Water-resistant emulsion explosive and emulsion composition for water-resistant explosives

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of safe water-resistant emulsion explosives. The water-resistant emulsion explosive contains, wt %: oil-in-water emulsion 80.00-30.00, ammonia nitrate 18.60-65.70, gas-generating agent in the form of a gasification solution 0.20-0.10 and petroleum products 1.20-4.20. The petroleum products used are diesel fuel; the oil-in-water emulsion is based on aqueous ammonium or sodium nitrate and includes 70% acetic acid, thiourea as a catalyst and 40% sodium hydroxide. The emulsion explosive includes granular ammonium nitrate which is mechanically mixed with said emulsion.

EFFECT: invention is aimed at improving stability of operational and explosive properties and improving effectiveness of the explosive effect.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of manufacturing safe waterproof emulsion explosive compositions for the efficient use of energy generated from the reaction of explosive transformation in industrial purposes.

Since the beginning of 2000-ies in the post-Soviet space, in particular Kazakhstan and Russia, with the rapid growth in the production of blasting in mining enterprises the emulsion explosives (IVS) based on dispersed systems consisting of two mutually insoluble liquids, one of which is allocated to another in the form of tiny droplets.

One important feature of emulsion explosives is that the composition is not an explosive substance, without enforcement regulation of the volume concentration of the charge energy EE, the achievement of its susceptibility to initiating pulse and changes the critical diameter of detonation, which is achieved by changing the density of emulsion explosives by the introduction into it of chemical agents (chemical gas generation) or mechanical additives (steklosfera, perlite, low density polymers). In addition, EE may contain granular (porous) ammonium nitrate or mixtures of ANFO type, in this case, the percentage content of the emulsion can vary from 30 to 70%. Due to this feature of emulsion explosives are the most safe�mi in the production and use compared with the standard industrial explosives.

Known explosive compositions "Paramid", "Emulan", "Genemit", "Umonit", "Remix", "Emulsion", which in General can be attributed to the EE group, as one of the components which are used to reverse (invert) of the emulsion-type water-in-oil", consisting of solutions of ammonium, sodium and calcium nitrate, and a mixture of oil with emulsifiers - V. L. Baron, V. H. Kantor "Technique and technology of blasting operations in the United States." - M.: Nedra, 1989, pp. 88, 90. For the manufacture of such emulsion compositions in the world uses stationary industrial complexes, requiring the impressive size of land and premises with a large area, and a large number of support facilities and services.

Depending on the ratio of the emulsion and dry phases (granulated ammonium nitrate) can be made a lot of brands of these formulations. In practice, the use of a ratio in the range of 30 to 70 wt%. emulsion and correspondingly from 70 to 30% - granulated ammonium nitrate. Experience found that mixtures containing more than 70% of the emulsion is not economical to use, because in the composition of the emulsion contains water (from 13 to 18% wt.), which are not chemically involved in the explosion, is the ballast and reduces the heat of explosion. Formulations with a content of the emulsion is less than 30% also uneconomical:to fill the available migrenoznogo space nitrate requires 30-35% of the liquid phase (emulsion). Further reduction of the content in the mixture of the emulsion will result between the blank granules of air gaps, which will decrease the volumetric energy density of such explosives. To achieve 100% fill emulsion migrenoznogo space is needed each time (for each batch nitrate, for each manufacturer) to determine the free volume migrenoznogo space.

The prototype of the invention is an emulsion explosive containing 10-45 wt.% solid ammonium nitrate and 100 wt.% gasified emulsion of the type water-in-oil" emulsion contains from 13 to 18 wt.% water, 3-9,5 wt.% industrial oil, 1-3,5 wt.% the emulsifier, the balance to 100 wt.% ammonium nitrate, gas-generating additive and 0.4-2.5 wt.% over 100, and gasified inverse emulsion contains 0,09-6.0 wt.% an additional component that forms the metal ions. Also in the composition of the emulsion may be included urea 0.5 to 2.5 wt.% (EN 2446134, SW 31/28, SW 47/14, 23.07.2010).

The disadvantages of the prototype are as follows.

First, owing to the presence in the composition of the emulsion-phase oxidation in aqueous solution only ammonium nitrate is reduced adjustment range in the emulsion explosive composition of the oxygen balance, as well as increased water content and�and increases the cost of energy, needed to warm saturated aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate to dissolve the necessary amount of the latter. Because of this increased sensitivity of the emulsion to the low temperatures.

