Manufacturing method of gas sensor material for detection of carbon monoxide co without heating
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: scope of application: for carbon monoxide detection in air. Invention consists in the following: manufacturing method includes obtaining nanocrystalline wide gap semiconducting oxides MeO (SnO2, ZnO, In2O3), obtaining sols of quantum dots of narrow gap semiconductors CdX (X=Se, Te, S) and oxides impregnation with sols of quantum dots followed by drying for formation of heterocontacts MO/CdX.
EFFECT: providing possibility of decrease of semiconductive sensor materials temperature to the room temperature upon detection of carbon monoxide in air and providing high sensitivity and low energy consumption of sensor.
The technical field to which the invention relates
The invention relates to gas sensors, and specifically to devices, the detecting carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide) in the air. Carbon monoxide CO gas is colorless and odorless, is one of the most toxic air pollutants. The danger of carbon monoxide caused by its ability to chemically communicate with the hemoglobin of the blood is stronger than oxygen, thus blocked the process of oxygen transport and cellular respiration. At concentrations of 0.1% carbon monoxide completely paralyzes the breathing of humans and cause death. Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of carbon monoxide in the air of working zone is 20 mg/m3(17 ppm). The main sources of carbon monoxide are the processes of incomplete combustion, marked by numerous accidents with fatalities due to carbon monoxide poisoning in the tunnels because of the exhaust of cars and fires. Continuous monitoring of the concentration of carbon monoxide in the air is needed in the outer atmosphere and in space. Increased concentration of carbon monoxide may indicate the occurrence of fire and incomplete combustion of diesel fuel or gas for power generation and industrial installations, boilers of small capacity and in automotive engines internal�th combustion. The high concentration of CO in the air can also be caused by cigarette Smoking, which is especially dangerous in places of a mass congestion of people and transport.
The level of technology
For the detection of toxic gases in the air at the level of the MPC is widely used semiconductor resistive type sensors. The most widespread sensory devices based on thin films of nanocrystalline tin dioxide SnO2and zinc oxide ZnO. The mechanism of action of these devices is based on the change of electrical conductivity of the sensor layer as a result of chemical reactions on the surface, for example of the interaction of carbon monoxide with hammarbyhamnen oxygen at a temperature of 250-400°C. the Sensors based on SnO2and ZnO are characterized by high sensitivity, good responsiveness, and a number of other advantages. The design of the sensor includes a sensitive semiconductor layer on a dielectric substrate, a built-in Pt heater deposited as a thin film on the opposite side of the dielectric substrate and the electrical contacts for measuring the conductivity of the sensitive layer and the heater power. The heat sensitive layer is necessary for the activation of chemical reactions on the surface, increasing the conductivity chuvstvitelno� layer and desorption of the reaction products. The need for heat sensitive layer substantially complicates the design of the sensor increases its cost and power consumption. The high temperature of the sensitive layer in the process of detecting carbon monoxide is an additional source of danger, which significantly limits their range of applications, eliminating the use of semiconductor sensors in fire detectors and alarm systems in transport.
For the purpose of lowering the operating temperature of the sensor used catalysts based on platinum group metals (Pd, Pt), which is in the form of clusters is applied to the surface of the sensitive layer. Lower operating temperatures is due to the spill-over effect of the gas molecules and reduce the activation energy of the reaction with hammarbyhamnen oxygen on the catalytic clusters (Gas Sensor Based on Semiconductor Metal Oxides, in Metal Oxides. Chemistry and Applications, Ed. J. L. G. Fierro, Taylor&Francis, 2006, p.683) In some cases it is possible to lower the operating temperature of the sensor to 150°C, however, to completely get rid of the heater upon detection of carbon monoxide fails.
Known sensor device (Publication WO 2006088477 A2 2006) in which to activate the processes of interaction of semiconductor gas instead of heating used source of narrow-band light radiation. It is assumed that in �the parameters by the nature of the gas under various necessary light energy to excite the complex of gas molecules with the surface of the semiconductor. At a certain energy, selective for a pair of semiconductor - analyzed gas, the activation reaction on the surface and the change of the electrical resistance of the sensitive layer is proportional to the concentration of gas in air. A significant disadvantage of the device is its high cost and large size due to the necessity of using narrow-band light sources in the infrared range (lasers) for the excitation of molecular complexes on the surface of the semiconductor.
