Method of buckwheat cultivation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method includes pre-plant processing of soil with sowing of seeds. Sowing of seeds in soil is performed periodically every two years. In the first year the sowing of seeds is performed in the late period and late harvesting by direct combine operation is performed. In the second year the over-stocked drop plantlets are harrowed away down to the density 2.0-3.0 mln plants per 1 ha. Harvesting is performed by separating method with the maturing of buckwheat. Seeding in the first year of cultivation buckwheat is performed on stubble field at the depth 5-6 cm using standard method, with the norm 3.0-3.5 mln. fertile grains per 1 ha, with simultaneous use of mineral fertilizings with the dose N30P30K30. Late sowing of seeds in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed in the second half of June. Late harvesting by direct combine operation is performed in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed with cutting of plants at height 20-25 cm from the soil surface. Harvesting by direct combine operation in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed 5-7 days after first autumn frost, playing a role of desiccation - drying of cormophyte mass and grain on the root. The blooming buckwheat are fertilized by bees - 2-4 honey-bee colonies per 1 ha.

EFFECT: increase of yield.

7 cl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to the cultivation of buckwheat.

A known method of growing buckwheat (Elagin I. N. Agriculture buckwheat. - M.: Kolos, 1984. - 27-28, 127 S.), which prepare the ground for the culture consists of basic and pre-treatment. Following the cleaning of cereal in the fall of conduct shelling that provides good cutting of soil by subsequent treatments, contributes to the accumulation and preservation of soil moisture due to precipitation. At the same time destroyed the insect pests. Shelling promotes the germination of weed seeds, seedlings which completely destroyed and plowing. In dry conditions when the cold autumn weather autumn plowing can be done without pre-peeling. In terms of the manifestations of wind erosion on light soils, and on heavy soils otvalnuyu autumn plowing replace the no-till treatment.

Spring to conserve moisture in the soil and alignment of arable land during the first field trip, otvalnuyu the plowing harrowing. Then spend 2-3 cultivation simultaneously harrowing and pre-packing.

Joint application of nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers creates the most favorable conditions for plant nutrition. Buckwheat responds well to fertilization at sowing seeds in ADCI.

Sowing produced during the heating of the soil at a depth of 8-10 cm to 10-12°C and when the danger of a return spring frosts. In conditions of Western Siberia is the end of may - beginning of June. Buckwheat sown in a continuous way. The placement of seeds produced at a depth of 7-8 cm

Care for sowing is from the soil simultaneously with the sowing, pre-emergence, and sometimes harrowing post-harvest and 1-2 inter-row treatments for weed control and cultivation of row spacing. On a heavily littered areas apply herbicides. In the system of care for the crops provide the pollination by bringing bee colonies to the crops.

Cleaning produce separately, plants harvested in rolls with brown 75-80% of the grains, 3-4 days a beveled mass are thrashing.

The disadvantages of this method include the high material costs of tillage, harvesting and bringing to the basal condition for humidity commodity grain. When this occurs the destruction of the soil structure numerous mechanical treatments, the development of buckwheat large vegetative mass.

Known a better way of growing buckwheat - prototype (resource-Saving technology of production of buckwheat: guidelines [Text] / C. I. Zotikov, H. I. Glazov, G. A. Borzenkova and other eagle: GNU VNIIBT, 2009. page 15 - 40 C.), including alleway plowing to a depth of 20-22 cm or surface-ploskoreznyh processing, presowing treatment of winter tillage. When the sprouts of weeds applies cultivation harrowing and rolling. In fields with autumn processed by subsurface cultivator., in the spring of moisture close needle harrows, conduct pre-sowing cultivation. On the day of sowing perform preplant, planting and packing.

The optimal timing of fertilizer are: first, before sowing, the second - in rows at sowing, the third - 10-15 days after germination (phase branching-budding). During the vegetation period buckwheat fed once before flowering nitrogen and complex fertilizers 10-15 kg D. C. on 1 hectare Effective foliar ordinary crops of complex mineral fertilizers. The best planting dates come with a steady warming of the soil at a depth of 8-10 cm to 10-12°C. Buckwheat sown usual ordinary, narrow and wide-row methods. The seeding rate for ordinary and broadband planting of 2.5 - 3.5 million viable seeds per 1 ha, for wide-row - 1.5 to 2.5. The depth of sowing on cultivated structural soils - 5-6 see Caring for the crops consists of poslepoletnogo rolling, harrowing up the shoots and in the designation of rows, inter-row cultivation. On very weedy crops during branching-budding apply herbicides. For best pollination of flowers, 1-2 days before black is the shadow of buckwheat, on the field ride hives based 2-3 full bee 1 ha, placing groups at a distance of not more than a mile from the crops. Harvesting buckwheat start when brown on plants 75-80% of the fruit and finish within 4-5 days. The primary method of harvesting buckwheat - separate.