Secondly, the presence of prescription in the composition as the combustible phase only industrial oils reduces the range of regulation of the viscosity of the finished emulsion.

Third, the flow of the gasification process of the emulsion is fairly slow and is not achieved uniform distribution of gas inclusions in the emulsion in the required amount with a certain dimension.

Because of the above shortcomings is lost deteriorate the stability and explosive characteristics of emulsion explosive compositions that are produced on the basis of this emulsion, which limits their application. The technology of manufacture of the prototype and similar emulsions in the world is on stationary systems (plants). For example, technological operations for making components of paramita (IVS produced at stationary points. Consists of emulsions and gas-generating additive, an aqueous solution of sodium nitrate. In the emulsion composition includes ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, oil and water) at the "Banner" (Fig.1 - hardware and technological scheme the pre�Oia emulsion paramita at the "Banner", Kiselevsk) is represented as follows.

The emulsifier is prepared in a separate room in specially adapted for this purpose the apparatus at a temperature of 65±2°C (I - node preparation of emulsifier in Fig.1). Petroleum products are stored in individual containers 1 for storage. The device is equipped with a heater, stirrer, equipment and devices for dispensing components and temperature control. Heated in the reactor 2 for cooking emulsifier ready emulsifier pipeline, equipped with a steam jacket, transported to the site of mixing the emulsifier with mineral oils (II - unit mixing the emulsifier with mineral oils in Fig.1). Preparation of the mixture is performed with continuous stirring to obtain a homogeneous mass.

The site preparation of the solution of oxidizing agent (III - site preparation of a solution of the oxidant in Fig.1) is standing next to the building where deliver ammonium and sodium nitrate, placing in the hopper 3. Bags retariat manually (POS.4). Ammonium and sodium nitrate individually served by a belt conveyor 5 into the reactor 6, prefilled necessary for the dissolution of ammonium nitrate quantity of heated water. Then with continuous stirring at a temperature of 75°C is prepared a solution of oxidizer density 1,456 g/cm3either 1,370 g/cm3depending on what type on�of Amita is made. The dosage of the component volume method is directly in the reactor.

The ready solution of the oxidant is pumped by pump 7 into the container 8 for storage, where a constant temperature is maintained.

For preparation of the emulsion a solution of the oxidant and the mixture of emulsifier with mineral oil fed to the reactor 9 and a mixer for pre-mixing, after which the mixture flows into the emulsification apparatus 10 for final mixing.

The emulsification apparatus developed by GosNII "Crystal" and is a hermetically sealed to prevent bypass air reactor of from 100 to 150 L. the Number of revolutions of the agitator 750 rpm engine Power mixers 55 kW.

Finished water-oil emulsion of emulsification apparatus according heated using a steam jacketed pipeline pumps is served in a mobile explosives manufacturing unit 11.

The module for the preparation of gassing agent is located in a separate building (VI node cooking gas generating additives in Fig.1). In the reactor 12 with a stirrer is supplied with water and sodium nitrite. With continuous stirring and heating is preparing a five percent solution of NaNO2. Temperature of pumped in SPM ready solution HHD 80±5°C.

The annual capacity of the plant for the preparation of the emulsion of paramita 25 thousand tons.

Analog�of CNA processing line Spa "Crystal" patented in SU 1790152, SW 21/00, publ. 15.10.1994.

The technical problem which is solved by the invention need for an emulsion composition that can be applied after the gasification yourself (be injected under the column of water) or mixed with granules of ammonium nitrate (to be loaded manually, when the feed screw device). Technology of preparation of the emulsion composition should combine safety, low power consumption, compactness, mobility, move, minimize maintenance personnel and sufficient performance that entails simplifying the design and reducing the cost of production.

The present invention is directed to the achievement of the technical result consists in increasing the stability and increase the efficiency of the blast.

