Method of producing structural composition based on priming mixture by hardening
SUBSTANCE: invention increases tensile and compression strength of priming coats, as well as water-resistance thereof while reducing binder consumption to 0.003-0.012 wt %. The effect is achieved by using cation-active imidazoline and polyacrylic acid in the composition, which form an insoluble polyelectrolyte interpolymer complex during chemical reaction.
EFFECT: invention relates to a method of producing a stable structural composition based on a priming mixture of clay and sand as natural filler and can be used for industrial purposes for producing moulding agents, accelerated hardening of priming coats and endowing priming coats with hydrophobic properties.
Known to work on the stabilization of alumina and silica 5% of solutions of polymers with the addition of starch as a binder. The thus obtained composition may be used in Prigogine different products, but is destroyed after prolonged action of water [A. h. Of the Russian Federation No. 97108232, 1999]. To impart hydrophobic properties to the structural compositions is used as a binder polymer-bitumen compositions [GOST R 52056-2003. Polymeric binders-bitumen road-based block copolymers of styrene-butadiene-styrene. Technical specifications]. These compositions exhibit hydrophobic properties, however, requires a significant amount of bitumen, which increases the process of obtaining them and makes it impossible to use them as molding tools.
Most closely on the results achieved is copyright certificate [Ed. St. No. 1685960, 1991], which describes a composition based on the use of ground mixtures of structured Strait 2-3% aqueous solutions of electrolytes. In this method, there is the formation of water - and air-permeable cover. To reduce the permeability of the polymer anionic colloidal particles using clay component, in particular bentonite [RF Patent №2108970, 1998]. The condition for obtaining structural compositions is the use if�need for consistent mixing of clay particles in the Sol based on silica and subsequent dispersion, what complicates the process and limits the use of this method.
The invention makes it possible to increase the resistance of the masses in the consumption of binder to 0.05 wt%. However, the above invention has the following disadvantages: not the data on the strength of the fortified array in tension and compression, and therefore it can be concluded that the proposed polymer composition increases the resistance of the material.
The purpose of the present invention is a significant strengthening of a soil mixture consisting of sand and clay, increasing its resistance to water flow reductions binder, by successive Strait. This object is achieved in that in the interaction of polyacrylic acid (PAC-30) and alkylimidazole (AM) is formed polyelectrolyte complex (PEC), which is characterized by insolubility in water and high adhesion to the ground. This leads to increased tensile strength and compression.
In the interaction of polyelectrolytes (PE) having a high charge density, peck stand out from solutions in the form of gels and finely divided relatively little solvated precipitation. The sustainability of such PEC is determined by the dissociation constants of the source PE. Thus, in the case of severe PE, such as polystyrenesulfonate and hydroxide polivinilbenziltrimetilammoniya, peck sustainable in almost� the whole range of pH and dissolved only in concentrated solutions of electrolytes in water-organic mixtures. Peck the weak PE sustained in a limited range of pH, and the formation and destruction of these complexes cooperative occurs in a narrow pH range. Education peck accompanied by a significant change in the conformation of its constituent PE, illustrating the important role of steric matching of polymeric reagents in reactions between PE. Since the PEC is insoluble in water and has a high durability can be expected that the formation of such a complex between the particles of soil will increase soil strength. Increased resistance must provide organosilicon additive (potassium methylsiliconate (MSK)) with high hydrophobicity.
The aim of the invention is a method of producing resistant to mechanical degradation and moisture structural composites on the basis of a soil mixture consisting of clay and sand, simplification and cheapening of the process.
This object is achieved in that in the method of producing the structural composition based on a soil mixture using hardening soil mixture was treated with stirring consistently aqueous solutions of reagents with further compaction of the composition. As a soil composition, a mixture of silica and natural clay. Is used as a binder aqueous solutions of alkylimidazole (AM), polyacrylic Ki�lots (PAK-30) and potassium methylsiliconate (IIC), which are consistently added to the soil mixture with stirring, in the following sequence and following a weight ratio of the components to the weight of the ground mixture (wt.%):
Polyacrylic acid (PAC-30): 0.003-0.006
Alkylimidazole: 0.006 to 0.012;
The potassium methylsiliconate (50% aqueous solution): 0.2-0.4;
with further compaction of the composition and in maintaining standard conditions.