The closest in technical essence and the achieved effect is the way of the sensor material (Publication WO 2009037289 2009 A1) for detecting the carbon monoxide wereda and vapors of volatile organic compounds in the air without heating, in which to activate the processes of interaction of a sensitive layer with gases, a source of ultraviolet radiation (UV). The sensor in this case includes a layer of nanocrystalline zinc oxide with a grain size of 50-100 nm, deposited on an insulating substrate with the measuring electrodes and a built-in UV light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 360-400 nm. The specified device provides sensitivity to the PPT range of concentrations of carbon monoxide and other organic molecules in the air at room temperature (25°C). Ultraviolet and�radiation causes excitation of electronic levels of zinc oxide, that reduces the electrical resistance of zinc oxide and activation reactions on the surface. The disadvantages of the proposed device are significant the return of electrical properties of zinc oxide in the initial state, usually 10-30 minutes. In addition, the UV radiation may be an additional source of danger when using a sensor in a flammable atmosphere.
Disclosure of invention
The technical result of the present invention is to decrease the operating temperature of the semiconductor sensor materials to room upon detection of carbon monoxide in the air while providing high sensitivity and low power consumption of the sensor.
The implementation of the invention
The task was solved by the present invention. A method of manufacturing a material gas sensor for detection of carbon monoxide in the air WITH no heat, including the production of nanocrystalline wide band gap semiconductor oxides MeO (SnO2, ZnO, In2O3), obtaining a colloidal solution of quantum dots narrow-gap semiconductors CdX (X=Se, Te, S) and impregnated with oxides of the colloidal solution of quantum dots, followed by drying prior to formation of heterocontacts MeO/CdX. In a preferred embodiment, the resulting material is applied on an insulating substrate of polycrystalline oxide� aluminum with a platinum measuring electrode and a built-in light-emitting diode with a wavelength in the range 455-532 nm.
A method of manufacturing a material gas sensor for detection of carbon monoxide is carried out without heating according to the invention by obtaining nanocrystalline ceramics wide band gap semiconductor oxides SnO2, ZnO, In2O3. The resulting material is applied on an insulating substrate made of polycrystalline alumina with the measuring electrodes in the form of a paste with a binder, which is used as a solution of a-terpineol in alcohol, and then produce heating of the paste at a temperature of 450°C-500°C for 6 hours to remove the binder. Sensitization sensitive layer is impregnated oxide Sol and colloidal quantum dots narrow-gap semiconductors CdSe, CdS, CdTe, followed by drying at a temperature of 50°C until the formation of heterocontact quantum dots with a wide band gap matrix.
In a preferred embodiment, the nanocrystalline oxides SnO2, In2O3or ZnO obtained by Sol-gel from aqueous solutions of the corresponding chlorides, nitrates or acetates using as gidrolizuemye agent ammonia solution at pH 7-8. Sols quantum dots obtained by colloidal synthesis using trioctylphosphine (source of selenium) and cadmium oleate (source of cadmium in the environment nonpolar high�okipage organic solvent using as the stabilizer of oleic acid. Impregnation of nanocrystalline oxides by Sol quantum dots was carried out for 60 minutes to achieve a concentration of quantum dots in the oxide matrix is not less than 1 mass%.
It is possible to increase the concentration of quantum dots in oxide matrix using mercaptopropionic acid as a linker for immobilization of quantum dots on the surface of oxide nanocrystals. To this end nanocrystalline oxide matrix was treated with a solution of mercaptopropionic acid in ethanol for 60 minutes at room temperature. After that, the oxide matrix impregnated with the Sol narrow-gap quantum dots of cadmium chalcogenides. It is possible to increase the concentration of quantum dots in oxide matrix to 2.2 wt.%.
As a result of synthesis get sensitized materials consisting of a matrix of semiconductor oxide crystallite size of 3-15 nm to immobilized on the surface of narrow-gap quantum dots of cadmium chalcogenides. The content of the quantum dots in oxide matrix is 1-2 wt.%.
Depending on the composition can be obtained in different sensitized materials: SnO2/CdSe, SnO2/CdTe, SnO2/CdS, ZnO/CdSe, ZnO/CdTe, ZnO/CdS, In2O3/CdSe, In2O3/CdTe, In2O3/CdS.