Said technical result is achieved in that the emulsion explosive substance containing water-oil emulsion, ammonium nitrate, gas-generating additive and petroleum products, as the oil used as diesel fuel, water-oil emulsion is made on the basis of an aqueous solution of ammonium and sodium nitrate, emulsion explosive additionally includes granulated ammonium nitrate, which is mechanically mixed with this emulsion �ri the following ratio of components, wt.%:

The name of the componentMass fraction, wt.%, not less than for formulations
Emulsion80,00-30,00
Ammonium nitrate18,60-65,70
Diesel fuel1,20-4,20
The solution for gasification0,20-0,10

Said technical result is achieved in that the emulsion composition for waterproof industrial explosive mixtures representing gasified water-oil emulsion comprising a solution of an oxidant with water, ammonium nitrate and gas-generating additive and emulsifier, additionally includes in the oxidizer solution acetic acid 70%, thiourea and caustic soda 40%, as a gassing agent used is sodium nitrate, and the emulsifier is mixed with oil for the formation of the fuel solution in the mass fraction, %, not less than

The oxidizer solution
Ammonium nitrate72,00
Water16,35
Sodium nitrate4,00
Acetic acid 70%0,25
Thiourea0,25
The caustic soda 40%0,05
The fuel solution
Petroleum6,10
Emulsifier1,00

Said technical result is achieved in that the emulsion explosive substance containing water-oil emulsion, ammonium nitrate, gas-generating additive and petroleum products, as the oil used as diesel fuel, water-oil emulsion is made on the basis of an aqueous solution of ammonium and sodium nitrate, emulsion explosive additionally includes granulated ammonium nitrate, which is mechanically mixed with the said emulsion with the following ratio of components, wt.%:

The name of the componentMass fraction, wt.%, not less than for formulations
Emulsion80,00-30,00
Ammonium nitrate18,60-65,70
Diesel fuel1,20-4,20
The solution for gasification0,20-0,10

this water-oil emulsion includes, wt.%:

The oxidizer solution
Ammonium nitrate72,00
Water16,35
Sodium nitrate4,00
Acetic acid 70%0,25
Thiourea0,25
The caustic soda 40%0,05
The fuel solution
Petroleum6,10
Emulsifier1,00

These features are being�governmental and interconnected to form a stable combination of essential features sufficient to obtain the desired technical result.

The present invention is illustrated by concrete examples, which, however, are not only possible, but clearly demonstrate the possibility of achieving the desired technical result.

Fig.1 - scheme of the technological line for the production of paramita - prototype;

Fig.2 - scheme of the technological line for the production of emulsions for CENTURIES according to the present invention.

According to the present invention is considered waterproof emulsion explosives (EXPLOSIVES) and emulsion composition for this VC and other waterproof industrial explosive mixtures.

Emulsion explosive substance contains water-oil emulsion, ammonium nitrate, gas-generating additive and petroleum products. In this in the BB as petroleum diesel fuel used oil-water emulsion is made on the basis of an aqueous solution of ammonium and sodium nitrate. BB additionally includes granulated ammonium nitrate, which is mechanically mixed with the said emulsion with the following ratio of components, wt.% (table 1):

Table 1
Name
component
Mass fraction, wt.%, not less than for formulations
Emulsion80,00-30,00
Ammonium nitrate18,60-65,70
Diesel fuel1,20-4,20
The solution for gasification0,20-0,10

Thus, BB includes an emulsion of an aqueous solution of ammonium and sodium nitrate, buffer solution, a catalyst and a mixture of oil with emulsifiers and is granulated ammonium nitrate, in the manufacture of emulsion and granular ammonium nitrate mechanically mixed at the following ratio of components, wt.%, table 2 (examples of four formulations of EXPLOSIVES, the first of which granulated ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel not used):

Table 2
The name of the componentMass fraction, wt.%, not less than for formulations
I-100II-80III-70IV-30
Emulsion 99,7580,0070,0030,00
Ammonium nitrate-18,6028,0065,70
Diesel fuel-1,201,804,20
The solution for gasification0,250,200,200,10

From the table 1 data indicate that in compounds II-IV additionally injected diesel fuel necessary for the adjustment of the oxygen balance of a mixture of granulated ammonium nitrate and emulsion, as well as to improve the energy performance explosive composition as diesel fuel has a high heat capacity (about 41868 kJ/kg), which contributes to a more active interaction with the ammonium nitrate in the reaction of explosive transformation.

Recipe provided care gassing agent aqueous solution of sodium nitrite is not in excess of 100%, as implemented in the prototype and most used emulsion explosive compositions, as accounted for in the overall balance, which poses�enables you to more accurately count the energy performance of the explosive composition.

The availability of a wide range of compositions of emulsion explosives provides for its use in all mining conditions in the production of blasting, and the use of universal mixing-charging machines, capable of producing the loading wells in the water column (injection pump through a hose) and bulk cargo way (auger), it is possible, due to the difference of the charge densities of explosive formulations to provide optimal conditions for the destruction of rocks to the desired fraction.