Alkylimidazole (AM) is alkylimidazole acid rapeseed oil and is used as a component of a polyelectrolyte complex, providing high strength of the soil. Polyacrylic acid (PAC-30) represents a 30% aqueous solution of polyacrylic acid of molecular weight of 130,000 and is used as a component of a polyelectrolyte complex, providing high strength of the soil.
The potassium methylsiliconate (MSK) is a 50% aqueous solution of potassium methylsiliconate and serves as a water repellent soil mixture.
Unexpectedly it was found that when this method of obtaining maximum strength and hydrophobicity of the composition is achieved by inclusion in the composition of each of the components in a specific sequence and in a specific %substance to the weight of the ground mixture, above and below which the effect of structuring and hydrophobicity decreases sharply.>
The invention is illustrated by the following examples.
Example 1. Soil mix was obtained by mechanical mixing of natural red clay and yellow river sand in a weight ratio of 1:3 respectively with retaining natural moisture (but not more than 10%).
Cooked 0.15% aqueous solution of AM, 0.03% aqueous solution (PAK-30) and 50 aqueous solution of MSCS. In a dirt mixture was added with stirring consistently aqueous solution PAK-30 (0.003% wt.), an aqueous solution of AM (0.006% wt.), the aqueous solution ET (0.1% wt.). The amount of each of the added solutions match a specific amount (% wt.) undiluted components based on the mass of the soil. The number of MSCS maintained its 50% aqueous solution per mass of soil. The mixture was condensed and dried at 25°C for 7 days. The characteristics of the soil samples depending on the number of components presented in the table.
It turned out that the optimal number of PAK-30 per mass of soil is 0.003-0.006%; AM: 0.006-0.012 wt.%; GMT: 0.2-0.4% by weight. This structure provides the necessary hydrophobicity of the composition and strength corresponding to the strength of concrete stamps M75.
In a dirt mixture was added with stirring consistently aqueous solution PAK-30 (0.006% wt.), aqueous Sol�R AM (0.006% wt.), the aqueous solution MSK (0.2% wt.). The amount of each of the added solutions match a specific amount (% wt.) undiluted components based on the mass of the soil. The number of MSCS maintained its 50% aqueous solution per mass of soil. The mixture was condensed and dried at 25°C for 7 days. The characteristics of the soil samples depending on the number of components presented in the table.
In a dirt mixture was added with stirring consistently aqueous solution PAK-30 (0.003% wt.), an aqueous solution of AM (0.012 mass%), the aqueous solution ET (0.4% wt.). The amount of each of the added solutions match a specific amount (% wt.) undiluted components based on the mass of the soil. The number of MSCS maintained its 50% aqueous solution per mass of soil. The mixture was condensed and dried at 25°C for 7 days. The characteristics of the soil samples depending on the number of components presented in the table.
The examples show that the inventive composition provides strengthening the ground high strength and hydrophobic properties superior known.
|wt%. reagents by weight of the soil||Tensile strength, MPa||The compressive strength, MPa||Compliance stamp concrete||Residual water absorption after 8 hours of storage under water, % mass|
|AM: 0.006||0.18||3.20||M50||The sample is destroyed|
* - these formulations recommended for strengthening and waterproofing sandy and clay soils in areas with low moisture content in the soil (rainfall of 200-300 mm per year). For areas with higher humidity it is necessary to increase the content of the MSC in composition to 2 wt%. and above.
A method of producing the structural composition based on a soil mixture comprising adding to a dirt mixture of clay and sand in a weight ratio of 1:3 respectively, sequentially while stirring the binder aqueous solutions of polyacrylic acid PAK-30, alkylimidazole acid rapeseed oil, potassium methylsiliconate in the following ratio to the weight of the ground mixture, wt. %: polyacrylic acid PAK-30 0,003-0,006, alkylimidazole 0,006-0,012, 50% aqueous solution of potassium methylsiliconate of 0.2-0.4, the subsequent sealing compositions and keeping her under standard conditions before curing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely, to strengthening of soils. In the method of soil strengthening in the area to be strengthened, a compacting agent is supplied from a loading reservoir into soil with a mixing facility located in a device for supply of the compacting agent. The device for supply of the compacting agent is located in connection with a transfer facility, and a facility for mixing for a compacting agent located on the device for supply of the compacting agent, is moved by the transfer facility at choice to any point in the zone, which must be strengthened, in vertical direction (y), horizontal direction (x) and/or in perpendicular to substantially perpendicular direction to the plane stretching via the specified vertical direction and horizontal direction. A support bridge included into the transfer facility is located for passage via the area, which must be strengthened, and in connection with the support bridge the first transfer elements are located for movement of the facility for mixing of the compacting agent in vertical direction (y) and/or horizontal direction (x), and the transfer facility comprises the second transfer elements and the support bridge, and the device for supply of the compacting agent with the facility for mixing is moved by the second transfer elements in perpendicular to substantially perpendicular direction to the plane passing via the specified vertical direction (y) and horizontal direction (x), and providing both ends of the support bridge by the second transfer facilities to maintain the support bridge on the material of the support and/or the soil of the base, as a result of which the distance (A) between the second transfer facilities is adjusted for compliance with the width of the area to be strengthened, in longitudinal direction of the support bridge.