Obtained in this way sensitized mother�crystals have advantages in creating gas sensors. The introduction of narrow-gap nanocrystals (quantum dots (CdTe, CdSe, CdS) in wide band gap matrix (ZnO SnO2, In2O3) increases the photosensitivity of the material in the visible spectrum, this increases the coefficient of light extinction and increases the efficiency of charge separation in the material. The ability to control the spectral sensitivity of materials by changing the size of quantum dots allows you to control chemical processes on the surface of materials, which is especially important for increasing the selectivity of chemical sensors. Electronic structure of semiconductor heterojunction in this case leads to the fact that the electron and the hole is energetically favorable in different parts of the structure. Varying the sizes of the nanoparticles to control the processes of charge separation and to control not only the spectral position of the optical transition, but also the time of recombination and the extinction coefficients of the. The excitation source can be used built-in light emitting diode with a power of 10 mW.
When exposed on the sensitized material light in the visible spectrum the excitation of electronic levels in narrow-gap quantum dots, which leads to the formation of electron - hole pairs (excitons), the separation of carriers and electron transfer� in the conduction band of the wide-gap oxide, this decreases the conductivity of the material. In the presence of trace concentrations of carbon monoxide in the air, exposure to light leads to the activation of chemical reactions of carbon monoxide with hammarbyhamnen oxygen on the surface of the material at room temperature. The result of these reactions is an additional reduction of the resistance of a material is proportional to the concentration of carbon monoxide, which is measured to determine the sensor signal. In air in the absence of carbon monoxide electrical properties of sensitized materials are returned to the initial state. Repeated Cycling of atmospheric composition: clean air/20 ppm WITH evidence of complete reversibility of the effect of the change in the electrical resistance.
The sensory materials used for the manufacture and testing of gas sensors, materials were applied to microelectronic chip that includes as major elements of the insulating substrate of polycrystalline Al2O3with a platinum measuring electrode and a built-in light emitting diode with a wavelength of 532 nm. The sensitive layer of sensitized materials applied between the measuring electrodes. Sensory properties were determined by measuring the resistance CHUV�twitterlogo layer under exposure to light with a duration of the light pulse 30 sec.
The sensor signal was calculated as the ratio of the conductivity sensor in terms of exposure to light at room temperature in the presence of the carbon monoxide in the air to the conductivity sensor on the air. It is established that proposed by the present invention, the materials exhibit high sensitivity to airborne levels of carbon monoxide at the level of maximum permissible concentrations of the working area.
The invention is illustrated by the following examples:
Example 1. Detection WITH sensitized material SnO2/CdSe at room temperature under conditions of irradiation light emitting diode with a wavelength of 532 nm. For sensitization used CdSe quantum dots having a maximum absorption near 532 nm.
The sensors on the basis of sensitized materials SnO2/CdSe connected to the device for simultaneous measurement of electrical conductivity of 4 sensors were placed in the cell in which you passed the clean air and then a gas mixture containing 20 ppm CO in air. Since carbon monoxide is the gas-reducing agent, in the presence WITH the electrical conductivity of the sensitive layer of n-type conductivity increased, and in an atmosphere of clean air decreased. Detection was performed WITH without heating at room temperature when exposed to light built-in light emitting diode with a wavelength of 532 n�. Investigation of sensory properties were carried out under cyclic change of the air flow and the flow of the gas mixture containing CO. The total gas flow over the sensor remained constant and was 100 ml/min.
- as a result of exposure to light in an atmosphere of clean air conductivity sensor, consisting of SnO2without applying a photosensitizer, rose 12 times; conductivity sensor, quantum dots sensitized, increased 10 times.
- as a result of exposure to light in the presence of 20 ppm CO in air conductivity sensor without applying the photosensitizer rose 12 times; conductivity sensor, quantum dots sensitized, increased by 53 times.
Example 2. Detection WITH sensitized material ZnO/CdS at room temperature under conditions of irradiation light emitting diode with a wavelength of 455 nm. For sensitization used CdS quantum dots having a maximum absorption near 470 nm.
Sensors based on nanocrystalline photosensibilisation ZnO was placed in a cell for simultaneous measurement of electrical conductivity of 4 sensors. Through the cell passed the clean air containing CO at a concentration of 240 ppm; total gas flow over the sensor was constant and was 100 ml/min., the Sensors are alternately exposed CBE�and, this was fixed tenovuo conductivity sensor and the conductivity increases under the action of laser radiation.
