Electroanalytic system based on accumulative column biosensor for determination of low lactate concentrations
SUBSTANCE: system consists of two peristaltic pumps, a loop-containing injector, a flow amperometric cell with includes a biosensor, a potentiostat. As the biosensor, the electroanalytic system contains a lactate biosensor. The injector loop includes an accumulative column.
EFFECT: increase of selectivity and sensitivity of determination, reduction of the limit of lactate detection.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
The technical field to which the invention relates
The invention relates to electroanalytical systems. Electroanalytical system includes a flow detector type wall-jet (operating in continuous flow mode) with an integrated high-performance the lactate biosensor belonging to the class of electrochemical biosensors, as well as a column for sorption concentration. Concentration is based on ion exchange.
The level of technology
Lactate is one of the most important chemical compounds from the point of view of clinical diagnostics. It is a marker of glycolysis, anaerobic metabolism. leading to the death of tissues in the body. Sports medicine considers the monitoring of lactate as a means of determining the so-called "lactate threshold" [Faude, O., W. Kindermann, T. Meyer. Lactate threshold concepts: how valid are they? Sports Medicine 39 (2009) 469-90], [H. Heck, R. Beneke. 30 years of lactate thresholds - what remains to be done? Deutsche Zeitschrift Fur Sportmedizin 59 (2008) 297-302) showing the level of fitness of the athlete. Lactate as a product of fermentation [S. Q. Liu. Practical implications of lactate and pyruvate metabolism by lactic acid bacteria in food and beverage fermentations. International Journal of Food Microbiology 83 (2003) 115-31] may serve as a marker of natural food products.
Not surprisingly, the lactate-sensitive electrodes were among the first of biosensors [D. L. Williams, A. R. Doig, A. Korosi. Electrochemical-enzymatic analysis ofblood glucose and lactate. Analytical Chemistry 42 (1970) 118-21]. Subsequently, we have developed a large number lactate biosensors [I. Karube, T. Matsunaga, N. Teraoka, S. Suzuki. Microbioassay of phenylalanine in blood sera with a lactate electrode. Analytica Chemie 119 Acta (1980) 271-6], |M. Mascini, D. Moscone, G. Palleschi. A lactate electrode with lactate oxidase immobilized on nylon net for blood-serum samples in flow systems. Analytica Chemie Acta 157 (1984) 45-51], [F. Mizutani, K. Sasakl, Y. Shlmura. Sequential determination of l-lactate and lactate dehydrogenase with immobilized enzyme electrode. Analytical Chemistry 55 (1983) 35-8], [J. G. Schindler, M. Vongulich. L-lactate flow-through electrode with immobilized lactate oxidase. Fresenius Zeitschrift Fur Analytische Chemie 308 (1981) 434-6], [D. L. Wang, A. Heller. Miniaturized flexible amperometric lactate probe. Analytical Chemistry 65 (1993) 1069-73], including the last one with better analytical characteristics [I. E. Yashina, A. V. Borisova, E. E. Karyakina. O. I. Shchegolikhina, M. Y. Vagin, D. A. Sakharov, A. G. Tonevitsky, A. A. Karyakin. Sol-gel immobilization of lactate oxidase from organic solvent: advanced Toward the lactate biosensor. Analytical Chemistry 82 (2010) 1601-4]. However, for all known systems of the lower boundary of the designated content was not less than several micromoles. This, in particular, is not sufficient for non-invasive analysis of collected exhaled breath condensate, the lactate level in which, as reported in an article by E. M. Marek et al., is in the range of units of micromoles in a liter [E. M. Marek, J. Volke, I. Hawener, P. Platen, K. Muckenhoff, W. Marek. Measurements of lactate in exhaled breath condensate at rest and after maximal exercise in young and healthy subjects. Journal of Breath Research 4 (2010)].