However, the most important role in emulsion explosive plays offered in table 3 formula of water in oil emulsions.

Table 3
The name of the componentMass fraction, %, not less than
The oxidizer solution
Ammonium nitrate72,00
Water16,35
Sodium nitrate4,00
Acetic acid 70%0,25
Thiourea0,25
The caustic soda 40%0,05
The fuel solution
Petroleum6,10
Emulsifier1,00
Total100

The main advantages of this formulation water in oil emulsions are its properties that allow the introduction of the gas generating composition of the emulsion additives and, if necessary, mixed with granulated ammonium nitrate and diesel fuel to get safe and balanced explosive composition with a stable performance and explosive properties.

The main distinguishing feature of this water in oil emulsions used in the prototype is used in the formulation of methods that help maintain the pH of the emulsion at 4-5, with the aim of producing a rapid saturation of the gas emulsion chemically carried out both at low and at high temperatures without producing NOx during the process of gassing. For the occurrence of such an implementation also provides the use of an accelerator (catalyst) gas formation - thiourea. To maintain the desired pH of the emulsion IP�alzueta buffer solution of a weak acid - acetic acid and a strong base sodium hydroxide. During the replacement of ammonium nitrate 4-15% sodium nitrate also increases the rate of gas formation, increases the amount dissolved in the oxidizing solution of inorganic salts containing oxygen, resulting in a lower temperature deposition of crystals, increasing the number of incoming oxygen and ultimately increase the density of the emulsion explosive compositions. Also due to the use of sodium nitrate on the dissolution of inorganic salts requires less water, thereby increasing the frost resistance water in oil emulsions.

As oil may be used mineral oil, diesel fuel, and mixtures thereof - for the optimum viscosity of the emulsion 20000-30000 CPS (10-2·PA·s).

One of the most important components of the emulsion is used as an emulsifier, since its effectiveness depends on the stability of the emulsion. When selecting the emulsifier had to meet the following requirements: compliance with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of the emulsifier and of the fuel solution, high emulsifying power, long-term emulsion stability during storage and use. Based on these requirements, preference was given to the emulsifiers "amphora" and "Lubrizol LZ 2820" having identical indicator hydrophilic-lipophilic balance in the range of 3-6.

Therefore, compounds II-IV emulsion explosives provide the claimed technical result is an increase in the efficiency of the blast.

Technology (method) of manufacturing proposed in the invention, the emulsion composition for EXPLOSIVES designed to exclude in the production process additional process step, to reduce the number of equipment and personnel, which is achieved using the principle of combining several technological operations in a single module. The block diagram for the production of emulsions for BB shown in Fig.2, where the following numbers of nodes represented by the node (I - modular capacity preparation of a solution of the oxidant, with built-in stirring and heating, the node II - modular capacity making fuel solution, with built-in stirring and heating, the node III - module preparation of the emulsion, the node IV - a water treatment module, a node V is the module of cooking gassing agent and the node VI is a support module with sections for storage of raw materials.

Additionally the following positions designated main aggregates and devices lines for the preparation of the emulsion: water tank 13, the reactor 14 for preparing a solution of NaNO2the node filter 15 and pumping oxidizing solution, the distribution unit 16 and perec�CI fuel solution, dispersant 17, a holding tank 18 to the finished emulsion, a control panel 19, the radiator 20 and the heating system 21 by means of coolant.

Manufacturing technology of emulsion composition according to table 3 mainly differs from that applied in the world practice the fact that as production facilities (factories) applying the containerized modules, with the possibility of their operational deployment almost anywhere in the vicinity of blasting operations. Technological unit complex consists of two isocenters with a thermal shirt and a built-in mixing apparatuses, which are used to prepare the fuel solution and the oxidizer solution, the production module container type, where is the basic process of making water in oil emulsions and its delivery to the consumer, and portable diesel boiler 22 and auxiliary sectional modules. This approach to the manufacture of emulsions fully meets all the objectives of the invention.

Manufacturing technology of emulsion composition, through the use of modules, container type and application of the principle of combining several technological operations in a single module, combines safety, low power consumption, compactness, portability, re�of edenia, minimization of personnel and sufficient performance (annual performance of modular production in the preparation of the emulsion in a single shift (8 hours) work - 7.5 thousand tons), which entails simplifying the design and reducing the cost of production.

