Amaranth cultivation method

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method includes the harvesting of the previous culture, adding of phosphoric fertilisings, skimming, application of organic fertilisings. Tillage is performed with a complete turnover of the layer, relief leveling, early spring harrowing, pre-plant tilling, sowing, inter-row care, vegetation waterings and harvesting. Meanwhile for intensifying of photosynthetic activity of its culture during its growth and the decrease of the growing season, just before the amaranth sowing a nanostructure water-phosphatic suspension consisting from nanoparticles with the dimensions below 100 nm and obtained from connatural phosphorites is applied into the soil, at the rate of 1.0-2.0 kg per 1 ha of the sowing area.

EFFECT: method allows to increase nitrogenase activity of amaranth during growth and to reduce a growing season while keeping a former level of productivity of the given culture.

2 tbl, 15 ex

 

The invention relates to the technology of cultivation of different crops and forage crops, in particular, amaranth and related plants, and can be used in agriculture.

There is a method of crop cultivation of amaranth, including cleaning of the preceding culture, application of lime and phosphate fertilizers, shallow plowing, application of organic fertilizers, plowing with a complete revolution of the formation, alignment, elevation, early spring harrowing, pre-sowing cultivation, sowing, inter-row treatments, vegetation watering and harvesting, in which after harvesting before the amaranth culture spend presowing way loosening arable and subsoil horizons with the width of the raw in between bands, equal to the gauge employed on the most energy-intensive process agricultural unit, after ploughing spend provocative watering, pre-sowing cultivation combined with crafts ridges raznonaklonennymi gentle and steep slopes and with a pitch between the ridges, the width of the rows, with gentle slopes oriented in the direction of the greatest light, the sowing is carried out on a gentle slope and is combined with polepoint local rolling rows, the first row processing is carried out in phase 2-3 sustainable leaves using shields-the house is impressive and at the same time align harrows relief spacing, the second cultivation combined with the water-absorbing crafts cracks, when the third cultivation perform hilling adventitious roots, while watering pot implement drip and fine sprinkling with regard to programmed productivity of green mass of vegetative shoots and grains [1]. The disadvantage of this known method is relatively large vegetation period of cultural development of the amaranth, and the relatively low nitrogenase activity of a given culture.

Closest to the claimed our object is a method of crop growing amaranth, including cleaning of the preceding culture, application of lime and phosphate fertilizers, shallow plowing, application of organic fertilizers, plowing with a complete revolution of the formation, alignment, elevation, early spring harrowing, pre-sowing cultivation, sowing, inter-row treatments, vegetation watering and harvesting [2]. The disadvantage of this method, which is the totality of symptoms and the achieved technical effect is the closest to the claimed our object and our chosen as a prototype, is also relatively large vegetation period of cultural development amaranth and low nitrogenase activity of a given culture.

The aim of the present invention is the amplification of nitrogenase and the performance culture of amaranth in the process of its growth and the reduction of the vegetation period.

The declared objective is achieved by the fact that in the known method of crop growing amaranth, including cleaning of the preceding culture, the application of phosphoric fertilizers, shallow plowing, application of organic fertilizers, plowing with a complete revolution of the formation, alignment, elevation, early spring harrowing, pre-sowing cultivation, sowing, inter-row treatments, vegetation watering and harvesting, immediately prior to sowing crops amaranth in soil making nanostructured water-phosphate suspension comprising the nanoparticles with sizes less than 100 nm and is produced from natural rock phosphate, the rate of 0.1-0.5 kg per 1 ha of cultivated area. The result is increased nitrogenase activity of amaranth compared with the known method [2] by 15-20%, the vegetation period is reduced by 20-25% while maintaining the same level of productivity of this crop.