EFFECT: increased stabilisation of soil strengthening, reduced labour intensiveness and material intensity in production of works for soil strengthening.
9 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining operation.
SUBSTANCE: method of protection of karst occurrence comprises drilling wells in the area of karst formation and injection of reinforcing material. While injecting the reinforcing material in the form of a polymer-mineral composition in the rock mass of the area of karst formation two layers are created: the lower insulating-stabilising layer which prevents access of water to the karst at the depth of occurrence of karst rocks and stabilising the situation at the stage of karst formation, located within the boundaries of the sliding wedge, and the upper bearing layer serving as a bearing local layer and corresponding to the width of the lower layer. Drilling wells is carried out sequentially - first inclined well is drilled to the upper transition zone of the geological horizon exposed to karst formation, the polymer-mineral composition with the capacity from 2 to 10 meters is pumped, which forms a lower insulating-stabilising layer, then the inclined well is drilled to contact with the upper boundary of groundwater, and the polymer-mineral composition with the capacity from 2 to 5 meters is pumped, which forms the upper bearing layer. Then the control vertical well is drilled to contact with the upper bearing and the lower insulating-stabilising layer. The core-sample is raised from each layer to check the presence of the polymer-mineral composition. Between the bearing and the insulating-stabilising layers in the rock mass the channel of flow of groundwater from the water collection area to the discharge area is formed, preserving the natural hydrogeological mode in the rock water-bearing mass of the karst formation area.
EFFECT: increase in protective properties of rocks with karst occurrence, improvement of physical and chemical and bearing properties of the soil, increase in the strength properties of the soil, reduction of the possibility of landslides occurrence.
SUBSTANCE: first, size and depth of a karst formation under a building foundation is determined; then, the first type of wells is formed along the building perimeter at least in one row; injectors are introduced to each of the above wells and a hardening solution is injected into well walls. Wells are formed so that at injection between adjacent wells in the row there can be formed intersecting zones of compacted soil; in the lower zone of loose soils of geomassif, which are located around a karst formation caving zone, there formed are at least two rows of wells of the second type, which are located in an arch periphery line, into which there also pumped is a hardening solution by means of injectors, so that wall-shaped structures are formed by means of the hardening solution throughout the height of the karst formation out of intersecting solid elements that are flat as to vertical direction. Then, in the lower zone of loose soils of geomassif, which are located above dome-shaped arch of the karst formation caving zone, there formed is the third type of wells located along the imagined surface of the dome-shaped arch of the karst formation and going beyond the perimeter of the zone enveloped with wells of the second type, to which there also pumped is the hardening solution by means of injectors, so that a dome-shaped massif of at least one layer of intersecting flat-parallel elements is formed above the karst formation with formation of compacted geomassif above the dome-shaped massif. After that, at least one well of the fourth type is formed with its opening to the cavity of the karst formation, which is filled with the hardening solution, with formation in the cavity of the karst formation of a volumetric elements; at availability of suffusion processes in the karst formation, to the karst formation cavity there added is at least one flexible envelope, to which the hardening solution is pumped, after hardening of which the soil is additionally compacted above layers of flat-parallel elements of the dome-shaped massif by pumping of the hardening solution in a downward or upward direction to cracks and cavities formed during formation of a dome-shaped arch out of flat-parallel elements. Cement mortar and/or raw mix containing a siliceous component, a gas-forming agent and a mixing agent is used as a hardening solution.
