Protective coating for hygroscopic optical materials based on laser-precipitable carbon nanotubes for purposes of optoelectronics and medical equipment

FIELD: nanotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of optical nanotechnologies, optical instrument-making, rocket, space, laser optics, quantum and optical nanoelectronics, useful for display, television and medical technology. The optical coating is a thin layer (100 nm or less) coating based on carbon nanotubes with the magnitude of inhomogeneities on the nanometer level. For application of carbon nanotubes on the substrate a slot CO2-laser is used with the laser beam controlled in power. The optical element consists of the coating based on carbon nanotubes and a hygroscopic substrate. The substrates of KBr, NaCl, KCl are used for providing functioning of this optical coating up to the middle infrared region of the spectrum. The coating is able to function in the infrared regions of the spectrum.

EFFECT: increased moisture resistance of the coating.

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The present invention relates to the field of optical nanotechnology, optical instrument, missile, space, laser optics, quantum and optical nanoelectronics, useful for display, television, and medical equipment that require high transmission optical elements, including in the infrared range of the spectrum, good optical quality, high mechanical strength, reduced surface roughness. The optical coating is a thin layer (100 nm and less) coating based on carbon nanotubes (CNTS). For the deposition of carbon nanotubes on a substrate is used slab CO2laser with controlled radiation power of the laser beam. The optical element consists of a coating based on carbon nanotubes and hygroscopic substrate. A substrate of KBr, NaCl, KCl are used to ensure operation of this optical coatings in the infrared range of the spectrum, which allows spectral and energy work area optoelectronic systems, and to visualization and testing of biological objects (human blood cell) in the electromagnetic fields of the IR range.

The technical result of the invention is the increased resistance of the coating. When the operation of this optical coatings leveled gr is specially phases: solid substrate-coating, due to the covalent bindings of the coating to the substrate and alignment indices of refraction of the coating and the substrate, which leads, resulting in increased resistance of the element as a whole in a humid atmosphere.

The invention relates to the field of infrared spectroscopy, where you need to work on certain operating wavelengths in the region of transparency of the atmosphere. The invention relates to the field of optical instrumentation, to the design of optical elements filters and protective glasses that require high transmission optical elements and their high wear resistance and moisture resistance where high adhesion of the protective or svetopropusknaya of the coating to the substrate surface to prevent scratches, microscopic cracks, and other defects, which significantly changes the process of passing the light beam through these optical elements.

Optical coating is an essential functional element of the spectral and laser systems capable of managing the flow of radiation of different intensity, taking into account processes of reflection, absorption, interference, refraction and limitations of light beams in real time [1-4]. The optical characteristics of the coating are determined by the spectral parameters, adhesion to the substrate surface, geometrical dimensions, Rel is efom surface, the refractive index, the laser strength, and also depend on the consistent choice of the type of substrate to be coated, its refractive index, surface roughness of the substrate.

A known design of a thin-film coating, is selected as the analogue of [5], where the floor with minimal absorption and scattering of radiation created by obtaining loose layers of coating with amorphous or monocrystalline structure. This coating was formed using multiple deposition of monolayers on padoku heated to a temperature not exceeding the temperature of the destruction and alteration of substrate material and previous layers of the coating. The coating was formed by condensation of vapors of the film-forming material and depositing them on a substrate. In the experiment the authors [5] the substrate was heated to a temperature of 50-100°C, determined the upper limit of condensation deposited material, the maximum temperature was 150 to 200°C, which was determined by the lower boundary of the condensation. A disadvantage of known construction coverage is: a narrow temperature range heating the substrate, lack of uniformity of the surface topography of the coating and the presence of scattered radiation, which indicates a significant surface roughness and complicates the application of this is coverage in systems with high transmittance in the UV, visible and near IR regions of the spectrum.

Known for the design of thin film coatings and optical element, selected as a prototype [6], where the optical element consists of protrusions and recesses, and the protrusions have an irregular shape, bumps and grooves which form a light trap, and thus large-scale surface formed by the second layer of small inhomogeneities. The characteristic size of projections and hollows of large-scale inhomogeneities in the 10-100 times greater than the wavelength of the Lyman-alpha and the size of the small-scale inhomogeneities on average equal to the length (less than 200 nm). The disadvantage of this design was insufficient spectral range of the optical element (the range is limited only by the blue and UV region of the spectrum), and the use of a two-layer coating, which creates a clear phase boundary: solid substrate-coating and hence reduces the light transmission, reduces the uniformity of the coating increases light scattering on the rough surface.