This way, according to the above authors guidelines, increases productivity and efficiency of production of buckwheat by saving money and energy resources.

The disadvantages of this method include the material costs for primary and pre-seeding tillage, annual seeding and separate annual harvest, in which there are significant irrecoverable loss of grain.

The technical result of the invention is to eliminate the disadvantages of the prototype, in particular the creation of more efficient technologies of growing of buckwheat with reduced grain loss and material costs for tillage.

Delivered by the invention technical result is achieved by a combination of known features, including pre-sowing tillage sowing seeds and new signs, namely, that the sowing of seeds in the soil carried out periodically every two years, the first of which seeding is carried out in the late period carry out late harvest direct combine harvesting, in the second year shoots windfall Vibranivo to density of 2.0-3.0 million plants per 1 ha and harvesting implement separate way as maturing buckwheat.

Sowing seeds in the first year of cultivation buckwheat carry on stubble at a depth of 5-6 cm ordinary way, the norm of 3.0-3.5 million viable seeds per 1 ha, with simultaneous application of mineral fertilizer dose of N30P30K30.

Late sowing seeds in the first year of cultivation buckwheat carried out in the second half of June.

Late harvest direct combine harvesting in the first year of cultivation buckwheat carried out when the plant is cut at a height of 20-25 cm from the soil surface.

Harvest direct combine harvesting in the first year of cultivation buckwheat spend 5-7 days after the onset of the first autumn frost, the role of desiccation (drying leafy mass and grain at the root).

To increase yields flowering buckwheat is pollinated by bees from the calculation 2-4 bee on 1 hectare

Thickened shoots windfall in the second year of cultivation buckwheat Vibranivo to density of 2.0-3.0 million plants per 1 ha

The novelty of the proposed method is the planting of seeds in the soil periodically once in two years, the first of which seeding is carried out in the late period and perform a late harvest direct combine harvesting, the WTO is the second year shoots windfall Vibranivo to density of 2.0-3.0 million plants per 1 ha and harvesting implement separate way as maturing buckwheat.

So, late sowing seeds in the first year of cultivation buckwheat carries the seed maturation and harvest at a later time, including the onset of the first frost. This fact, in combination with the cleaning direct combine harvesting in the first year of cultivation, allows seeds windfall evenly distributed across the treated area and get the following spring amicable shoots windfall after harrowing until the required thickness of 2.0-3.0 million plants per 1 ha, which does not require new planting seed in the soil and does not require additional processing.

Signs of sowing seeds in the first year of cultivation buckwheat stubble to a depth of 5-6 cm ordinary way, the norm of 3.0-3.5 million viable seeds per 1 ha, with simultaneous application of mineral fertilizer dose of N30P30K30the implementation of late sowing seeds in the first year of cultivation of buckwheat in the second half of June, holding a late harvest direct combine harvesting in the first year of cultivation buckwheat when the plant is cut at a height of 20-25 cm from the soil surface, and 5-7 days after the onset of the first autumn frost, the role of desiccation (drying leafy mass and grain at the root), can reveal the features of the main clause is Isakov way and to ensure the achievement of invention technical result.

Signs of Chelopechene flowering buckwheat is based 2-4 bee colonies per 1 ha and Vybornova shoots windfall to the density of 2.0-3.0 million plants per 1 ha, harvesting the 2nd year of growing buckwheat separate way in connection with the early seed-windfall and ripening of the grain prior to the major harvesting can achieve the optimum conditions for obtaining high yields and, consequently, reduce labor costs.

According to the results of the patent information research combinations of features with new sources of scientific, technical and patent information is not detected, that is to treat them as non-novel. The combination of new and known characteristics of the proposed method is not obvious from the current level of technology, which makes them to have an inventive step.

Technology description of the proposed method allows to refer it to the industrial doable.