EFFECT: improving reliability of reinforced geomassif; reducing labour input and material consumption at its formation.
8 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes injection of a sealing substance, providing for damage of soil structure. Soil compaction is carried out by development of bodies in it with specified dimensions, shapes and properties from non-Newtonian liquid, which does not change the ratio of its components under load and preserves shape given to it with absence of external impact, which is injected by pressing into soil with impact loads applied to its surface. Soil is compacted by its displacement by external surface of developed bodies from spaces that they occupy. The device comprises a working element and a facility to apply impact load to it, made of a guide pipe, into which a rod is inserted as capable of movement along it and contact with the working element. The working element is made in the form of a rod with a conical point at the end and is inserted into the guide pipe as capable of limited longitudinal displacement in it. The conical point of the rod protrudes from the guide pipe. On the working element there is an assembly that excludes its drop-out from the guide pipe.
EFFECT: increased density of soil by introduction of non-Newtonian fluid into it in the mode of periodical impact loads and increased efficiency of a device due to elimination of the possibility to damage a well with a rod and deviation of the working element from the specified path.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: composition for sandy soil reinforcement, comprising a filler and a binder component, and the filler comprises sand milled to fine dispersion (74-136 nm), and the binder component is used as saponite-containing material milled to microdispersed state (265-451 nm) isolated from pulp of tailing dump of industrial ore dressing of diamond field deposit, with the following ratio of components, wt %: saponite-containing material 3-6, sand - the rest.
EFFECT: improving the strength characteristics of sandy soil.
2 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for mixing soil materials, in particular to a device for mixing additives directly with soil materials of the ground. The device comprises at least two mixing drums made with the ability to rotate around their axes of rotation which are located at a small distance from each other. Between the drums the fixing frame is located, on which the drop sleeve is fixedly mounted. At the upper end of the drop sleeve the attachment means are located for attachment to the lever for mounting the attached implement. The rotation axes of the mixing drums are inclined relative to the plane perpendicular to the vertical axis of the device, so that when the drop sleeve is in the upright position, the axes of rotation of the mixing drums are inclined downward toward the outer ends of the drums. Thus, the ends of the mixing drums, located closest to each other, are substantially closer to each other with their lower edges than with their upper edges.
EFFECT: device housing does not create a dead zone which would prevent the working movement.
8 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and utilisation of wastes of heat engineering, and namely to reinforced ground compositions (soil cements), which can be used for construction of structures, including in structures of bases of road pavements of automobile roads; in an earth bed of automobile roads and other structures; for backfilling, elimination and recultivation of developed soil banks and slurry ponds; for reinforcement of sides of roads, slopes and cavities. Composition for arrangement of bases of road pavements and structures, which includes cement, slurry of chemical water treatment of CHP, and when necessary, for assurance of required humidity (optimum for compacting), it additionally contains sand at the following component ratio, wt % (by solid phase): sand 57-82, cement 6-12, CHP chemical water treatment slurry (on a dry basis) 12-30. The invention is developed in a subclaim of the formula.
EFFECT: accelerating strength gain.
2 cl, 4 ex, 5 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of construction and may be used to determine quantity of cement in soil-cement material in creation of building structures by means of jet cementing. The method to determine quantity of cement in the soil-cement material of the structure in development of building structures by means of jet cementing consists in addition of a powdery indicator into the cement mortar injected into a well. Such powdery indicator may be powder graphite, fineness of grinding of which is not below fineness of cement grinding. Weight ratio of graphite powder makes 1-10% of cement weight. During realisation of the method they first measure electric conductivity of the injected cement mortar, then electric conductivity of the soil and cement pulp discharged from the well is measured, and the quantity of cement in the soil-cement material of the structure is determined as difference between the cement quantity in the cement mortar and the quantity of cement in the pulp. The quantity of cement in the pulp is calculated in accordance with the following formula:
EFFECT: higher efficiency of the method.
SUBSTANCE: in the method to strengthen natural soils and mineral materials for construction of roads with using of hydraulic mineral and water-dissolved polymer binders, including cement and latex of copolymers on the basis of sterol, ethers of acrylic acid, butadiene, acrylonitrile, ethylene with vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride or their mixtures with additives of thickeners on the basis of cellulose, defoaming agents of siloxane type and ether of glycol with regulation of pH by caustic, the specified polymer binder is used, polymer particles in which have dimensions from 50 to 200 nm, preferably 80-160 nm, with an additive in the amount of 0.1-5.0 wt parts per 100 wt parts of dry substance of the specified binder as a coalescer - ether of glycol of simple mono- or diester of ethylene- or diethylene glycol or aromatic hydrocarbon, for instance, white spirit, the value pH equal to 6.5-9 is set when using caustic in the form of 1-2% solution.