1. Emulsion composition for waterproof explosive mixtures comprising the oxidizer solution of water and ammonium nitrate and an emulsifier, characterized in that the oxidizer solution comprises acetic acid 70%, thiourea as a catalyst, caustic soda 40% and sodium nitrate, and the emulsifier is mixed with oil for the formation of the fuel solution with the following ratio of components, wt.%:
The oxidizer solution

Ammonium nitrate72,00
Water16,35
Sodium nitrate4,00
Acetic acid 70%0,25
Thiourea0,25
The caustic soda 40%0,05

The fuel solution
Petroleum6,10
Emulsifier1,00

2. Emulsion waterproof explosive substance containing a water-oil emulsion, ammonium nitrate, gas-generating additive and petroleum products, characterized in that the oil used as diesel fuel, water-oil emulsion is made on the basis of an aqueous solution of ammonium and sodium nitrate, emulsion explosive comprises granulated ammonium nitrate, which is mechanically mixed with the said emulsion with the following ratio of components, wt. %:

Emulsion80,00-30,00
Ammonium nitrate18,60-65,70
Diesel fuel1,20-4,20
The solution for gasification0,20-0,10

this water-oil emulsion comprises, in wt. %:
The oxidizer solution
Ammonium nitrate72,00
Water16,35
Sodium nitrate4,00
Acetic acid 70%0,25
Thiourea0,25
The caustic soda 40%0,05

The fuel solution
Petroleum6,10
Emulsifier1,00
Sodium nitrate4,00
Acetic acid 70%0,25
Thiourea0,25
The caustic soda 40%0,05

The fuel solution
Petroleum6,10
Emulsifier1,00



 

Same patents:

FIELD: blasting operations.

SUBSTANCE: safety emulsion explosive composition as the oxidising phase comprises water, ammonia and sodium nitrate, carbamide or potassium chloride, taken in the eutectic or near eutectic ratio, as hydrocarbon phase - emulsifier for industrial explosives, individually or in a mixture of tall oil or pine gum rosin, with liquid or solid chloroparaffin and possible additives of oil of industrial or fine-grained paraffin, powdered sodium or potassium chloride as a flame arrester, and as sensitiser - glass or polymeric microspheres "Expancel" DR (T) with the size capsules of 60-80 micron, containing combustible gas inclusions of isopropane or isobutane in shells of copolymers or gas-generating additives of aqueous solution of sodium nitrite and providing the controlled density of the final product in the range of 1.05-1.20 g/cm3.

EFFECT: good operational and explosive characteristics, including safety at the level of class III-IV, physical and chemical stability during long term of storage.

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FIELD: blasting operations.

SUBSTANCE: emulsion explosive composition (EEC) comprises as the oxidising phase the aqueous solution of ammonia and sodium or calcium nitrate and urea, and as the hydrocarbon phase the wax melt of fine crystalline or ceresin, individually or their mixture, with the emulsifier for industrial emulsion of explosives, individually or as specified emulsifier with tall oil rosin, oleoresin pine rosin, or their mixture, and as the sensitising agent - the aqueous solution of sodium nitrite, or polymeric microspheres or a their mixture. The effect of the invention is achieved by equilibrium ratio of components ensuring normalised density of emulsion matter equal to 1.00-1.20 g/cm3.

EFFECT: high explosive and operational characteristics, including physical stability of the EEC during prolonged storage, good sensitivity to the explosive pulse of standard primary means of initiation, small critical diameter, satisfactory propagation of detonation in the distance between the two cartridges, the high heat of explosion.

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FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to explosive compositions used for blasting work in shallow pits which are not gas- or dust-hazardous, using blast-hole charges with direct or inverse initiation. The emulsion composition contains an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate or calcium nitrate as an oxidative phase, a hydrocarbon phase in form of industrial oil or diesel fuel in a mixture with an emulsifier for industrial emulsion explosives in a mixture with tall or oleoresin pine rosin, carbamide, added in form of an aqueous solution with sodium nitrate or calcium nitrate and as a sensitising agent - aqueous sodium nitrite solution coupled with glass microspheres. Components for increasing explosive performance and controlling oxygen balance, for example dispersed aluminium, can also be added.

EFFECT: emulsion explosive composition with improved explosive characteristics and physical stability during prolonged storage.

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SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ammonia-saltpetre explosive substances and can be used for preparation of emulsion granulite. Method includes crushing and dispersion of ammonia saltpetre with hot water, preparation of mixture of crude oil product with emulsifier, emulsification of obtained mixture, all actions being carried out in grinding-mixing disintegrator. After that, matrix emulsion is directed to reservoir, into which solid inflammable additive is supplied. As additive used is preliminarily magnetised powder of ferrosilicoaluminium.