In order to improve the analytical characteristics of the methods of analysis, namely the lowering of the detection limit�tion and increase the sensitivity and selectivity of widely used methods of concentration, based, in particular, ion exchange, when the designated substance is captured by a suitable sorbent in the cartridge or column, and then desorbed and determined in decorate [Q. Jia, X. Kong, W. Zhou, L. Bi Flow-injection on-line preconcentration with an ion-exchange resin coupled with microwave plasma torch atomic emission spectrometry for the determination of trace rare earth elements. Microchemistry 89 (2008) 82-87]. Such methods are simple hardware design, low cost and possibility of automation.
Analog of the invention is a system flow-injection analysis (FIA) based on a lactate biosensor with the best analytical characteristics described in [I. E. Yashina, A. V. Borisova, E. E. Karyakina, O. I. Shchegolikhina, M. Y. Vagin, D. A. Sakharov, A. G. Tonevitsky, A. A. Karyakin. Sol-gel immobilization of lactate oxidase from organic solvent: advanced Toward the lactate biosensor. Analytical Chemistry 82 (2010) 1601-4]. This electroanalytical system based biosensor consists of two peristaltic pumps, loop injector, flow-through amperometric cell type wall-jet with integrated biosensor potentiostat.
As already mentioned, existing lactate electroanalytical biosensors and systems based on them do not have sufficient sensitivity for non-invasive diagnostics and, in particular, analysis of exhaled breath condensate. Furthermore, hydrogen peroxide, is a mediator of the majority of biosensors, including those described in the prior art, �goes into the composition of many real objects and can distort the results of the determination of low concentrations of substances. Thus, there is also the need to improve the selectivity of the analysis.
Disclosure of invention
The problem solved by the authors of the present invention is the development of electroanalytical system for determination of lactate, which allows to determine low concentrations of lactate. The technical result of the invention consists in increasing the selectivity and detection sensitivity, lower limit of detection of lactate. The proposed system allows the non-invasive determination of the concentration of lactate, for example, when using as the test sample of sweat or urine. Said technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the injection loop included the concentrating column.
The proposed electroanalytical invention is a flow-injection system, including a system of pumping liquids containing a loop injector, flow-through electrochemical cell integrated with the lactate biosensor, the potentiostat and the Registrar of the signal, characterized in that to increase the sensitivity and selectivity of the analysis in a loop injector included the concentrating column.
Despite the apparent simplicity of the system, a combination of sorption of the concentrating column with the biosensor was represented extremely complex task�. The complexity of the development of the present invention is that, on the one hand, ion exchange little selective, and lactate is a pretty small hydrophilic molecule, so pick a selective method of concentration for him is extremely difficult. On the other hand, lactate biosensor sensitive to any changes in ionic strength. For the development of electroanalytical system and overcoming these difficulties is carefully selected scheme of the laboratory setup and the experimental conditions. Namely, we have studied the use of multiple ion-exchange sorbents; found that the most effective sorption of lactate is observed when the ion-exchange sorbents, well able to hold lactate, in particular sorbent Strata SAX silica gel grafted with Quaternary ammonium groups.
According to the present invention can be optimized volume column for concentration, because if you select too large speaker problems arise at the stage of sorption, and the use of small, low degree of extraction. The same can be optimized composition desorbers solution for quantitative sorption of lactate, which complicates the determination of lactate using biosensors. Private embodiment has been optimized volume passed�solution at all stages, the flow rate, column length 10 mm, diameter 2 mm.
The proposed electroanalytical system with preliminary concentration is shown schematically in the Figure. 1. It consists of pumping the liquid (which can be used two peristaltic pump, injector, flow-through electrochemical cell included with the lactate biosensor connected to the potentiostat and the Registrar of the signal. In a loop injector is enabled column for concentration. Private embodiment of the present invention, the electrochemical cell can be used amperometric flow cell. As a lactate biosensor can be used, for example, a planar electrode modified Prussian blue with immobilized enzyme lackadasical.
According to the present invention as a Registrar of the signal may be any device that provides a read signal, in particular a personal computer.