The experiment is installed:
- as a result of exposure to light in an atmosphere of clean air conductivity sensor, consisting of ZnO without applying a photosensitizer, increased 15-fold; a conductivity sensor, quantum dots sensitized increased 18-fold.
- as a result of exposure to light in air containing 240 ppm CO, conductivity sensor without applying a photosensitizer, has increased 20 times, conductivity sensor, quantum dots sensitized, increased by 177 times.
1. A method of manufacturing a material gas sensor for detection of carbon monoxide in the air WITH no heat, including the production of nanocrystalline wide band gap semiconductor oxides MeO (SnO2, ZnO, In2O3), obtaining a colloidal solution of quantum dots narrow-gap semiconductors CdX (X=Se, Te, S) and impregnated with oxides of the colloidal solution of quantum dots, followed by drying prior to formation of heterocontacts MeO/CdX.
2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the material is additionally applied to an insulating substrate made of polycrystalline alumina with a platinum measuring electrode and a built-in light emitting diode with a length �any in the range 455-532 nm.
FIELD: instrumentation technology.
SUBSTANCE: change of control of gas mixtures with different preset concentrations of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor is carried out in dynamic mode at constant and equal, equal to the predetermined, consumptions from different sources of control gas mixtures with different preset concentrations of the controlled component. Change of gas mixtures with different preset concentrations of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor and achievement of stabilisation of the output signal of the sensor, corresponding to the level of concentration of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor is provided at equal parameters of the control gas mixtures and for minimum time which is easily calculated and taken into account in determining the operation speed of the gas analytical sensor. This ensures accuracy of determining of the operation speed of the gas analytical sensor. Use of the dynamic mode of feeding the first gas mixture, as well as change of the first gas mixture to the second gas mixture during the testing of the gas analytical sensor enables to stabilise faster the predetermined concentration of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor and thus to ensure the constancy of pressure and composition of gas mixtures on the sensor element of the sensor, which increases the accuracy of evaluation of its operation speed. With this mode of feeding the gas mixtures the performance data of the gas reducers on the sources of feeding the control gas mixtures remain dynamic and do not affect the process of feeding the stable gas mixture at program switches of the valves.
EFFECT: increase in reliability of determining the operation speed of the gas analytical sensor by feeding to the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor of control gas mixtures stable in composition and pressure in dynamic mode.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: veterinary medicine.
SUBSTANCE: strip of filter paper with the width of 20 mm is attached on the filter, mounted in the ventilation system of the test livestock building, for a period of 4 hours. 1% sterile glucose solution is prepared on physiological solution, which is used as a nutrient medium. The strip of filter paper is placed in 10 ml solution of glucose and thermostated at the temperature 37±1°C for 2 hours. Then the electric conductivity of the solution is measured. The conclusion about the necessity in sanitary-hygienic processing of livestock buildings is made when the electric conductivity value is 287.3 mcS/cm, which corresponds to maximum allowable concentration of microorganisms in the air of the working area or below.
EFFECT: invention enables to determine reliably the microbiological environment in the buildings and to make the prompt conclusion about the necessity of sanitary-hygienic processing of livestock buildings.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to measurement equipment and can be applied in determination of electric parameters of space. Method involves placement of probe in the form of open flat capacitor screened from solar radiation by opaque screen, in space and feed of HF signals of definite frequency to the probe. Measurement data are obtained from the probe in the form of loss angle tangent and dielectric permeability of medium under examination, allowing for determination of attenuation rate per length unit for space.
EFFECT: possible determination of attenuation rate per length unit for space.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device for determining parameters of metal-dielectric structures, which contains a wave-guiding system connected to a cylindrical resonator, in the hole of which a coupling element is arranged, differs by the fact that the coupling element is of measurement type and made in the form of an adjustable quarter-wave frame, one end of which is connected to the housing of the cylindrical resonator, and the other one is made in the form of a nib point placed into a dielectric insert arranged in the holes of the cylindrical resonator housing and projecting beyond external boundaries of the resonator by the value that is smaller than length of a standing electromagnetic wave of the main type of the cylindrical resonator; the device includes additional coupling element intended for input/output of electromagnetic radiation of microwave range, which is made in the form of two metal quarter-wave frames connected to each other with one end and placed into a dielectric insert located in the holes between the wave-guiding system and the cylindrical resonator housing. The first frame is made so that its plane can be turned and the same frame is located in the inner cavity of the cylindrical resonator, and the second one is located in the wave-guiding system; other ends of frames are connected to the cylindrical resonator housing and the wave-guiding systems accordingly; in the wave-guiding system an arrangement is made for a one-dimensional waveguide microwave photonic crystal representing periodically alternating layers of two types; layers of the first type have constant value of relative dielectric permeability that is higher than one, and layers of the second type - close to one; total number of layers and number of layers of the second type - uneven; layers of the first type are extreme in the photonic crystal structure; thickness of layers of the first type is less than thickness of layers of the second type; sum of electrical lengths of layers of the first and the second types is equal to half length of an electromagnetic wave, which corresponds to the middle of the used frequency range; thickness of central layer of photonic crystal comprises one fourth of thickness of the layer of the second type.