EFFECT: method ensures high efficiency of emulsion granulite preparation due to high degree of dispersion in preparation of oxidation solution, reduction of mixture viscosity in preparation of oil phase, high rate emulsification with obtaining of "long-living" emulsion.

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FIELD: chemistry.

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EFFECT: explosive emulsions prepared according to the group of inventions have high resistance to crystallisation upon impact and/or shearing stress, high rate of detonation and retain properties during prolonged storage.

20 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

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EFFECT: disclosed method improves the quality of the matrix emulsion and simplifies the process.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to blasting works in mining industry on the Earth's surface with manual and mechanical loading of wells of any degree of water content, and specifically to explosives for hard, medium and soft rock and coal. The emulsion explosive composition contains ammonium nitrate (10-45 wt %) in a gassified inverted emulsion (the rest up to 100), where the gassified inverted emulsion contains the following in wt %: industrial oil 3.0-9.5; emulsifying agent 1.0-3.5; water 13.0-18.0; ammonium nitrate - the rest up to 100; gas-generating additive 0.4-2.5 over 100, wherein the inverted emulsion contains 0.09-6.0 wt % of an additional component which forms metal ions, e.g., sodium chloride, alkali metal salts of animal fatty acids, e.g., sodium stearate or plant fatty acids, e.g., tall oil soap. The emulsion can contain 0.5-2.5 wt % carbamide, and ammonium nitrate particles have average specific surface area of not less than 11900 mm2/g.

EFFECT: composition improves blasting performance owing to more uniform distribution of ammonium nitrate and larger specific surface area of fine ammonium nitrate particles.

4 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: explosive emulsion has intermittent phase, an oxidiser solution, continuous phase, a fuel, and emulsifier. Note here that proposed method comprises: (a) creating emulsion producing system; (b) moving oxidiser solution phase to emulsion preparation system at preset pressure; (c) moving fuel phase to emulsion preparation system at preset pressure; (d) producing emulsion from aforesaid phases using only part of preset pressures so that to provided residual pressure to be used after producing emulsion; (e) using residual pressure for non-mechanical feed of emulsion to preset point.

EFFECT: feed of emulsion without pump.

41 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial explosive substances. Explosive composition contains 92-38 wt % of granulated or crystalline ammonium nitrate, 2-6 wt % of oil-in water type emulsion and 2-60 wt % of energy additive. Emulsion of oil-in-water type consists of 70-80 wt % of mixture of vegetable oil, petroleum oil and Diesel fuel, 5.9-8 wt % of ammonium nitrate, 8-12 wt % of carbamide, 6-8 wt % of water and 0.1-1.5 wt % of emulsifier in form of derivatives of alkyl polyethylene glycol esters or polyoxyethylated esters of isotridecyl alcohol, or mono- and dialylphenyl oxypolyethyleneglycol asters, or polyoxyethylated esters of fatty acids. As enegy additive composition contains crashed to particle size 0.1-20 mm ballistic rocket solid fuel or powder, or hexogen, or mixture of phlagmatised hexogen with aluminium, or mixture of hexogen with trotyl, or mixture of hexogen with trotyl and aluminium, or powder-like trotyl, or their mixture, or aluminium or silicoaluminium with particle size 0.001-0.1 mm.

EFFECT: increase of detonation ability and explosion energy.

2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of emulsion explosive substances. Method of preparing water in oil type emulsion for emulsion explosive composition includes preparation of water solution of salts of oxidisers and fuel phase, which consists of fuel and emulsifier, and mixing of obtained water solution of salts of oxidisers and obtained fuel phase in static mixer. Water solution of salts of oxidisers is prepared by mechanical mixing, exposure to ultraviolet waves with frequency 18-150 kHz by means of submerged metal waveguides and recirculation of flow through ultrasonic flow disperser with frequency of ultrasonic waves 18-150 kHz. Fuel phase is prepared with flow recirculation. Obtained mixture of water solution of salts of oxidisers and fuel phase is dispersed in ultrasonic flow disperser with frequency of ultrasonic waves 18-150 kHz. Also claimed is device for said method realisation.