EFFECT: higher strength, water resistance.
10 ex, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of intense soil strengthening under an existing building includes formation of a peripheral row in the zone of performance of restoration works along the perimetre of a strengthened base of sagging soil and cellular structure in the zone of the strengthened base of the soil by drilling of depth wells to the depth of sagging soil, filling of injectors into wells, their sealing and injection of a hardening mortar under pressure in a certain sequence of sagging horizon strengthening. Relative to the structure contour they create a process base zone of multi-level support horizons of a counterforce body, in which at the bottom they form a root of stabilisation of sagging soil by the method of forced main and additional stage-step injection of an active mass of the mortar, distribution and regulation of sagging soil in volume density at joints of sections of the contact and combination of complect-active heterogeneous systems, direct and reverse pressing of a zone of relaxation sections in volume density of sagging soil at joints of contact sections under alternating directivity of supply of an active mass of mortar at variable angles in horizontal planes of multi-level support horizons. Intensive development is created to move mortar through soil by forced and transverse shift forces relative to each other in different levels of horizons of a counterforce body in direction of counteraction of strengthened soil resistance forces. Locations of nodal directivity of mortar injection into soil are distributed and formed with possible correction of required linear and angular parameters of directivity of reciprocal displacement of the mortar, consolidation and formation of the soil structure. Injection of the mortar into shafts of depth wells is carried out in steps by horizons and formation into a single volume-space structure of soil to the entire depth of the active base zone of relaxation sections of the counterforce body. Introduction of an additional injection of mortar and creation of a retaining force is carried out in the form of supply of a by-mortar and serial selective direction, distribution and formation of its position at local sections of horizontal transitions of basic zones of relaxation sections of the counterforce body in the sagging soil under the existing building.
EFFECT: higher intensification and efficiency of soil strengthening under an existing residential building.
5 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to artificial marble, which has translucent amorphous texture. Described is artificial marble, which has translucent amorphous texture, which contains matrix and texture component, where said texture component has specific density from approximately 1.6 to approximately 2.0 and contains solidified resin composition, which forms textures (A), which contains binding agent and acrylic polymerisable monomer, where said binding agent contains halogenated urethane acrylate, halogenated epoxy acrylate or their combination, where mentioned resin composition, which forms texture component (A), contains from approximately 50 to approximately 90 weight parts of binding agent and from approximately 10 to approximately 50 weight parts of acrylic polymerisable monomer basing on the total weight of resin composition, which forms texture component (A), where said resin composition, which forms texture component (A), further contains inorganic filler in quantity 30 weight parts or less basing on 100 weight parts of mixture of binding agent and acrylic polymerisable monomer to ensure good translucence, where said matrix is formed from suspension, which represents mixture of dissolved polyacrylate and acryl monomer. Also described is method of obtaining claimed artificial marble, in which polymerisable acryl monomer and inorganic filler are mixed with binding agent, which contains halogenated urethane acrylate, halogenated epoxy acrylate or their combination, with obtaining resin composition, which forms texture component (A); polyacrylate is dissolved in acryl monomer with obtaining suspension, which forms matrix (B); texture-forming resin composition (A), and matrix-forming suspension (B), is non-continuously supplied into mould and resin composition, which forms texture component (A), and matrix-forming suspension (B) are solidified.
EFFECT: obtaining artificial marble, which has translucent amorphous texture, good smoothness without emergence of concavity effect.
7 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: polymer-mineral solution for impregnating a frame made of a mineral aggregate, which includes polyether acrylate resin, a hardening initiator, a hardening accelerator and an additive, the hardening initiator being cyclohexanone peroxide, the hardening accelerator being cobalt octoate and the additive being a mixture of quartz filling materials having two particle sizes of 0.071-0.16 mm and 0.16-0.315 mm in ratio of 3:1, said impregnation being carried out by filling voids in the hardened frame with said solution, said frame being obtained by moulding a mixture of the following composition, wt %: polyether acrylate resin 6.0, cyclohexanone peroxide 0.12, cobalt octoate 0.28, granite chips with size of 5-8 mm 93.6, with the following ratio of components, wt %: polyether acrylate resin 24-28, cyclohexanone peroxide 0.48-0.56, cobalt octoate 1.1-1.29, mixture of quartz filling materials having two particle sizes 0.071-0.16 and 0.16-0.315 in ratio of 3:1 - the balance.