EFFECT: improving sensitivity and enlarging functional capabilities.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method involves force action on the surface of a test object, recording of a set of electrical signals of input information with the information sensors installed on the test object; signals of the information sensors are determined with changes in force action on the surface of the test object. A use is made of information sensors installed on the test object and receiving changes in parameters of the test object, electronic filters to increase signal-to-noise ratio, which are connected to the outputs of the sensors and connected to the inputs of an electronic analogue circuit implementing a neural network model of reliable operation of the test object; with that, to another group of inputs of the electronic analogue circuit there connected is a unit for supply of a signal for retraining of a model with wears, and to its output there in-series connected is approximation unit of time dependences of sets of electrical signals, a shaping unit of time series of forecasts of reliable operation of the test object, an extrapolation unit of the value of the set of electrical signals at the output of the electronic analogue circuit till a limit value and determination of residual life, to the input of which an extrapolation model setting unit is connected.
EFFECT: improving reliability of forecast results; improving flexibility of the method and enlarging its application scope.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: system of localised control of combustible gas leaks by primary parameters of measuring devices includes stationary sensors-gas analysers of combustible gases, an automatic control system, comprising a unit of sound and light alarm, a unit of control of sensors-gas analysers. The system additionally includes a unit of automatic switching of gas supply from the main process line into a reserve one and back, air-conducting boxes with a common swirler, where air is injected with required parameters from an air blowing plant, making it possible to move a gas leak in a certain direction to serially arranged sensors-gas analysers, which will make it possible with a sufficient extent of accuracy to determine local arrangement of the available leak in the shortest possible time from the moment of its formation.
EFFECT: increased safety, timely, efficient and effective detection of a local leak point, reduced risk of gas concentration formation in the air.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of non-destructive control of materials and substances, measurement of statistic characteristics of random processes. A device to control materials and substances comprises serially connected a source of physical field, an element with a control object, a converter of physical field, and also the first and second conversion circuit, each of which comprises serially connected an accumulating averaging summator and a count block, at the same time the outlet of the first circuit is connected to the first inlet of a computing device, and the outlet of the second circuit is connected to the second inlet of the computing device, the first outlet of which is connected to inlets of strobing of accumulating averaging summators combined into a bus "Measurement time", the first multiplier, the first analogue-digital converter and the second analogue-digital converter, the second multiplier, the first controlled frequency multiplier, serially connected the second controlled frequency multiplier and the controlled phase changer, the outlet of which is connected to the second inlet of the second multiplier, the outlet of which is connected to the inlet of the second analogue-digital converter, and the first inlet of the multiplier is combined with the first inlet of the first multiplier and is connected to the outlet of the first controlled frequency multiplier, the inlet of which is connected to the outlet of the physical field converter, and the outlet of the source of physical field is connected to the inlet of the second controlled frequency multiplier, the outlet of which is connected to the second inlet of the first multiplier, the outlet of which is connected to the inlet of the first analogue-digital converter, in which the outlet is connected to the inlet of the first circuit of conversion, and the inlet of the second conversion circuit is connected to the outlet of the second analogue-digital converter, besides, control inlets of the first and second controlled frequency multiplier and controlled phase changer are combined into a bus "Plant Vm" and are connected to the second outlet of the computing device.
