the inner wall and the outer STE�ka hollow cylindrical insulating core are metal conductive component. Thus, in the insulating core can be implemented with a large number of electrically conductive material, suitable for the reception of a large electric charge.

Relative to the particle accelerator, the above problem is solved according to the invention by the features of paragraph 6 of the invention. Accordingly, the particle accelerator includes a radiant tube according to any of claims.1-5 of the claims. The particle accelerator can be used, for example, for research purposes, and also as a therapeutic medical device. The particle accelerator is made, in particular, in the form of an accelerator with a dielectric wall, DWA, detailed description of which is given in US 5757146.

The particle accelerator may work, in particular in pulsed mode and is based on electromagnetic induction, i.e. the accelerating electric field is generated due to the change in magnetic flux around the trajectory of particles.

Here's a more detailed explanation of an exemplary embodiment of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawing, which shows a partial area of the accelerator 2 particles with a plot of the radiating tube 4 in the three-dimensional projection in the section.

Accelerator 2 particles made of, for example, in the form of a linear accelerator in which the accelerating electric field is generated using DC voltage or with p�power pulsed AC voltage (see "Linear accelerators", Wideroe, 1928 ). However, it can also be made in the form of an accelerator with a dielectric wall.

Radiant tube 4 shows schematically in the form of a hollow cylinder. It comprises a tubular metal shell 5. However, it can also have attachments, for example not shown in the figure, a system of vacuum pumps. In the radiating tube is also placed 4 having the shape of a hollow cylinder of insulating core 6. The insulating core 6 in turn surrounds directly guide the radiation of the hollow cylindrical volume 8. In a hollow volume 8 is guided and accelerated shown schematically beam 10 of charged particles.

The basis of the accelerator 2 particles on the principle of electromagnetic induction. It generates shown symbolically magnetic field around 12 flight path of the particles, which coincides with the arrow the direction of the beam 10 of charged particles. The magnetic field 12 forms a closed field lines around a hollow volume 8, respectively, around the trajectory of charged particles 10. Due to the change in time of the magnetic flux of the magnetic field 12 creates an electric field that accelerates the beam 10 of the charged particles in the direction of the arrow.

A hollow cylindrical insulating core 6 is formed of a dielectric carrier substrate 14 and withheld from n� electrical conductor 16. Electrical conductor 16 is divided into a lot of passing around the perimeter of the insulating core 6, when viewed from its median longitudinal axis 18, in various positions of conductive loops 20, which are electrically connected to each other and form a coiled coil.

In a dielectric carrier substrate may be provided sequentially along the axis of the radiating tube metal layers, for example metal plates (not shown). In this case, the dielectric carrier substrate is of the same construction as that of Fig. 2 in US 6331194 B1. Metal layers are connected to each other with the help of the County of conductive loops 20. Due to the galvanic connection between metal layers can drain possibly colliding electrons. For the manufacture of insulating core 6 electrical conductor 16 is bent in the form of a helix and is fixed on the inner wall of the hollow cylindrical carrier substrate 14. However, the electrical conductor can also print using a metallically conductive paste, such as those used for printing conductors on printed circuit boards, on the inner wall of the hollow cylindrical carrier substrate 14.

Both ends of the coiled electrical conductor 16 is connected via an electrically conductive connection 22 with the radiating tube 4, respectively�about, with its metal housing 5 and thereby to the earth potential of the accelerator 2 particles. Hollow volume 8 when the accelerator 2 particles evacuated.

The electron scattering and secondary electrons, which are due to the accelerating electric field is pulled out of the wall of the radiating tubes in a collision with an insulating core fall on the conductive loop 20 of the electrical conductor 16 and charged them. Due to the galvanic connection of conductive loops charge of secondary electrons distributed in the direction of the longitudinal axis 18 along the electric conductor 16. Thus, there is less risk of multiplication of secondary electrons and the probability of breakdown of the accelerator 2 particles. Accelerator 2 particles can work with a large force of the accelerating electric field and with a high repetition frequency of the accelerating pulse. Additionally, due to the electrical conductor 16 in the form of coils are filtered high-frequency electric field variables.

1. Radiant tube (4) to the beam direction (10) of charged particles containing directly surrounding the guide beam hollow volume (8) a hollow cylindrical insulating core (6) which is formed from dielektricheskii current carrier substrate (14) and held therein an electrical conductor (16), and a metal shell (5), surrounding with insulating�Technik (6), wherein the conductor (16) is divided into a plurality of conductive loops (20), which runs completely around the perimeter of the insulating core (6) at different axial positions and which is galvanically connected with each other, and the conductor (16) on at least two spaced apart points, in particular, on the side ends electrically connected with the housing (5), and a carrier substrate (14) inserted metal layers to each other along the axis of the radiating tube (4), through which an electrical conductor (16) inductively connected to each other.

2. Radiant tube (4) according to claim 1, in which the conductive loop (20) form a coiled coil.

3. Radiant tube (4) according to claim 1 or 2, in which the conductor (16) embedded in the carrier substrate (14).

4. Radiant tube (4) according to claim 1 or 2, in which the conductor (16) is completely permeates the carrier substrate (14).

5. Radiant tube (4) according to claim 1, in which the conductor (16) and the carrier substrate (14) is made in the form of wire and wound in the form of a double helix.

6. Accelerator (2) particles, in particular, a linear accelerator containing radiant tube (4) according to any of claims.1-5.



 

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