Electroanalytical system works as follows. In the experiment, the peristaltic pump (2) continuously circulates through the system supporting electrolyte from the vessel (9). When the handle position of the injector (3) in the "download" peristaltic pump (1) pump analyze Rast�the PR from the vessel (7) through the concentrating column (6), included in the loop of the injector (3), wherein the lactate from the test solution are adsorbed by aminoalkanoic filling column (6). After the aliquot of the test solution passes through the concentrating column (6) and go to the drain (8), the pen injector is rotated into the "injection", with a peristaltic pump (2) supporting electrolyte circulates from the vessel (9) through the concentrating column (6). At this stage, the desorption of lactate, which in concentrated towards the source of the analyzed solution form is pumped to lactate biosensors in flow-through amperometric cell (4). The potentiostat (5) registers a peak at amperograms.
The invention is illustrated by the following examples.
Brief description of the drawings
Figure 1 schematically shows a private version of the proposed electroanalytical system with preliminary concentration. It consists of two peristaltic pumps (1) and (2) of the injector (3), flow-through amperometric cell included with the lactate biosensor (4) connected to a personal computer potentiostat (5). In a loop injector (3) is enabled column for the concentration (6). Other positions on the drawing: (7) - a vessel for the test solution; and (8) - drain; (9) a vessel of the supporting electrolyte, which also serve as decor�youseo solution.
Figure 2 presents the calibration dependence of the analytical signal from the concentration of lactate in the sample for electroanalytical system based on the lactate biosensor concentration without it.
The implementation of the invention
Example 1. Determination of lactate in the system flow-injection analysis with preliminary concentration.
The experiments were carried out in the system of PIA in phosphate buffer (0.1 M KCl, 0.05 M KH2PO4, pH 6.0). The flow rate of buffer solution of 0.40 ml/min operating voltage 0.0 Rel. HSA (silver chloride electrode).
The calibration dependence of the analytical signal from the concentration of lactate in the sample for electroanalytical system based on the lactate biosensor concentration and without it is shown in Fig.2. It is seen that the system PIA concentration provides increased sensitivity 50 times and lower detection limit by more than an order.
According to available data, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate (SSC) does not exceed 5,0×10-3M.
Example 2. To increase the selectivity (for example, shaped sweat test).
The experiments were carried out in the system of PIA in phosphate buffer (0.1 M KCl, 0.05 M KH2PO4, pH 6.0). The flow rate of buffer solution of 0.40 ml/min operating voltage 0.0 Rel. HSA.
To increase the selectivity (for example, the sweat test sample) The analyzed sample The dilution time Method With lactate, M Sweat 500 PIA (P=0.95, n=4) (3.4±0,1)×10-2 Sweat + 2×10-4MH2O2 (4.6±0,3)×10-1 Sweat 25000 PIA+conc-e (R=0.95, n=3) (3.3±0,5)×10-2 Sweat + 2×10-3MH2O2 (3.4±0,6)×10-2
As can be seen from the table, hydrogen peroxide, even in large numbers does not interfere with the determination of lactate in the system PIA concentration.
Thus, achieved the claimed technical effect (increase the selectivity and detection sensitivity, lower detection limit).
1. Electroanalytical flow-injection system, including a system of pumping liquids containing a loop injector, flow-through electrochemical cell with integrated La�tatnam the biosensor, the potentiostat and the Registrar of the signal, characterized in that to increase the sensitivity and selectivity of the analysis in a loop injector included the concentrating column with ion exchange sorbent, well able to hold lactate.
2. Electroanalytical flow-injection system according to claim 1, characterized by the fact that as the sorbent used is ion exchange sorbent Strata SAX silica gel grafted with Quaternary ammonium groups.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: scope of application: for carbon monoxide detection in air. Invention consists in the following: manufacturing method includes obtaining nanocrystalline wide gap semiconducting oxides MeO (SnO2, ZnO, In2O3), obtaining sols of quantum dots of narrow gap semiconductors CdX (X=Se, Te, S) and oxides impregnation with sols of quantum dots followed by drying for formation of heterocontacts MO/CdX.