EFFECT: simplification of a circuit of a device for control of quality of materials and substances.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to facilities for monitoring of injury treatment process. A monitoring device comprises a unit of injury nitrogen oxide level monitoring, a unit of controlling signal generation by means of comparison of a nitrogen oxide level with preset threshold and unit of correction of light dosing for injury treatment, at the same time the monitoring unit is designed to detect magnetic field produced as a result of transition from Fe2+ into Fe3+, production of Fe3+ level in accordance with magnetic field, calculation of met Hb level in accordance with the level of Fe3+ and calculation of nitrogen oxide level in accordance with proportionate ratio between the level of met Hb and level of nitrogen oxide. The injury treatment device comprises several sources of light and a monitoring device.
EFFECT: using this invention makes it possible to correct treatment dose more accurately and conveniently, with minimum side effects.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means of efficient detection of poisoning substances and toxins and their instant neutralisation. Device contains microprocessor sets of first 16 and second 22 order, unit of template memory 17, units for detection of poisoning substances and toxins, audio-video system, and units of detection of poisoning substances and toxins are made in form of absorbing devices 3-7, which have sensors at outlet, which determine level of air environment contamination, outlets of sensors are connected to amplifiers-converters 11-15, connected with outlets-inlets with microprocessor set of first order 16, which is connected by outlets-inlets to unit of template memory 17, unit of question introduction 18 and microprocessor set of second order 22, unit of template memory 17 is connected by inlets-outlets to matrix field 21 in form of based on liquid crystals diode crystal lattice, unit of question introduction 18 is connected by inlets-outlets with unit of response analysis 19 and unit of analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of poisoning substances 20, which is connected by inlets-outlets to unit of response analysis and to matrix field 21, connected with inlets-outlets of unit of question introduction 18 and to microprocessor set of second order 22, connected by inlets-outlets with hazard warning unit 23, unit of analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of poisoning substances 20, matrix field 21 and unit of executive device 24 for neutralisation of poisoning substances and toxins, which is connected by outlets with executive mechanisms 25-27.
EFFECT: possibility of determining concentration of toxic materials and their neutralisation in the shortest terms and instant warning of people about hazard, ie maximally possible protection of people against impact of different toxins.
SUBSTANCE: method for determination of pipeline technical condition consists in technical condition integral characteristic quantitative evaluation from which pipeline state is evaluated and corresponding corrective measures are planned. To determine mentioned integral characteristic in-line inspection (ILI) and integrated corrosive survey of pipeline is performed. From results of ILI, proportion factor between technical condition characteristic and relative quantity of defective pipes is established depending on pipeline diameter. Pipeline integrated corrosive survey is performed by measuring electric current from external source along pipeline route with interval not exceeding 10 m. According to obtained data, proportion factor between relative quantity of defective pipes and relative length of damaged protective coating. From determined parameters, technical condition integral characteristic is determined which describes pipeline damage.
EFFECT: higher quality of pipeline reconstruction, repair and technical diagnosis planning.
1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to surgery and diagnostic research methods, in particular to intraoperative visualisation. The targeted delivery of conjugates of nano-sized anti-Stokes phosphori (NAP) with molecules, selectively binding with a target biostructure, subjected to visualisation is carried out. Irradiation of a pathological focus by infra-red radiation in the range of 975-980 nm is carried out. Intraoperative visualisation of the luminescence of the surface and subsurface pathological foci is performed in the blue spectral range by the naked eye. Deep optic probing by means of an optic probe is performed to register the pathological foci, located at the depth, mainly, in the infra-red spectral range.
EFFECT: method provides high sensitivity of the differentiation of the pathological foci from normal tissues, high resolution of visualisation, makes it possible to differentiate the surface and subsurface pathological foci by the naked eye, and the pathological foci, located at the depth, by means of the optic probe.
4 cl, 3 ex, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: molecular fullerene C60 or fullerene-containing soot with an additive of a sulphur-containing compound is subjected to pressure of 0.2-12 GPa and temperature of 0-2000°C. The sulphur-containing compound used is carbon sulphide, a mercaptan group compound or a product of reacting a mercaptan group compound and elementary sulphur. The structure of the obtained high-hardness carbon material is formed by covalently bonded layers of fullerene molecules which are two-dimensionally polarised along a second-order axis of rotation.
EFFECT: hardness of the obtained material is greater than 10 GPa.