To date the literature has not been described by way of culture cultivation of amaranth, which directly before sowing it is this culture of the soil is made of nanostructured water-phosphate suspension comprising nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm. This circumstance gives us grounds to assert that declare to us the object corresponds to the first set of patent legislation of the Russian Federation criterial basis of which bretania - the novelty. A map of known characteristics of the prototype method [2] and the distinctive features that characterize declare our object (namely the introduction into the soil of nanostructured water-fosforito suspension in General and with the size of composing her nanoparticles less than 100 nm), it is not possible to predict a priori the onset of new compared with the method of the prototype properties, namely, the amplification of nitrogenase activity culture amaranth in the process of its growth and the reduction of the vegetation period. Know the use of nanostructured water-phosphate suspension comprising nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm, to increase yields of maize [3], however, in this known embodiment, first, the yield increase is achieved by introducing into the soil a significantly larger number of this suspension (not less than 100 kg per 1 ha of sown area), and secondly, if this is not observed no reduction in the vegetation period, no amplification of nitrogenase activity culture of maize in the process of its growth. All this together allows us to conclude that we declare our object is not obvious from the well-known in the industry technology level and therefore corresponds to the second set by the legislation of the Russian Federation criterial feature of the invention is an inventive step. Our proposed method without the fir whatever problems feasible in large scale agricultural production, consequently, it has the third established by the legislation of the Russian Federation criterion characteristic of the invention, namely industrial applicability.

Declare on the subject of the invention is a method of cultivation of crops amaranth can be demonstrated by the following examples.

Example 1

(preparation of nanostructured water-phosphate suspension)

Phosphorite flour, obtained from natural phosphates Surdukowski deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan, mixed with distilled or deionized (demineralized) water at the rate of 20 g flour 100 ml water. This mixture is then treated with ultrasound in an ultrasonic disperser the TGS-0,25-80 watts at a frequency of 18.5 kHz with the amplitude of the ultrasonic waveguide 5 μm for 10 min at room temperature, resulting in a suspension with a particle size of phosphorite (5-95) nm. Thus obtained water-phosphate, the suspension is then used for a purpose in the cultivation of a culture of amaranth.

Example 2

Prepare the soil for sowing, which after harvest of the preceding culture in the sown area make foirne fertilizer (superphosphate at the rate of 60 kg per 1 ha of this area. Then the resulting stern vslushivat in two directions, causing the germination of weed seeds, and then destroy their shoots Bo what novanam heavy harrows or cultivation, combined with harrowing. After that, the soil is made nitrogen-containing organic fertilizer (urea) in an amount of 30 kg per 1 ha of cultivated area. Then spend plowing with a complete revolution of the formation, alignment, elevation, early spring harrowing and pre-sowing cultivation. Later in the prepared soil contribute obtained as described in Example 1 technology of nanostructured water-phosphate suspension of calculation of 1.0 kg per 1 ha of cultivated area, and then plowed it with seeds of amaranth Amaranthus cruentus using a cultivator to a depth of ~ 2 cm Sowing seeds of this culture is carried out at a steady warm up the soil to a temperature of 14-16°C (in an average strip of Russia it occurs in the late second - early third decade of may) at the rate of 100,000 seeds per 1 ha of cultivated area. After sowing by compacting sown area light ringed-toothed rollers that reduce moisture loss (especially in windy weather) and improves the contact of the seeds with soil, which creates the best conditions for carrying out subsequent processing, as well as accelerating the germination of weed seeds, which are then destroy harrowing after 7 days after sowing. After the emergence of mass germination, which occurs after 11 days after seeding, start growing this crop. When the plants are of medium height ~ 50 the m a new cultivation to a depth of about 15 cm in the center aisle with the use of bits, okucnicom or razors, thus achieving the required tilling the soil, weeding and hilling plants in rows. Further cultivation carried out in the traditional way before the so-called head ripeness amaranth, and then remove the yield of green mass of a given culture and determine the level of yield in t/ha and the time of the growing season (in days). Also assess nitrogenase activity of culture amaranth flowering in µg N2/kg·h by the method of [4], which according to [5] correlated with photosynthetic activity. The specified characteristics for this case is presented in Table 1.

