Method of rice cultivation on saline lands

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises watering using the system of mole drainage, flooding rice checks, mowing rice in rolls with two-three-fold threshing of rolls while leaving rice straw on the surface of the check. In autumn before fall ploughing the chemical ameliorant phosphogypsum is applied along with 60 t/ha manure on the surface in the dry state by spreading on the surface using spreaders. The ameliorant dose depends on the degree of soil salinisation: in case of the exchangeable sodium content of less than 15% 3-5 t/ha is applied, in case of 15-20% - 8-10 t/ha, and if it is greater than 20% - 10-15 t/ha. In spring the mole drainage of subsurface layer is carried out, the disease-treated rice seeds are sown in ordinary way. Then flooding of rice checks is carried out with water layer of 10-12 cm. In case of a very strong degree of soil salinity the originally created layer is drained after 2-3 days, and the checks are flooded again with fresh water, in the initial period of development of rice plants - from seed germination till emergence of 2-3 leaves, for the period of germination and seedling emergence (23-27 days) the water is drained and during this period dressing with fertilisers and growth stimulants is carried out, treatment with herbicides using aircraft is carried out. After the mass seedling emergence in phase of 2-3 leaves on the rice field layer of water of 10-12 cm is created again and supported up to tillering period, and then reduced to a level of 5-10 cm. If increase in mineralisation of water to 2 g/l in the check is recorded, its drainage and replacement with fresh water is required. In the early phase of booting the water layer is increased to 15 cm and kept to the end of the milk stage. In case of increasing of mineralisation of water its systematic replacement is carried out, then the water supply is stopped and by the beginning of full ripeness of grain the water is completely drained.

EFFECT: method enables to prevent the surface redistribution of irrigation water during irrigation, to reduce infiltration groundwater recharge, to prevent resalinisation of the soil root zone, and to reduce the salinity of the upper layer of soil, and to increase the grain yield of rice.

1 tbl

 

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used in the cultivation of rice.

Known "Method of cultivation of cereal crops in saline rice fields" (Patent No. 2298305, publication date 10.05.2007), the present invention is used as a prototype. The method includes pre-rice cultivation and irrigation system mole drainage, application of mineral fertilizers in doses of N-40-50 kg/ha, P-60-80 kg/ha, K-45-60 kg/ha of active substance. Sow the seeds treated rice, then spend the flooding of rice fields, water discharges from cheques at a speed of 1.5-2.0 cm per day until complete drainage of checks after phase of the growing season "the beginning of wax ripeness". Rice is harvested in rolls with two-three-time threshing rolls with remaining rice straw on the surface of the check. In checks until a sustained frost spend plowing with the turnover of the top layer and incorporation of crop residues to a depth of 0,30-0,35 m. In early spring superficially make fertilizers, diskutirame treated with topsoil. In set a tight schedule carry out sowing of grain to a depth of 0.06-0.08 m, produces rolling after seeding and hydration podosenov soil water delivery system mole drainage. The harvesting of cereal crops are direct harvesting remaining tailings of in the form of cut�and on the surface of the check, but many - and late summer weeds destroy diskutirame. The method allows to increase the yield of cereal crops in the cultivation on saline rice fields and suppress weeds, harmful cultural crops. The disadvantages of the described method are: ineffective process of leaching salts from the topsoil, the effect of low realonline soil.

The disadvantage of this method is the low degree of recovery of water-physical properties of the soil.

The problem to be solved by the claimed invention, the freshening of the upper meter layer of soil in rice fields with a high degree of salinity of the root of the horizon.

The technical result - the prevention of surface redistribution of irrigation water during irrigation and thereby creating conditions for uniform wetting of the soil profile by area of the field, decrease infiltration recharge of groundwater and the prevention of secondary salinity in the root zone of the soil. The decrease in the salinity of the upper meter of soil layer; obtaining grain yield of rice at 3.5-5.0 t/ha in the link of the rice crop rotation rice-rice.

Said technical result is achieved by implementing irrigation system mole drainage, flooding rice fields, mowing rice rolls, two to three times obmol�the rolls with remaining rice straw on the surface of the check, autumn before plowing contribute chemical ameliorants phosphogypsum together with 60 t/ha manure surface in dry form by spreading over the surface with a spreader, the dose of ameliorant depends on the degree of soil alkalinization: when the content of exchangeable sodium less than 15% require the introduction of 3...5 t/ha at 15...20% - 8...10 t/ha, but if more than 20% then 10...15 t/ha, conducted in the spring of krotovaya subsurface layer, sow the seeds treated rice ordinary way, then spend the flooding of rice fields with a layer of water 10 to 12 cm in the case of a very strong degree of soil salinity, originally created layer is discharged in 2-3 days and checks again flooded with fresh water that must not be done because of the high sensitivity of rice plants to salinity in the initial period of their development, from seed germination to emergence of 2-3 leaves, for the period of germination and emergence (from 23 to 27 days) water is discharged in this period are fertilizing fertilizers and growth stimulants and herbicides aviation way, after the mass emergence in the phase of 2-3 leaves of the rice field in that it creates a layer of water 10-12 cm and is maintained until the phase of tillering and then decreased to the level of 5-10 see If the observed increase in salinity in check up to 2 g/l, needed resetting and replacement of fresh, in the early phase �of rubrovaria layer of water is increased to 15 cm and maintained until the end of the milk stage, in the case of increasing salinity is its systematic replacement, then the flow of water stops and the onset of full ripeness of grain water is completely discharged. This technology requires a large flow rate, irrigation rate of 18.5-22.5 thousand m3/ha, but is effective, providing a leaching regime, desalination top meter layer of the soil, and harvesting of rice grain at the level of 4-5 t/ha.