EFFECT: providing possibility of decrease of semiconductive sensor materials temperature to the room temperature upon detection of carbon monoxide in air and providing high sensitivity and low energy consumption of sensor.
FIELD: instrumentation technology.
SUBSTANCE: change of control of gas mixtures with different preset concentrations of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor is carried out in dynamic mode at constant and equal, equal to the predetermined, consumptions from different sources of control gas mixtures with different preset concentrations of the controlled component. Change of gas mixtures with different preset concentrations of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor and achievement of stabilisation of the output signal of the sensor, corresponding to the level of concentration of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor is provided at equal parameters of the control gas mixtures and for minimum time which is easily calculated and taken into account in determining the operation speed of the gas analytical sensor. This ensures accuracy of determining of the operation speed of the gas analytical sensor. Use of the dynamic mode of feeding the first gas mixture, as well as change of the first gas mixture to the second gas mixture during the testing of the gas analytical sensor enables to stabilise faster the predetermined concentration of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor and thus to ensure the constancy of pressure and composition of gas mixtures on the sensor element of the sensor, which increases the accuracy of evaluation of its operation speed. With this mode of feeding the gas mixtures the performance data of the gas reducers on the sources of feeding the control gas mixtures remain dynamic and do not affect the process of feeding the stable gas mixture at program switches of the valves.
EFFECT: increase in reliability of determining the operation speed of the gas analytical sensor by feeding to the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor of control gas mixtures stable in composition and pressure in dynamic mode.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: veterinary medicine.
SUBSTANCE: strip of filter paper with the width of 20 mm is attached on the filter, mounted in the ventilation system of the test livestock building, for a period of 4 hours. 1% sterile glucose solution is prepared on physiological solution, which is used as a nutrient medium. The strip of filter paper is placed in 10 ml solution of glucose and thermostated at the temperature 37±1°C for 2 hours. Then the electric conductivity of the solution is measured. The conclusion about the necessity in sanitary-hygienic processing of livestock buildings is made when the electric conductivity value is 287.3 mcS/cm, which corresponds to maximum allowable concentration of microorganisms in the air of the working area or below.
EFFECT: invention enables to determine reliably the microbiological environment in the buildings and to make the prompt conclusion about the necessity of sanitary-hygienic processing of livestock buildings.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to measurement equipment and can be applied in determination of electric parameters of space. Method involves placement of probe in the form of open flat capacitor screened from solar radiation by opaque screen, in space and feed of HF signals of definite frequency to the probe. Measurement data are obtained from the probe in the form of loss angle tangent and dielectric permeability of medium under examination, allowing for determination of attenuation rate per length unit for space.
EFFECT: possible determination of attenuation rate per length unit for space.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device for determining parameters of metal-dielectric structures, which contains a wave-guiding system connected to a cylindrical resonator, in the hole of which a coupling element is arranged, differs by the fact that the coupling element is of measurement type and made in the form of an adjustable quarter-wave frame, one end of which is connected to the housing of the cylindrical resonator, and the other one is made in the form of a nib point placed into a dielectric insert arranged in the holes of the cylindrical resonator housing and projecting beyond external boundaries of the resonator by the value that is smaller than length of a standing electromagnetic wave of the main type of the cylindrical resonator; the device includes additional coupling element intended for input/output of electromagnetic radiation of microwave range, which is made in the form of two metal quarter-wave frames connected to each other with one end and placed into a dielectric insert located in the holes between the wave-guiding system and the cylindrical resonator housing. The first frame is made so that its plane can be turned and the same frame is located in the inner cavity of the cylindrical resonator, and the second one is located in the wave-guiding system; other ends of frames are connected to the cylindrical resonator housing and the wave-guiding systems accordingly; in the wave-guiding system an arrangement is made for a one-dimensional waveguide microwave photonic crystal representing periodically alternating layers of two types; layers of the first type have constant value of relative dielectric permeability that is higher than one, and layers of the second type - close to one; total number of layers and number of layers of the second type - uneven; layers of the first type are extreme in the photonic crystal structure; thickness of layers of the first type is less than thickness of layers of the second type; sum of electrical lengths of layers of the first and the second types is equal to half length of an electromagnetic wave, which corresponds to the middle of the used frequency range; thickness of central layer of photonic crystal comprises one fourth of thickness of the layer of the second type.