Example 3

Perform as described in Example 2 technology, but nanostructured water-phosphate suspension applied to the soil before sowing at the rate of 1.5 kg/ha yield Data, time, vegetation, and nitrogenase activity in the flowering phase Amaranthus cruentus for this case are shown in Table 1.

Example 4

Carry out the same technique as in Example 2, but nanostructured water-phosphate suspension applied to the soil before seeding at the rate of 2.0 kg/ha results of the determination of yield, time of vegetation and nitrogenase activity in the flowering phase Amaranthus cruentus for this case are shown in Table 1.

Example 5

(comparative)

Perform the same General pattern as in Example 2, but nanostruc the structural water-phosphate suspension applied to the soil before sowing at the rate of 0.5 kg/ha Information about productivity, time, vegetation, and nitrogenase activity in the flowering phase Amaranthus cruentus for this case are presented in Table 1.

Example 6

(comparative)

Carried out on the same technology as in Example 2, but nanostructured water-phosphate suspension applied to the soil from the calculation of 3.0 kg/ha of Information about productivity, time, vegetation, and nitrogenase activity in the flowering phase Amaranthus cruentus for this case are presented in Table 1.

Example 7

(The PROTOTYPE [2])

Prepare the soil for sowing, which after harvest of the preceding culture in the sown area contribute lime and phosphate fertilizer (superphosphate at the rate of 60 kg per 1 ha of this area. Then the resulting stern vslushivat in two directions, causing the germination of weed seeds, and then destroy their shoots harrowing heavy harrows or cultivation, combined with harrowing. After that, the soil is made nitrogen-containing organic fertilizer (urea) in an amount of 30 kg per 1 ha of cultivated area. Then spend plowing with a complete revolution of the formation, alignment, elevation, early spring harrowing and pre-sowing cultivation. The so-prepared soil plowed seeds of amaranth Amaranthus cruentus using a cultivator to a depth of ~ 2 cm Sowing seeds of this culture is carried out at steady warming of the soil to a temperature of 14-16°C calculated 100.000 seeds per 1 ha of cultivated area. After sowing by compacting sown area light ringed-toothed rollers that reduce moisture loss (especially in windy weather) and improves the contact of the seeds with soil, which creates the best conditions for carrying out subsequent processing, as well as accelerating the germination of weed seeds, which are then destroy harrowing after 7 days after sowing. After the emergence of mass germination, which occurs after 11 days after seeding, start growing this crop. When the plants are of medium height ~ 50 cm organize new cultivation to a depth of about 15 cm in the center aisle with the use of bits, okucnicom or razors, thus achieving the required tilling the soil, weeding and hilling plants in rows. Further cultivation carried out in the traditional way before the so-called head ripeness amaranth, and then remove the yield of green mass of a given culture. The level of productivity, time, vegetation and nitrogenase activity in the flowering phase for this case are also shown in Table 1.

Example 8

(Similar to [1])