The implementation of the invention

Autumn before plowing contribute chemical ameliorants (phosphogypsum) together with 60 t/ha manure surface in dry form by spreading over the surface with a spreader type ROOM-3, ROOM 8, LMP-10, LMP-16. Dose of ameliorant depends on the degree of soil alkalinization: when the content of exchangeable sodium less than 15% require the introduction of 3...5 t/ha at 15...20% - 8...10 t/ha, but if more than 20% then 10...15 t/ha.

In the spring of conduct krotovaya subsurface layer, which consists in cutting a frequent network of mole moves parallel to 1-2 m at a depth of 35-40 cm across the location of drains. Such a network we work provides a fast outflow of excess water by subsurface drainage layer in the landfill and contributes to the accumulation of moisture in the subsurface layer.

Sow the seeds treated rice ordinary way, then spend the flooding of rice fields with a layer of water 10 to 12 cm (in the case activley extent of soil salinity, originally created layer is discharged through 2...3 days and checks again flooded with fresh water that must not be done because of the high sensitivity of rice plants to salinity in the initial period of their development, from seed germination to emergence 2...3 leaves). For the period of germination and emergence (23...27 days) water is discharged in this period are fertilizing fertilizers and growth stimulants and herbicides aviation way. After the mass emergence (phase 2...3 leaves) rice field in that it creates a layer of water 10 to 12 cm and is maintained until the phase of tillering and then decreased to a level 5...10 cm (if the observed increase in salinity in check up to 2 g/l, needed resetting and replacing fresh). In the early phase of booting the water layer is increased to 15 cm and maintained until the end of the milk stage (in the case of increasing salinity, is its systematic replacement). Then the flow of water stops and the onset of full ripeness of grain water is completely reset.. the Rice is harvested in rolls with two-three-time threshing rolls with remaining rice straw on the surface of the check. This technology requires a large consumption of water (irrigation rate of 18.5...22.5 thousand m3/ha), but is effective, providing a leaching regime (desalination upper meter �Loja soil), and harvesting of rice grain level 4...5 t/ha.

Phosphogypsum has the most effect in later life (2...3rd year after). Experience shows that if in the first year of operation the highest yield increase of rice grain (28... 32%) is obtained mainly from organic fertilizers, already in the second year the most significant share of influence aftereffect of phosphogypsum, with the greatest impact is also observed in the variant of the joint organo-mineral nutrition (PL.1).

Table 1
The influence of ameliorants on the grain yield of rice in flooded parts Sarpinskiy lowland
OptionsAction ameliorantsThe aftereffect ameliorantsThe total yield increase
yield,the yield increaseyield,the yield increase
t/hat/ha%t/hat/ha% 2 years t/ha
Without making ameliorants (control)3,74--4,03---
4 t/ha of phosphogypsum4,480,7419,8with 4.860,8320,61,57
6 t/ha of phosphogypsum4,620,8823,5to 5.051,0225,31,90
4 t/ha of phosphogypsum + 60 t/ha manure4,811,0728,6of 5.171,1428,32,21
6 t/ha of phosphogypsum + 60 t/ha manure4,951,2132,45,381,35of 33.5 2,56

Method of rice cultivation on saline lands, including irrigation system mole drainage, flooding rice fields, mowing rice rolls, two or three times threshing rolls with remaining rice straw on the surface of the check, wherein the autumn before plowing contribute chemical ameliorants phosphogypsum together with 60 t/ha manure surface in dry form by spreading over the surface with a spreader, the dose of ameliorant depends on the degree of soil alkalinization: when the content of exchangeable sodium less than 15% require the introduction of 3-5 t/ha, with 15-20% of 8-10 t/ha, but if more than 20% 10-15 t/ha, conducted in the spring of krotovaya subsurface layer, sow the seeds treated rice ordinary way, then spend the flooding of rice fields with a layer of water 10-12 cm, in the case of a very strong degree of soil salinity originally created layer is discharged in 2-3 days and checks again flooded with fresh water, in the initial period of development of rice plants from seed germination to emergence of 2-3 leaves, for the period of germination and emergence (from 23 to 27 days) water shed and during this period make feeding fertilizers and growth stimulants, treated with herbicide aviation way, after the mass emergence in the phase of 2-3 leaves in the rice fields again, create a layer of water 10-12 cm and supporting�t to tillering, then reduced to 5-10 cm, if the observed increase in salinity in check up to 2 g/l, then it needs to be reset and replace with fresh water, in the early phase of booting the water layer is increased to 15 cm and allowed to stand until the end of the milk stage, in the case of increasing salinity produce its systematic replacement, then the flow of water is stopped and the onset of full ripeness of grain water is completely discharged.



 

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FIELD: agriculture.

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2 tbl

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5 tbl

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FIELD: agriculture.

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EFFECT: method enables to increase the amount and reliability of the process of yield formation while substantial reducing the amount of manual labour.

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FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: moorberry rootage on mineral soils. Within the territory of the Russian Federation the survival ability of moorberry transplants is ensured by preliminary rootage of semi-lignified transplants in covered ground. The ground consists of the mix of high-moor peat and valley peat with the acidity level pH 5.6 with the following composition by mass mg/kg: nitrogen 400-450; phosphorus 400-450; potassium 400-500. Then transplants are planted in the open mineral soil.

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2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises processing soil in row spacing and care of plants using tillage tools in the unit with wheel-type tractors. At that the wheel-type tractors move along permanent artificial tracks with hard coating in the root zone of hop plants. Supports for placement of race tracks are made in the form of a metal pipe embedded in soil, which is welded to two brackets, and two race tracks with hard coating are placed on them.

EFFECT: method enables to increase the yield of hops and the performance of machine units.

2 dwg

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