The proposed method of growing buckwheat is as follows.

Buckwheat sowing in the first year of cultivation carried out in the second half of June ordinary way, to a depth of 5-6 cm, with a rate of 3.0-3.5 million viable seeds per 1 hectare Simultaneously with the sowing of seeds in the soil make a fertilizer dose of N30P30K30. Flowering crops they pollinate the honey bee and is based 2-4 bee on 1 hectare Harvesting buckwheat carried out at a higher speed of movement of the harvester, directly, when cut in 20-25 cm from the soil surface to reduce the amount of obmolachivanie mass in minimum time - 2-3 days 5-7 days after the onset of the first autumn frost, the role of desiccation, after cormophyte weight will fall off and dry the grain to a moisture content of 16-18%, which allows to reduce grain losses at 2-4 kg/ha and achieve economies of funds - by 70-80% compared with separate cleaning. Fallen for cleaning grain, in the amount of 80-90 kg/ha, it overwinters on the soil surface in the stubble, keeping their crop quality by covering with snow that is retained stubble. In the spring of fallen grain plays the role of a seed, the seeds grow together and form a good germination. High stubble contributes to the accumulation of snow, which increases the spring the water content in the soil. Next year thickened shoots windfall Vibranivo to density of 2.5-3.0 million plants per 1 ha At flowering fields, depending on the number of bees in the family, ride 2-4 bee colonies per 1 ha for pollination of flowers. Harvest in the 2nd year of growing buckwheat carry out separate ways due to early seed-windfall and ripening of the grain prior to the main harvest work.

The cultivation of buckwheat in predlagaemaya allows to increase the grain yields of 3-4 t/ha due to saving seeds at sowing and reduce loss of grain during the harvest directly in the first year. The use of direct straight combining technology saves 3-4 l/ha fuel. Compared with the known method of the prototype cultivation of buckwheat, the proposed method allows to reduce production costs by 50-60% and to reduce the cost of grain.

A specific example of implementation of the proposed method.

On the lands of the three farms of the Smolensk district of Altai Krai: KFH "Chance" on the square 100-155 ha in 2008-2011, LLC "homeland" in the area of 200 ha in 2008-2009, in PI "Golden garner" the area of 260 ha in 2009-2010, where there was a field hospital for the study of science-based agricultural practices in the cultivation of buckwheat, was carried out experimental work on the cultivation of this crop on the proposed method.

After cleaning predecessor - winter wheat, fall tillage was not made on the principle of no-till farming. Direct buckwheat sowing was carried out on the stubble in late deadline June 19-20 drill NWS-3,6 at a seeding depth of 5-6 cm ordinary way, the norm of 3.0-3.5 million viable seeds per 1 ha with the consolidation of the soil. Fertilizer in the soil was carried out simultaneously with the seeding locally at a dose of N30P30K30. Flowering crops pollinated by three bee colonies per 1 ha grain Ripening on the vine in the first year of cultivation buckwheat reached 95%.

Cleaning was performed directly in minimal the timeframe 2-3 days after 6 days after the onset of the first autumn frost, when the leaf-stem mass showered and dried grain at the root to a moisture content of 17%, when the plant is cut at 20-25 cm from the soil surface harvester-don-1500B with minimum drum speed and with maximum gaps between the slats of the deck and pests at high speed. The number of chipped grain buckwheat does not exceed 13-15%, which is lower than the loss in a separate cleaning. Chipped grain was not frozen and served as seeds for the next year, in which the seeds are not produced. Save money on seeds reached 1500 rubles/ha, plus the decrease in depreciation of agricultural machinery and reducing the cost of fuel and lubricants required for the model technology for annual planting and separate cleaning.

The following year in the spring, thickened shoots windfall Vibranivo to density of 2.5-3.0 million plants per 1 ha Zubov harrows BSSS to 1.0 at a speed of 4-5 km/h, in 2 track across and/or along the diagonal of the field. Thinned plots was podseval drill NWS-3.6V. On flowering crops organized Chelopechene. Cleaning was performed on the 2nd year separate way, in connection with the early seed-windfall and ripening of the grain prior to the main harvest work.