EFFECT: improving sensitivity and enlarging functional capabilities.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method involves force action on the surface of a test object, recording of a set of electrical signals of input information with the information sensors installed on the test object; signals of the information sensors are determined with changes in force action on the surface of the test object. A use is made of information sensors installed on the test object and receiving changes in parameters of the test object, electronic filters to increase signal-to-noise ratio, which are connected to the outputs of the sensors and connected to the inputs of an electronic analogue circuit implementing a neural network model of reliable operation of the test object; with that, to another group of inputs of the electronic analogue circuit there connected is a unit for supply of a signal for retraining of a model with wears, and to its output there in-series connected is approximation unit of time dependences of sets of electrical signals, a shaping unit of time series of forecasts of reliable operation of the test object, an extrapolation unit of the value of the set of electrical signals at the output of the electronic analogue circuit till a limit value and determination of residual life, to the input of which an extrapolation model setting unit is connected.
EFFECT: improving reliability of forecast results; improving flexibility of the method and enlarging its application scope.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: system of localised control of combustible gas leaks by primary parameters of measuring devices includes stationary sensors-gas analysers of combustible gases, an automatic control system, comprising a unit of sound and light alarm, a unit of control of sensors-gas analysers. The system additionally includes a unit of automatic switching of gas supply from the main process line into a reserve one and back, air-conducting boxes with a common swirler, where air is injected with required parameters from an air blowing plant, making it possible to move a gas leak in a certain direction to serially arranged sensors-gas analysers, which will make it possible with a sufficient extent of accuracy to determine local arrangement of the available leak in the shortest possible time from the moment of its formation.
EFFECT: increased safety, timely, efficient and effective detection of a local leak point, reduced risk of gas concentration formation in the air.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of non-destructive control of materials and substances, measurement of statistic characteristics of random processes. A device to control materials and substances comprises serially connected a source of physical field, an element with a control object, a converter of physical field, and also the first and second conversion circuit, each of which comprises serially connected an accumulating averaging summator and a count block, at the same time the outlet of the first circuit is connected to the first inlet of a computing device, and the outlet of the second circuit is connected to the second inlet of the computing device, the first outlet of which is connected to inlets of strobing of accumulating averaging summators combined into a bus "Measurement time", the first multiplier, the first analogue-digital converter and the second analogue-digital converter, the second multiplier, the first controlled frequency multiplier, serially connected the second controlled frequency multiplier and the controlled phase changer, the outlet of which is connected to the second inlet of the second multiplier, the outlet of which is connected to the inlet of the second analogue-digital converter, and the first inlet of the multiplier is combined with the first inlet of the first multiplier and is connected to the outlet of the first controlled frequency multiplier, the inlet of which is connected to the outlet of the physical field converter, and the outlet of the source of physical field is connected to the inlet of the second controlled frequency multiplier, the outlet of which is connected to the second inlet of the first multiplier, the outlet of which is connected to the inlet of the first analogue-digital converter, in which the outlet is connected to the inlet of the first circuit of conversion, and the inlet of the second conversion circuit is connected to the outlet of the second analogue-digital converter, besides, control inlets of the first and second controlled frequency multiplier and controlled phase changer are combined into a bus "Plant Vm" and are connected to the second outlet of the computing device.