EFFECT: improved strength properties.
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to marble chips for artificial marble, a method for production thereof and artificial marble containing said chips. The marble chips are obtained by hardening a polymer composition containing 50-90 pts.wt binder - halogen-alkoxylated di(meth)acrylate oligomer and 10-50 pts.wt reactive monomers selected from a group of aromatic vinyl monomers, aromatic divinyl monomers, dimers thereof, alkyl- or halogen-substituted aromatic vinyl monomers, C1-C20 alkyl(meth)acrylates, C6-C20 aryl(meth)acrylates, hydroxyl-containing (meth)acrylates, glycidyl(meth)acrylates, C6-C20 arylphthalates, C6-C20 arylcarbonates and combinations thereof. The marble chips enable to obtain a uniform pattern regardless of the duration of hardening or casting.
EFFECT: artificial marble made from the marble chips can have an outer appearance and structure similar to the outer appearance and structure of modelled stone, and also have processability during heat treatment and suitability for treatment preferred for artificial marble.
21 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method to manufacture an artificial stone includes application of a binder onto a prepared setup with a thin layer on the basis of a translucent polymer resin and a filler in the form of a granulated material, hardening of a composition and surface polishing. The specified resin is acrylic or non-saturated polyester resin. The filler in the form of a granite or marble crumb with dimensions of fragments from 1 to 4 mm is laid on a layer of a binder after its hardening to a gel-forming condition. After full hardening of the composition a colour substrate is applied on it from a mixture containing a binder, a material on the basis of glass fibre is laid and impregnated with a polyester resin.
EFFECT: improved operational and strength characteristics of products with reduction of consumed used materials.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a novel method of making articles in form of slabs, porous slabs, blocks made from a conglomerate consisting of pieces of stone. The method is based on the existing technology of compaction by means of vacuum compression and involves preparation of a mixture consisting of a granulate and binder which is an aqueous dispersion of an acrylic prepolymer. The granulate is selected from stone-like materials. The mixture also contains a finely dispersed inorganic aggregate. The mixture is deposited in form of a layer onto a substrate or inside a mould and is compacted via vacuum vibro-compression. Further, the binder which is present in the moulded article is hardened. At the step for compaction using vacuum vibro-compression, the article hardens in conditions which enable to prevent removal of water from the mixture due to evaporation. When making porous slabs, at the compacting step, the article hardens in conditions which enable to remove water from the mixture. When making blocks, the mixture is deposited only inside the mould. When using the method, blocks can also be made, which can then be sawed.
EFFECT: articles have high mechanical strength, resistance to UV radiation and are environmentally safe.
18 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to marble chips, method of making said chips and artificial marble made from said chips. The marble chips are made from hardening a polymer composition which contains an acrylic monomer which forms cross bonds, and binding substance selected from a group consisting of halogenated urethane acrylate, halogenated epoxy acrylate and a mixture of said compounds. The method of obtaining the marble chips involves preparation of a polymer composition by adding an acrylic monomer, which forms cross bonds, to the binding substance, hardening the polymer composition and crushing the hardened article.
EFFECT: artificial marble containing marble chips disclosed by the invention may have appearance and texture similar to that of synthetic stone, as well as good thermal processability and mouldability, which are advantages of acrylic artificial marble.