EFFECT: reduction of energy consumption of production of water in oil type emulsion and increase of detonation ability of explosives which contain such emulsion.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of energetic condensed systems, namely to oxidisers of solid fuel systems based on ammonium nitrate (AN). Method includes mixing salts of ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride, heating mixture in water medium to complete dissolution, reduction of temperature to crystal formation without mixing, after which mixture is intensively mixed until equilibrium is established, filtration of formed crystals and drying. Potassium chloride is dosed into initial mixture in amount making it possible to obtain its content in solid phase not less than 3%. In obtained oxidiser thermal decomposition of AN changes - explosive nature of exoeffect is observed, heat release increases sharply. Effect is achieved due to formation as a result of ion-exchange at nanolevel of equilibrium solid phase with complex composition, possessing novel physical-chemical properties.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to obtain AN-based oxidiser, which does not have phase conversions in the interval of temperatures from -50 to +100°C.

4 dwg, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: composition contains ammonium nitrate brand ZhV, dinitramide guanidinium salt, orthocarborane, di-N-oxide-1,3-dinitrile-2,4,6-triethylbenzene, mixture of microdisperse powder of aluminium brand ASD-6 and ultradisperse aluminium powder, methylpolyvinyltetrazole and mixture plasticiser of methylpolyvinyltetrazole, consisting of 1-ethyl-3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole and 2-ethyl-3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole.

EFFECT: increase of burning velocity, specific impulse and stability of physic-mechanical characteristics of composition, reduction of dependence of its burning velocity on pressure.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: oxidant in the form of ammonium nitrate is dissolved in a mixture of water and acetonitrile using a magnetic mixer at 55-65°C for not less than 30 minutes. A fuel-binder is dissolved in the obtained solution at the same temperature for not less than 60 minutes. The solvent is stripped for not less than 3 hours while stirring at temperature of 55-65°C and pressure of not more than 0.03 MPa. The fuel-binder used is methylpolyvinyl tetrazole which is plasticised with a nitramino-nitrotriazole plasticiser. Metallic fuel is mechanically placed in the obtained mixture of oxidant and fuel-binder, said metallic fuel being in the form of a mixture of micro- and nanopowder of aluminium, guanyl-urea salt of dinitramide and a curing agent in the form of di-N-oxide-1,3-dinitrile-2,4,6-triethylbenzene. The obtained mixture is evacuated, moulded and polymerised at room temperature to obtain a high-energy composite. Fine crystalline ammonium nitrate can be used with particle size of 2-10 mcm.

EFFECT: high stability of physical-mechanical properties, rate of combustion, improved inflammability, low sensitivity to mechanical action and reduced dependency of the rate of combustion of the composite on pressure changes.

2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of production of hydrogen-containing industrial explosive substances based on thickened water solution of fuel and oxidants, sensitised with explosive materials. Water-containing explosive composition contains balanced water solution of fuel and oxidants from ammonia nitrate, sodium nitrate and carbamide, thickened by polyacrylamide with application of ammonium sulphate as structurising additive. As sensibiliser, explosive composition contains multi-channel pyroxylin gunpowders with width of burning arch 0.7-1.5 mm or mixture of said powders with scaled trotyl with content of powder in composition 20-45 wt % with the following component ratio, wt %: sensibiliser 25.0-65.0 sodium nitrate 5.0-8.0, carbamide 4.0-6.0 water 9.0-12.0, polycarbamide 0.5-1.5, aluminium sulphate 0.02-0.3, ammonium nitrate - the remaining part. Claimed composition ensures sufficient sensitivity to detonation impulse in its initiation with stable detonation from DC, ED and NIS in thin polymeric envelope with layer width from 20 mm and more.

EFFECT: composition has increased work ability (2,5-3 times higher in comparison with applied ammonite No 6GW), is water proof, meets sanitary requirements and ecological safety in carrying out explosive works.

1 tbl

FIELD: blasting operations.

SUBSTANCE: safety emulsion explosive composition as the oxidising phase comprises water, ammonia and sodium nitrate, carbamide or potassium chloride, taken in the eutectic or near eutectic ratio, as hydrocarbon phase - emulsifier for industrial explosives, individually or in a mixture of tall oil or pine gum rosin, with liquid or solid chloroparaffin and possible additives of oil of industrial or fine-grained paraffin, powdered sodium or potassium chloride as a flame arrester, and as sensitiser - glass or polymeric microspheres "Expancel" DR (T) with the size capsules of 60-80 micron, containing combustible gas inclusions of isopropane or isobutane in shells of copolymers or gas-generating additives of aqueous solution of sodium nitrite and providing the controlled density of the final product in the range of 1.05-1.20 g/cm3.