Prepare the soil for sowing, which after harvest of the preceding culture in the sown area contribute lime and phosphate fertilizer (superphosphate at the rate of 60 kg per 1 ha of this area, conduct presowing way loosening arable and subsoil is of horizontal with the width of the raw in between bands, equal to the gauge employed on the most energy-intensive process agricultural unit and ploughing spend provocative watering. Then the resulting stern vslushivat in two directions, causing the germination of weed seeds, and then destroy their shoots harrowing heavy harrows or cultivation, combined with harrowing. After that, the soil is made nitrogen-containing organic fertilizer (urea) in an amount of 30 kg per 1 ha of cultivated area. Then spend plowing with a complete revolution of the formation, alignment, elevation, early spring harrowing and pre-sowing cultivation, which combine with crafts ridges raznonaklonennymi gentle and steep slopes and with a pitch between the ridges, the width of the spacing, focusing this gentle slopes in the direction of the greatest light, the so-prepared soil plowed seeds of amaranth Amaranthus cruentus using a cultivator to a depth of ~ 2 cm Sowing seeds of this crop carried out on a gentle slope with a steady warm up the soil to a temperature of 14-16°C calculated 100.000 seeds per 1 ha of cultivated area, combining it with polepoint local rolling rows. After sowing by compacting sown area light ringed-toothed rollers that reduce moisture loss (especially in windy weather) and improve the General contact of the seeds with soil, what creates the best conditions for carrying out subsequent processing, as well as accelerating the germination of weed seeds, which are then destroy harrowing after 7 days after sowing. After the emergence of mass germination, which occurs after 11 days after seeding, start growing this crop. When the plants are of medium height ~ 50 cm organize new cultivation to a depth of about 15 cm in the center aisle with the use of bits, okucnicom or razors, thus achieving the required tilling the soil, weeding and hilling plants in rows. The first inter-row cultivation is done in phase 2-3 sustainable leaves using shields-houses and simultaneously align harrows relief of rows, the second cultivation combined with the water-absorbing crafts cracks. When the third cultivation Spud adventitious roots. Watering pot implement drip and fine sprinkling with regard to programmed productivity of green mass of vegetative shoots. The cultivation is carried out before the so-called head ripeness amaranth, and then remove the yield of green mass of a given culture. The level of productivity, time, vegetation and nitrogenase activity in the flowering phase for this case are also shown in Table 1.

515
Table 1
NumberPeriodNitrogenaseTotal
soilvegetationactivityyield
# examplenanostructuredculturecultureculture
water-phosphorus-dayin the flowering phasein green mass
Noah suspensionµg N2/kg·ht/ha
kg/ha
21,040505140
31,538140
42,039520135
5 (compare.)0,550460130
6 (compare.)3,040515140
7(prototype)-55440130
8 (similar to [1])-55430135

Example 9

Perform as Example 2, but cultivated a culture of amaranth is Amaranthus caudatus. Information about productivity, time, vegetation, and nitrogenase activity in the flowering phase for this case is presented in Table 2.

Example 10

Carried out as Example 3, but cultivated a culture of amaranth is Amaranthus caudatus. Yield data, time, vegetation, and nitrogenase activity in the flowering phase for this case are shown in Table 2.

Example 11

Carried out according to the General scheme of Example 4, but ondelivery culture amaranth is Amaranthus caudatus. The results of determination of yield, time of vegetation and nitrogenase activity in the flowering phase for this case are given in Table 2.

Example 12

(comparative)

Perform as Example 5, but cultivated a culture of amaranth is Amaranthus caudatus. Information about productivity, time, vegetation, and nitrogenase activity in the flowering phase for this case are shown in Table 2.

Example 13

(comparative)

Carried out with the use described in Example 6 technology, but cultivated a culture of amaranth is Amaranthus caudatus. Yield data, time, vegetation, and nitrogenase activity in the flowering phase for this case are shown in Table 2.

Example 14

(The PROTOTYPE [2])

Perform according to the General scheme of Example 7, but cultivated a culture of amaranth is Amaranthus caudatus. The results of determination of yield, time of vegetation and nitrogenase activity in the flowering phase for this case are presented in Table 2.

Example 15

(Similar to [2])

Carried out using the same procedure as in Example 8, but cultivated a culture of amaranth is Amaranthus caudatus. The corresponding yields, time, vegetation, and nitrogenase activity in the flowering phase for this case are also presented in Table 2.