EFFECT: simplification of a circuit of a device for control of quality of materials and substances.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to facilities for monitoring of injury treatment process. A monitoring device comprises a unit of injury nitrogen oxide level monitoring, a unit of controlling signal generation by means of comparison of a nitrogen oxide level with preset threshold and unit of correction of light dosing for injury treatment, at the same time the monitoring unit is designed to detect magnetic field produced as a result of transition from Fe2+ into Fe3+, production of Fe3+ level in accordance with magnetic field, calculation of met Hb level in accordance with the level of Fe3+ and calculation of nitrogen oxide level in accordance with proportionate ratio between the level of met Hb and level of nitrogen oxide. The injury treatment device comprises several sources of light and a monitoring device.
EFFECT: using this invention makes it possible to correct treatment dose more accurately and conveniently, with minimum side effects.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means of efficient detection of poisoning substances and toxins and their instant neutralisation. Device contains microprocessor sets of first 16 and second 22 order, unit of template memory 17, units for detection of poisoning substances and toxins, audio-video system, and units of detection of poisoning substances and toxins are made in form of absorbing devices 3-7, which have sensors at outlet, which determine level of air environment contamination, outlets of sensors are connected to amplifiers-converters 11-15, connected with outlets-inlets with microprocessor set of first order 16, which is connected by outlets-inlets to unit of template memory 17, unit of question introduction 18 and microprocessor set of second order 22, unit of template memory 17 is connected by inlets-outlets to matrix field 21 in form of based on liquid crystals diode crystal lattice, unit of question introduction 18 is connected by inlets-outlets with unit of response analysis 19 and unit of analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of poisoning substances 20, which is connected by inlets-outlets to unit of response analysis and to matrix field 21, connected with inlets-outlets of unit of question introduction 18 and to microprocessor set of second order 22, connected by inlets-outlets with hazard warning unit 23, unit of analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of poisoning substances 20, matrix field 21 and unit of executive device 24 for neutralisation of poisoning substances and toxins, which is connected by outlets with executive mechanisms 25-27.
EFFECT: possibility of determining concentration of toxic materials and their neutralisation in the shortest terms and instant warning of people about hazard, ie maximally possible protection of people against impact of different toxins.
FIELD: thermal and nuclear power stations; meter calibration in extremely pure water of condensate type and power unit feedwater.
SUBSTANCE: for pH-meter calibration ammonia whose concentration varies by 1.5 - 2 times is dosed in working medium. Electric conductivity and temperature of working-medium H-cationized sample are measured. Measurement results are processed in computer with aid of set of equations characterizing ionic equilibrium in source sample and H-cationized samples. Calculated pH value is compared with measurement results.
EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability of meter calibration in extremely pure waters.
1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has housing provided with three cylinders made of a dielectric material. The housing receives the cylinder with a piston.
EFFECT: improved design.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science; evaluating water-physics properties of soils.
SUBSTANCE: porous probe communicating with water-filled tank is driven into soil, cathode is inserted in probe and anode, in soil. Voltage is applied to electrodes from dc power supply and soil moisture potential preventing water transfer from tank to soil is determined by measuring current between them.
EFFECT: reduced single measurement time due to eliminating escape of significant amount of water from measuring instrument.
1 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises measuring section made of dielectric pipe whose inner diameter is equal to the inner diameter of the pipeline, two electrodes which form a capacitor made of segments of the dielectric pipe, mounted diametrically opposite, and connected with the electronic unit. The electronic unit has a self-excited oscillator whose frequency-generating circuit includes the capacitor and device for processing frequencies with the indicator. The electrodes are arranged inside the dielectric pipe of the measuring section. The transverse length of each electrode can be greater than half inner diameter of the pipeline. The longitudinal length of each electrode may not exceed half length of the dielectric pipe.
EFFECT: enhanced sensitivity.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: analytical methods.