Currently, the proposed method is developed the technical documentation, experimental work on introduction into production in farms of the Smolensk district of Altai Krai, showed good results. So, in 2012, KFH "Chance" buckwheat yield increased by 3.1 t/ha compared with standard technology and amounted to 12.3 kg/ha, the cost of grain - 46 rubles/kg; in 2010 LLC "homeland" received 22,1 kg/ha at a cost of 39 rubles/kg, which is higher than 4.5 kg/ha; in 2011 in PI "Golden granary" - 10,2 kg/ha at a cost of 59 rubles/kg, which is also greater than 1.9 t/ha yield, obtained by standard techniques.

Decided after the substantive examination to issue recommendations for cultivation of buckwheat on leached Chernozem steppe of the Altai territory.

1. The method of growing buckwheat, including pre-sowing tillage sowing of the seed, wherein the seed into the soil carried out periodically every two years, the first of which seeding is carried out in the late period and perform a late harvest direct combine harvesting, in the second year shoots windfall Vibranivo to density of 2.0-3.0 million plants per 1 ha and harvesting implement separate way as maturing buckwheat.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the seed in the first year of cultivation buckwheat carry on stubble at a depth of 5-6 cm ordinary way, the norm of 3.0-3.5 million viable seeds per 1 g is, with simultaneous application of mineral fertilizer dose of N30P30K30.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that late sowing seeds in the first year of cultivation buckwheat carried out in the second half of June.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that late harvest direct combine harvesting in the first year of cultivation buckwheat carried out when the plant is cut at a height of 20-25 cm from the soil surface.

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the harvest direct combine harvesting in the first year of cultivation buckwheat spend 5-7 days after the onset of the first autumn frost, the role of desiccation - drying leafy mass and grain at the root.

6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that to increase yields flowering buckwheat is pollinated by bees from the calculation 2-4 bee on 1 hectare

7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the thickened shoots windfall in the second year of cultivation buckwheat Vibranivo to density of 2.0-3.0 million plants per 1 ha



 

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3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device for ozonisation of bulk materials comprises a hopper, a dispenser, a vertical cylindrical container, an ozone generator with rate activator. Inside the container along the vertical axis the pipe is mounted, on the outer surface of which the short tilted blades of the multiple-threaded screw are mounted along the helical line.

EFFECT: use of invention enables to improve the efficiency of processing bulk materials while simultaneous simplifying the design.

5 dwg

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: linseed sprouts production method involves linseeds washing with distilled water with simultaneous removal of floating and damaged seeds. Seeds are treated with 0.0025% water solution of potassium permanganate and repeatedly washed with distilled water. Linseeds are placed for swelling into a flat vessel, distributed in a thin layer with thickness equal to 2-4 seeds between hygroscopic material layers, poured with electrochemically activated water with pH equal to 9…10 (catholyte) at a ratio of linseeds to electrochemically activated water being 1:2 and placed into a thermostat for 2 hours at a temperature of 25±2°C. Swollen seeds incubation is performed under moist conditions with periodical sprinkling of seeds surface with electrochemically activated water with pH equal to 9…10 (catholyte) in the thermostat at a temperature of 25±2°C during 12 hours till emergence of sprouts with length equal to 2-3 mm.

EFFECT: method allows to intensify the seeds sprouting process, increase biomass yield, enhance sprouting energy and seeds growth parameters percentage.

1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to the means of stimulation of germination of agricultural crop seeds, and can be used for pre-sowing treatment of seeds. Before sowing the seeds of agricultural crops are soaked for 3-4 hours in 5-6% aqueous solution of juice of creeping crown vetch pressed in a phase of flowering of the plants, and 2-3 ml of ethyl alcohol per 100 ml of the juice is added.

EFFECT: proposed method enables to stimulate the germination processes of seeds and to reveal simultaneously the protective properties with respect to seed and germinated plants.

1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of mechanisation of agricultural production. The method is characterised in that spraying of leaves of cultivated crops with fertiliser solutions is carried out and herbicides are applied with the tape. Spraying of leaves of cultivated crops is carried out in portions with a solution of mineral fertilisers, and application of the herbicides - on both sides symmetrically with respect to the row of plants within the protection zone with overlapping. To prevent the contact of the solution of the herbicide with the leaves of cultivated crops they are raised, and devices for application of fertilisers and herbicides are brought to the action zone of protective shields.

EFFECT: method provides improvement of quality of spraying, and also minimises the negative impact of herbicides on cultivated vegetative crops.

2 dwg

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