Table 2
# exampleThe number of soil nanostructured water-phosphate suspension, kg/haThe growing season of the crop, dNitrogenase activity culture in the flowering phase, µg N2/kg·hThe total yield in green mass, t/ha
91,045430120
101,542440120
112,042450125
12 (compare.)0,555380115
13 (compare.)3,042445125
14 (prototype)-60290115
15 (similar to [1])-60280120

As can be seen from Tables 1 and 2 data, declare to us the way of culture cultivation of amaranth can significantly reduce the time of the growing season of a given culture and to increase its nitrogenase activity compared with those for the prototype method [2] while maintaining almost the same total yield. Note that the claimed number of us nanofactories water-phosphate suspensions are important if its smaller quantities compared to declare their range positive effect decreases at large he is not growing, so in this case is essentially the cost overruns of the suspension. However, the imposition of nanofactories water-phosphate suspension in the soil (unlike injecting phosphate) requires no special respiratory protection respiratory organs.

Similar results were obtained by us and other protracting in the middle zone of the Russian Federation varieties of amaranth {Amaranthus Mantegaztianus, A. paniculatus L. and others).

LITERATURE

[1] Patent RF №2.159.029 (2003).

[2] I. A. Chernov, B. J. Earth. The amaranth plant protein. Kazan: Publishing house of Kazan University, 1991. S. 68-74 (prototype).

[3] Application for patent of the RF No. 201212411, the priority of 14.06. 2012

[4] Garusov A. C., F. Alimov, K., Zakharova N. G. Gazprom tographically analysis method for biomonitoring of soil. Methodical manual. Kazan: Publishing house of Kazan state University, 1998. 28 C.

[5] D. G. Zvyagintsev, T., Dobrovolskaya, L. C. Lysak. Journal of General biology, 1993. So 54, No. 3. S. 183-200.

The method of cultivation of crops, amaranth, including cleaning of the preceding culture, the application of phosphoric fertilizers, shallow plowing, application of organic fertilizers, plowing with a complete revolution of the formation, alignment, elevation, early spring harrowing, pre-sowing cultivation, sowing, inter-row treatments, vegetation irrigation, and harvesting of crops, characterized in that in order to enhance the photosynthetic activity of culture in the process of its growth and the reduction of the vegetation period, immediately prior to sowing crops amaranth in soil making nanostructured water-phosphate suspension comprising the nanoparticles with sizes less than 100 nm and is produced from natural phosphates, based 1,0-2,0 kg per 1 ha of cultivated area.



 

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3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises the procedures to obtain information about the physical properties, chemical composition of the soil and weather conditions on the agricultural field, as well as information about the actual yield of the previous year on each part of the agricultural field, compared to the signals of the system of determining the spatial coordinates at the time of harvesting, the use of mathematical models of the influence of soil and climatic factors on the final yield, production of calculations on the parameters of main technologies before sowing plants and carrying out of technological impacts in real time in accordance with these calculations for each part of the agricultural field. Before the start of the vegetation period the optimal program of changes of the plant development indicators average in the field and the parameters of the soil environment is determined by finding the maximum of the parameters of technological operations of the optimality criterion, taking into account the difference between the cost of the crop and the cost of its preparation. In real time at the working pass of the agricultural machine with tools its spatial coordinates are measured, the signals from the meteorological station on the ambient temperature, the level of solar radiation, the precipitation intensity is periodically recorded. According to the measured information the parameters of models of plants and the soil environment are precised, the measured values of the parameters of the plant development and the parameters of soil environment are compared for each part of the field to their optimal average values, according to the results of comparing the corrections to the average optimal values of parameters of technological impacts are formed. For each fragment of the field the size of the overall technological impact is determined, which is created from the optimal average and local correction, which is transmitted by the modem connection in the form of the task to the on-board controller of the machine tool, which carries out the technological impact. The information about the physical properties, chemical composition of the soil and plants is received by periodic sampling on test sites located next to the main field, on which the same culture is cultivated as on the main field, and which differ from each other by different fixed levels of irrigation and doses of mineral fertilizer applications and regulators of growth and development of plants. Simultaneously with the sampling on the test sites by means of aircraft remote sensing the multispectral images of the test sites and the main field are formed, according to the resulting spectral information and the selected samples the mathematical model of the optical measurements is precised, which reflect the connection of condition of the crops and the soil environment on the test sites with the parameters of reflection in all the used spectra, on the spectral information obtained over the entire area of the main field, the condition of the crops and the soil environment on the main field is assessed using the mathematical model of the optical measurements for each time of measurement, according to the obtained estimates and signals from the meteorological station on the ambient temperature, the level of solar radiation and the precipitation intensity the parameters of mathematical models of conditions of crop and soil environment are precised, on which the optimal program of changes of the plant development indicators and soil environment parameters mean in the field are then precised in real time. When working passes of the technological machines simultaneously with the measurement of the spatial coordinates the multispectral pattern of the entire area of the main field is repeatedly formed, on which with the predetermined pitch the condition of the crops and the soil environment is assessed, the resulting estimates on individual parts of the field are compared to their optimal average values obtained during the formation of an optimal program of change of the plant development indicators and soil environment parameters mean in the field. By comparing the results the corrections are formed to the average optimal values of parameters of technological impacts, and for each part of the field the amount of the overall technological impact is determined, created from the optimal average and local corrections in a given spatial coordinate.