21 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: method and mixer are described for manufacture of manmade marble. Manmade marble, according to the first version, is produced by supply of the first composition, containing acrylic liquid resin, including one or more acryl monomers, inorganic filler and initiator of polymerisation, into the mixer. Mixer has shaft and one ore more blades or augers attached to shaft. Mixer does not have blades or augers on shaft in the area near inlet hole for supply of large particles. Large particles are supplied, which represent pieces of natural or manmade marble, into the mixer. The first composition and hard particles sent to the mixer are mixed. The second composition is produced. The second composition is moved to discharging hole of the mixer designed for unloading. Acrylic monomers contained in the second composition are polymerised to produce hardened composition, containing hard particles, and hardened composition is hardened to produce manmade marble. According to the second version, manmade marble is produced by movement of large particles, which represent pieces of manmade or natural marble or stone, and having size in the range from approximately 7 to approximately 100 mm, along channel. Then composition, containing acrylic liquid resin, including one or more acryl monomers, inorganic filler and initiator of polymerisation, is added to moved hard particles. Acrylic liquid resin is mixed with hard particles. Acrylic liquid resin is condensed in process of mixing. Fluid hard composition is produced, which contains hard particles distributed practically evenly. Fluid hard composition is hardened in mould to produce manmade marble. Mixer used to prepare composition for production of manmade marble includes inlet hole for supply of hard particles, inlet hole for supply of resin mixture, discharging hole for unloading of composition, containing hard particles and mixture of resins. Comprises shaft and one or more blades or augers attached to shaft with a certain pitch from each other for mixing and moving of composition towards unloading hole. Mixer does not have blades or augers in the area near inlet hole for supply of hard particles. Mixer is inclined towards discharging hole, and angle of inclination versus earth makes from approximately 5° to approximately 70°. Manmade marble produced with application of these methods and a mixer is also described.
EFFECT: manmade marble, due to even distribution of large particles, has new ornament.
34 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition contains 100 wt parts of acrylic resin, which represents a mixture of acrylic monomer with polyacrylate, where acrylic monomer is selected from group that consists of methacrylic acid, methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate, isopropyl methacrylate, n-butyl methacrylate and 2-ethyl hexylmethacrylate, from 0.1 to 5 wt parts of polyester film particles with a layer of metal deposited on it, having size from 0.001 to 2.5 mm, from 100 to 200 wt parts of inorganic filler selected from the group, which consists of calcium carbonate, aluminium hydroxide, silicon dioxide, aluminium oxide, barium sulfate and magnesium hydroxide and from 0.1 to 10 wt parts of polymerisation initiator. Besides particles of polyester film with a layer of metal deposited on it are produced by deposition of several metal layers onto surface of polyester film and by cutting or grinding of polyester film into powder together with metal deposited on it to obtain particles, thickness of deposited metal on particles of polyester film makes from 1 to 10 micrometre.
EFFECT: composition proposed for acrylic manmade marble provides for superb diffusive reflection of light when using particles of polyester film, on which several layers of metal are deposited, so that manmade marble has a new ornament.
7 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition is described for making foamed artificial marble, a method of making said foamed marble and an object from foamed artificial marble. The composition for making objects from foamed artificial marble contains 100 weight parts acrylic resin, from 10 to 80 weight parts solid particles, selected from a group which consists of inorganic filler, crushed marble and their mixture, where the inorganic filler is selected from a group which consists of calcium carbonate, aluminium hydroxide, silicon dioxide, aluminium oxide, magnesium hydroxide and their mixture, and from 0.1 to 10 weight parts polymerisation initiator. Fluidity of the composition lies in the range from 13 to 20 cm/min. The object made from foamed marble contains a first layer consisting of acrylic artificial marble, and a second layer with a foamed structure and made from the composition described above to obtain foamed artificial marble. The second layer is deposited on the first layer, obtaining a solid object.
EFFECT: object made from foamed artificial marble in accordance with the present invention is better than an object made from artificial marble of the same size due to less weight and good manufacturability.
8 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to artificial marble and a method of making said marble. Artificial marble contains a matrix, consisting of acrylic or unsaturated polyester resin, inorganic filler and transparent crushed marble, the surface of which is treated with colouring material. Artificial marble is made by adding transparent crushed marble, the surface of which is treated with colouring material, to a composition. This composition contains acrylic or unsaturated polyester resin and inorganic filler. The obtained composition is solidified and polished to expose the transparent part of the crushed artificial marble on the surface of the solidified composition.
EFFECT: obtained marble provides for a sparkling image, which resembles marble decorated with gem stones.
10 cl, 2 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: concrete mix includes Portland blast-furnace cement, ground blast-furnace slag with size of 0-5 mm and soda ash at the following ratio of ingredients, wt %: Portland blast-furnace cement 20-25; ground blast-furnace slag with size of 0-560-72; soda ash - balance.
EFFECT: reduced migration activity of heavy metals when used in medium with higher acidity, with preservation of strength, frost resistance of concrete products.