EFFECT: good operational and explosive characteristics, including safety at the level of class III-IV, physical and chemical stability during long term of storage.

2 cl, 5 ex

FIELD: blasting operations.

SUBSTANCE: emulsion explosive composition (EEC) comprises as the oxidising phase the aqueous solution of ammonia and sodium or calcium nitrate and urea, and as the hydrocarbon phase the wax melt of fine crystalline or ceresin, individually or their mixture, with the emulsifier for industrial emulsion of explosives, individually or as specified emulsifier with tall oil rosin, oleoresin pine rosin, or their mixture, and as the sensitising agent - the aqueous solution of sodium nitrite, or polymeric microspheres or a their mixture. The effect of the invention is achieved by equilibrium ratio of components ensuring normalised density of emulsion matter equal to 1.00-1.20 g/cm3.

EFFECT: high explosive and operational characteristics, including physical stability of the EEC during prolonged storage, good sensitivity to the explosive pulse of standard primary means of initiation, small critical diameter, satisfactory propagation of detonation in the distance between the two cartridges, the high heat of explosion.

1 ex

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to explosives used in civil blasting works and in military ammunition, mostly cumulative. The method to improve explosives includes addition of boron or its compound to a nitrogen-containing explosive. Mixtures of octogene or ammonia nitrate are described, or ammonia dinitramide with boron or boron compounds, including tetraboran, diboran, berillium boron hydride, and a mixture of boron with berillium boron hydride. Substantially boron reacts exothermally with nitrogen with increased energy of explosion; compounds of boron, such as borans, also provide for large amount of hydrogen.

EFFECT: invention provides for higher speed of fragment flight, pressure at impact wave front and radius of fragment action and action of a field charge during explosion.

11 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to explosive compositions used for blasting work in shallow pits which are not gas- or dust-hazardous, using blast-hole charges with direct or inverse initiation. The emulsion composition contains an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate or calcium nitrate as an oxidative phase, a hydrocarbon phase in form of industrial oil or diesel fuel in a mixture with an emulsifier for industrial emulsion explosives in a mixture with tall or oleoresin pine rosin, carbamide, added in form of an aqueous solution with sodium nitrate or calcium nitrate and as a sensitising agent - aqueous sodium nitrite solution coupled with glass microspheres. Components for increasing explosive performance and controlling oxygen balance, for example dispersed aluminium, can also be added.

EFFECT: emulsion explosive composition with improved explosive characteristics and physical stability during prolonged storage.

2 cl

Explosive // 2488573

FIELD: weapons and ammunition.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to explosives designed for ore breaking when mining weak deposits arranged in unstable enclosing rocks. The base of the substance is ammonium nitrate in the amount of 95-97 wt %, in the melt of which 3-5 wt % of barium sulfate is added as a catalyst with dispersion of 0.15-0.2 mm.

EFFECT: considerable simplification of technology of production and cost reduction of an explosive with simultaneous reduction of its capacity and increased detonation capacity, which makes it possible to widely industrially introduce this explosive.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to high-energy condensed systems and specifically to solid-fuel gas-generating compositions, and can be used in different gas generators of fire-extinguishing systems, self-contained systems of raising sunken objects, airbags, oil production stimulation systems and apparatus for producing different compounds in a combustion wave. The composition contains ZHV ammonium nitrate as an oxidant, guanidine salt of dinitramide as fuel, methylpolyvinyl tetrazole which is plasticised with a mixture of 2,4-dinitro-2,4-diazapentane with 1-ethyl-3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole as binder, orthocarborane as an additive, di-N-oxide-1,3-dinitrile-2,4,6-triethylbenzene as a curing agent.

EFFECT: invention enables to significantly increase the rate of combustion of the gas-generating composition and improve its physical and mechanical properties, stability thereof over time, simplify the obtaining of charges with a complex shape from the disclosed composition.

1 tbl

FIELD: explosives.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacture and application of industrial water-containing explosives based on gunpowder-sensitized gel-like oxidant solutions. Invention provides composition containing granulated pyroxylin gunpowder or mixture thereof with ground pyroxylin and/or ballistite artillery powders, or ballistite rocket powders; water-soluble metal nitrates or their mixture; organic fuel; polyacrylamide (thickener); aluminum sulfate (cross-linking agent); water; and ammonium nitrate.

EFFECT: improved performance, sanitary and environmental safety during manufacture and application of composition.

4 cl, 1 tbl

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