SUBSTANCE: electrodes of piezoelectric resonator are modified with menthol phenyl salicylate vaseline oil, recommended solvent being toluene, modifier film weight 5-20 μg, drying temperature 20-35°C, and drying time 40-48 h. The following gains in aromatic amine determination sensitivity are thus obtained: for aniline, from 282 to 368 Hz-m3/g; for o-tolidine, from 68 to 78 Hz-m3/g; for 9-nitroaniline, from 136 to 125 Hz-m3/g. Reductions in relative deviation are, respectively, 6.0 to 3.2%, 7.0 to 3.6%, and 6.0 to 4.3%, sensor response time is decreased by 5 times, regeneration time is decreased by 24 times, and aniline detection threshold is lowered from 0.84 to 0.11 Δ, g/m3.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity and accuracy of determination.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 11 ex
FIELD: scanning probe microscopy.
SUBSTANCE: scanning probe microscope has sample holder, first platform, onto which case is mounted, and piezoscanner. Elastic membrane is placed between case and piezoscanner. There is unit for preliminary bringing sample and probe together, as well as housing and probe fixer. The second platform is introduced into the scanner, onto which unit for preliminary bringing sample and probe together. Base and sample holder is put together with cup by means of first hole and the second hole. Second hole is connected with inert gas source. Cup is made of chemically-proof material. Case is made to be air-proof. Locker of the probe is fastened to piezoscanner. Housing is mounted onto cup for interaction with airtight case. Aerostatic plain bearing is formed between housing and airtight case. Sample holder, cup, housing, airtight case, elastic membrane and probe locker form all together closed cavity of electrochemical cell.
EFFECT: simplified exploitation; widened operational abilities.
11 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: detector can be used in concentration meters as positive and negative aeroiones. Aeroion concentration detector has bias voltage source and receiving probe. Detector additionally has two resistors connected in series, auxiliary electrode and electrometer for measuring output voltage that is proportional to measured concentration of aeroiones. Receiving probe has to be volumetric electrode made of metal grid inside which the auxiliary electrode is located. The latter is isolated from volumetric electrode.
EFFECT: improved functional abilities.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes mounting a sample between panels of capacitor converter of electromagnetic radiation, deforming thereof in loading device. Loading device has oppositely mounted in metallic body of loading device metallic rods, force detector and registration system. Compressing external force is applied to sample from first metallic rod through force detector body and it is destroyed due to reaction force of conic indenter of second metallic rod. Metallic body of loading device is a first plate of capacitor converter, second plate - second metallic rod, mounted in bushing of dielectric material, placed in metallic body. Stand has screen, frame, capacitor converter, loading device, force detector and registration system. Between ends of metallic rods force detector and sample are positioned. Second metallic rod is provided with conic indenter.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: analytical chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: sensor can be used for inspecting level of oxidants and antioxidants in liquid. Device for detecting absence or presence of reduction-oxidation reactive-capable analyzed matter in water sample has electro-chemical cell with sensor chamber, first and second electrodes, hole for introducing sample into sensor chamber and reagent placed inside sensor chamber. Electro-chemical cell is designed to be removable after usage in any unique experiment. Reagent is capable of subjecting to reduction-oxidation reaction directly with analyzed matter to generate electric signal indicating absence or presence of analyzed matter. Method of detecting level of reduction-oxidation reaction-capable matter is also proposed as well as method of measurement of sulfur dioxide in sample of vine and method of producing device mentioned before.
EFFECT: improved precision.
36 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology; criminology.
SUBSTANCE: main and ancillary electrodes are installed before procedure of getting imprints of dust trace. Voltage applied to main and ancillary electrodes is regulated within wide high-voltage range. Device for getting imprints of dust traces has electric charge storage, main and ancillary electrodes and connecting cable of ancillary electrode, mechanical unit driven into action by muscle force of expert. Mechanical unit is connected with mechanical energy/electric energy converter which is connected with electric charge storage. Main electrode is coated with insulating dielectric film and connected with electric charge storage.
EFFECT: improved exploitation characteristics; independence on external electric power sources; reduced chance of electric current shock.
2 cl, 2 dwg