The technical result of the invention is the increased resistance of the coating, leveling phase boundary: solid substrate-coating, increasing the light transmission of optical coatings and optical element in the infrared region of the spectrum, increasing homogeneous the STI, mechanical and laser strength, reduced surface roughness.

This result is achieved in that in the known device, the construction of which consists of 2 layers, the first layer consists of protrusions and recesses of a size of tens of microns, having an irregular shape, and the second layer is formed from small inhomogeneities in the size of hundreds of nanometers, use only one coating layer formed from carbon nanotubes correct shape with a size 6-20 nm in diameter and 20-150 nm along the length of the nanotubes. While carbon nanotubes are introduced into the surface layer of the substrate of the hygroscopic optical material KBr, NaCl, KCl, adjusting the phase boundary: solid substrate-coating. This process is caused by the embedding trudnorazreshimym diamond-like C-C bond of the carbon nanotubes in the superficial layers of the substrate with the alignment of the refractive index of the coating and the substrate. Strict embedding of carbon nanotubes at the surface of the substrate is provided by their alignment in an electric field.

Replacement two-layer coating with inhomogeneities micron size on coating based on carbon nanotubes with inhomogeneities of nanometer size and without phase boundary: solid substrate-coating, and the use of substrates of potassium bromide, sodium chloride, is lorida potassium, functioning not only in the visible but also in the near and middle infrared regions, creates a more uniform surface relief optical element substantially extends the spectral range of robots coating and the optical element until the mid-infrared range, increases its mechanical and laser strength, reduces roughness and promotes moisture resistance. When we design optical coatings and optical element based on it is supposed to use the spectral region near and mid-infrared range, thus to expand the field of optical coatings in this spectral region are used substrate from KBr, NaCl, KCl.

Comparative analysis of the prototype shows that the inventive coating is the fact that to improve the uniformity and enhanced spectral region functioning of the applied layer is used to eliminate the boundary line: a solid substrate-coating, i.e. a single surface layer with a close refractive index between the coating and the substrate, to another dimension of heterogeneity, and it is based coating carbon nanotubes with the size of the inhomogeneities at the level of nanometers, while the carbon nanotubes are oriented perpendicular to the substrate surface by application ELEH the electric field, realizing homeotropic orientation. The leveling phase boundary: solid substrate-coating, alignment indices of refraction of the coating and the substrate orthogonal to the coating on the substrate in an electric field, themselves the optical characteristics of the coating and substrate of KBr, NaCl, KCl - materials near and mid-infrared ranges - allow to operate the optical coating and optical devices on its basis in the spectral range from the near to mid-infrared range. Thus, the proposed device meets the criterion of "novelty."

The invention is illustrated by the drawing, which shows a process of a possible embedding of carbon nanotubes at the surface of the substrate material of potassium bromide, KBr, (Fig. 1); the invention is illustrated optical spectrum of the optical coatings in the infrared range, provided that the coating deposited on the same substrate material (Fig. 2); the invention is illustrated measured angles wettability clean substrate of KBr and KBr substrate with the coating of oriented carbon nanotubes (Fig. 3). Position 1 (Fig. 2) is the transmittance spectrum coated with a protective coating of carbon nanotubes when exposed to moisture after 1 day. Position 2 (Fig. 2) is the transmission spectrum without coating when exposed to moisture after 1 day. Position 3 (Fig. 2) is the range of p is lowering coated with a protective coating when exposed to moisture after 2 days. Position 4 (Fig. 2) is the transmission spectrum without cover in 2 days. Position 5 (Fig. 2) is the transmittance spectrum coated with a protective coating when exposed to moisture through 3-14 days. Position 6 (Fig. 2) is the transmission spectrum without cover in 3 days.

Sample thickness was 8 mm, which confirms the leveling phase boundary: solid substrate-coating due to the absence of losses by reflection of light from the boundary. Transmission system substrate-coating improved the percentage on the number of wavelengths of the infrared region. The increase in bandwidth has averaged 1%. The decrease in wettability, recorded at increasing angles, wettability, was, for example, KBr, 7° for pure potassium bromide, up to 27° for potassium bromide coated with carbon nanotubes, i.e. the angle wettability increased not less than 3-4 times.

The proposed optical coating is a system consisting of one layer of the applied carbon nanotubes thickness of ≤100 nm sputtered in vacuum using laser radiation and the orientation of carbon nanotubes in an electric field, and substrates of hygroscopic optical material KBr NaCl, KCl.