EFFECT: method enables to increase the amount and reliability of the process of yield formation while substantial reducing the amount of manual labour.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: moorberry rootage on mineral soils. Within the territory of the Russian Federation the survival ability of moorberry transplants is ensured by preliminary rootage of semi-lignified transplants in covered ground. The ground consists of the mix of high-moor peat and valley peat with the acidity level pH 5.6 with the following composition by mass mg/kg: nitrogen 400-450; phosphorus 400-450; potassium 400-500. Then transplants are planted in the open mineral soil.

EFFECT: method allows to improve the survival ability of moorberry transplants, growing at the territory of the Russian Federation.

2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to plant-growing. The method uses the early varieties of potatoes as fallow crop for cultivation of fruit and berry and medicinal cultures on permafrost soils.

EFFECT: method allows to minimize the diversity and abundance of weed grasses and is environmentally safe.

1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. In the method pre-sowing treatment of a field, sowing grass and its harvesting are carried out. In the first year solid mixed sowing o annual legume and grain fodder crops is carried out with undersowing into stubble of legumes (green manure) crops with their subsequent embedding into soil. In the second year the mixed sowing of perennial legumes and grain crops is carried out, in the 3th, 4th and 5th year the care for crops and harvesting grass is carried out. In the sixth year the mixed sowing of legumes, grain and grain fodder crops is carried out, and in the seventh year the grain crops are sown or potato or Jerusalem artichoke are planted.

EFFECT: method enables to enhance the quality of fodder by sowing in the fodder crop rotation of grain, grain fodder and legume crops, to increase the productivity of an area with the introduction of nitrogen-fixing crops in the intermediate sowing of green manure crops for green fertiliser.

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes pre-plant processing of soil with sowing of seeds. Sowing of seeds in soil is performed periodically every two years. In the first year the sowing of seeds is performed in the late period and late harvesting by direct combine operation is performed. In the second year the over-stocked drop plantlets are harrowed away down to the density 2.0-3.0 mln plants per 1 ha. Harvesting is performed by separating method with the maturing of buckwheat. Seeding in the first year of cultivation buckwheat is performed on stubble field at the depth 5-6 cm using standard method, with the norm 3.0-3.5 mln. fertile grains per 1 ha, with simultaneous use of mineral fertilizings with the dose N30P30K30. Late sowing of seeds in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed in the second half of June. Late harvesting by direct combine operation is performed in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed with cutting of plants at height 20-25 cm from the soil surface. Harvesting by direct combine operation in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed 5-7 days after first autumn frost, playing a role of desiccation - drying of cormophyte mass and grain on the root. The blooming buckwheat are fertilized by bees - 2-4 honey-bee colonies per 1 ha.

EFFECT: increase of yield.

7 cl, 1 ex

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