4 cl, 5 dwg, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of optical nanotechnologies, optical instrument-making, rocket, space, laser optics, quantum and optical nanoelectronics, useful for display, television and medical technology. The optical coating is a thin layer (100 nm or less) coating based on carbon nanotubes with the magnitude of inhomogeneities on the nanometer level. For application of carbon nanotubes on the substrate a slot CO2-laser is used with the laser beam controlled in power. The optical element consists of the coating based on carbon nanotubes and a hygroscopic substrate. The substrates of KBr, NaCl, KCl are used for providing functioning of this optical coating up to the middle infrared region of the spectrum. The coating is able to function in the infrared regions of the spectrum.
EFFECT: increased moisture resistance of the coating.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to optical sensors recording molecular groups and working in the visible frequency range. A renewable carrier for surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection consists of nanostructured SERS-carrier and a passive dielectric layer.
EFFECT: invention enables eliminating the temporary degradation of the working surface exposing on the atmosphere, increasing the useful life of the SERS-carrier for molecular group detection.
SUBSTANCE: usage: for production of materials based on semiconductors, dielectrics and metals, as a stable material or metastable phase-precursor of this material. The essence of the invention consists in that the composite nanomaterial comprises structural elements different in atomic composition, the regions of adjacent structural elements adjacent to each other consist of sub-elements heterogeneous in structure, which at least in one direction have sizes that are multiple to the lattice constant and/or quarter of wavelength of valence electrons in their or adjacent structural elements.
EFFECT: ensuring the possibility of forming in the composite nanomaterial of nanostructured (low- or nano-sized) state.
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to nanoelectronics, and more specifically - to field transistors with a flash memory cell under the gate. The said transistor, based on a heterostructure, contains a source and a drain on the baseplate, contacts, placed onto the source and drain, a channel, a gate with a memory cell. The latter comprises the first dielectric layer, adjacent to the gate, the second dielectric layer, adjacent to the channel, and a layer of a non-magnetic dielectric material with 3d metal nanoparticles distributed within it. The particles are 2-5 mm in size and their quantity is 20-60 at %. This layer is placed between the first and the second dielectric layers.
EFFECT: higher switching speed of the transistor and prolonged storage time of the recorded information.
6 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: according to the method magnetic nanoparticles and glutaric dialdehyde are added to a polymer in a phosphate buffer under conditions of an alternating magnetic field, then, peptised and activated particles are three times washed with a phosphate buffer solution, depositing them under the influence of a constant magnet, the activated particles are mixed with an anti-analite solution for conjugation under conditions of the alternating magnetic field, after which the conjugate is washed three times by deposition-resuspension in the phosphate buffer solution, alternating the action of constant and alternating magnetic fields.
EFFECT: obtaining strong functional conjugates which can serve as a basis for the creation of effective instrument-free systems for simplified diagnostic testing.
SUBSTANCE: non-woven polymer nanofibrous material is obtained from a moulding solution based on polyhydroxybutyrate, the composition of which contains nanocrystalline silicon in a quantity of 0.1-1.5 wt %, and a technological additive, which represents salt of tetrabutylammonium iodide, dissolved in a mixture of chloroform and formic acid in the concentration of 1 g/l.
EFFECT: obtained polymeric non-woven composite material has an increased strength and resistance to UV-radiation.
SUBSTANCE: buckwheat seed presowing treatment agent is obtained from natural aluminosilicates-zeolites in the form of a nanostructured aqueous zeolite suspension consisting of nanoparticles with size of less than 100 nm.
EFFECT: high buckwheat yield.
23 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composite nanomaterials and can be applied in instrument making for production of materials based on semi-conductors, dielectrics and metals. Composite material, obtained by vacuum depositing of film from ultra-thin layers of nanosize width on bearing substrate, contains bearing substrate, made from monocrystalline silicon with orientation of cut plane (111) or (001), and layers of nanosize width, made from transition metal Co, Fe or Cr, with film having non-homogeneous in density atomic structure with variable by width and surface density of chemical bonds.
EFFECT: application of claimed invention provides possibility of obtaining composite nanomaterials with novel or improved consumer properties due to formation of non-homogeneous nanostructure condition in composite nanomaterial.
FIELD: magnetic materials whose axial symmetry is used for imparting magnetic properties to materials.
SUBSTANCE: memory element has nanomagnetic materials whose axial symmetry is chosen to obtain high residual magnetic induction and respective coercive force. This enlarges body of information stored on information media.
EFFECT: enhanced speed of nonvolatile memory integrated circuits for computers of low power requirement.
4 cl, 8 dwg