Deposition of carbon nanotubes was carried out in vacuum on a substrate, cold or heated to a temperature less than 80°C when using the deposition material cover the Oia of carbon nanotubes by laser light. The radiation source served as a quasi-continuous slab CO2laser with p-polarized radiation at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, with a capacity of 30 watts. For more uniform distribution, ordering, i.e. orientation of carbon nanotubes, applied electric field strength in the range of 50-250 In/see

Measurement of spectral characteristics of the coating was conducted using a spectrometer SPECTROLAB FT-08 in the range 3000-30000 nm. Samples, that is, clean the substrate and the substrate is processed by the described method, carbon nanotubes, was put into a frame, and measuring the transmittance was carried out simultaneously for each wavelength. The resulting increase in the bandwidth of the investigated materials at 1% in the range 3000-30000 nm, which is registered for one-sided treatment of the substrate.

Control of the surface topography was performed electron microscope FLOORS R, production LOMO, St. Petersburg, and terrain carefully studied probe microscope company NT-MDT (Zelenograd) "Bio47-Smena" in the "share-force". Mechanical abrasion resistance was studied in the unit CM-55 (development of the GOYIM to them. S. I. Vavilov) when the load on the indenter 100 g

Use as optical coatings monolayer of carbon nanotubes, applied in vacuum on a substrate of bromide of potassium, chloride NAT the Oia, potassium chloride using radiation quasi CO2laser focused during deposition electric field intensity 50-250 In/cm, allowed to significantly increase the uniformity of the coating, reducing the size of heterogeneity with micro - to the nano range, significantly expand the spectral range of operation of the optical element, having a wide middle infrared region, as well as to improve the humidity resistance of the coating while reducing its wettability. Improved uniformity of the coating, its high mechanical strength, high transparency in a wide spectral range, which is a necessary condition for application in optoelectronics and biomedical engineering, has reduced the number of layers with two [6] one can extend the spectral range of the IR range and to decrease the wettability of the surface. The specified functional improvement of optical coatings and devices based on it will significantly expand the scope of application of a new coating for protective glasses and splitters infrared radiation; suitable for use in specific devices as protective coatings where you want more creating a protective layer against moisture, scratches, cracks, and other defects, it is useful for applications in Biomedicine, where test is the testing of biological objects, including in the infrared range of electromagnetic waves. The invention is made within the grant RFBR №13-03-00044.

Sources of information

1. Rusyns M M Composition of optical systems. Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1989.

2. N. In. Kamanina, L. N. Soames, A. A. Tarasov. "Correction of phase aberrations holographic method using liquid-crystal spatial light modulators // Optics and spectroscopy, I. 68, No. 3, S. 691-693, 1990.

3. Krylov I.e. Interference coatings. 1973.

4. Optical holography. In 2 volumes. Edited, Caulfield. M.: Mir, 1982.

5. Patent for invention No. 94041175. "A method of manufacturing a thin-film coatings" (document type: A1, country of publication: EN, reg. application number: 94041175, edition of the IPC: 6, main IPC codes: G02B 001/10, the name of the applicant: KBP instrument design Bureau, inventors: Lazukin C. F., pogorelskiy S. L., 's got a withered arm A. C., Shipunov A.).

6. Patent for invention No. 2079860. "Optical element" (document type: C1, country of publication: EN, reg. application number: 93057999, edition of the IPC: 6, main IPC codes: G02B 001/10, the name of the applicant: Moldokulov Kamil Abdikerimovich, inventors: Moldokulov Kamil Abdikerimovich, Samsonov Mikhail Aleksandrovich, Kim Lily Stanislavovna).

Optical coating for optical instrumentation, Fourier spectroscopy, biomedical equipment containing layer is deposited,using radiation quasi CO 2laser carbon nanotubes on a substrate gigroskopichnomu optical material KBr, NaCl, KCl, characterized in that to increase the moisture resistance, improved uniformity, enhanced spectral region functioning of the deposited coating until the mid-infrared range, improving the mechanical and laser strength, reduce the roughness of the surface, to create a homeotropic orientation of the molecules of organic systems and testing of biological objects used one layer of carbon nanotubes oriented in an electric field with intensity of 50-250 V/cm, with the size of the inhomogeneities at the level of nanometers, is deposited on a substrate of hygroscopic optical material such as KBr, NaCl, KCl.


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