Method of buckwheat cultivation
SUBSTANCE: method includes pre-plant processing of soil with sowing of seeds. Sowing of seeds in soil is performed periodically every two years. In the first year the sowing of seeds is performed in the late period and late harvesting by direct combine operation is performed. In the second year the over-stocked drop plantlets are harrowed away down to the density 2.0-3.0 mln plants per 1 ha. Harvesting is performed by separating method with the maturing of buckwheat. Seeding in the first year of cultivation buckwheat is performed on stubble field at the depth 5-6 cm using standard method, with the norm 3.0-3.5 mln. fertile grains per 1 ha, with simultaneous use of mineral fertilizings with the dose N30P30K30. Late sowing of seeds in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed in the second half of June. Late harvesting by direct combine operation is performed in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed with cutting of plants at height 20-25 cm from the soil surface. Harvesting by direct combine operation in the first year of buckwheat cultivation is performed 5-7 days after first autumn frost, playing a role of desiccation - drying of cormophyte mass and grain on the root. The blooming buckwheat are fertilized by bees - 2-4 honey-bee colonies per 1 ha.
EFFECT: increase of yield.
7 cl, 1 ex
The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to the cultivation of buckwheat.
A known method of growing buckwheat (Elagin I. N. Agriculture buckwheat. - M.: Kolos, 1984. - 27-28, 127 S.), which prepare the ground for the culture consists of basic and pre-treatment. Following the cleaning of cereal in the fall of conduct shelling that provides good cutting of soil by subsequent treatments, contributes to the accumulation and preservation of soil moisture due to precipitation. At the same time destroyed the insect pests. Shelling promotes the germination of weed seeds, seedlings which completely destroyed and plowing. In dry conditions when the cold autumn weather autumn plowing can be done without pre-peeling. In terms of the manifestations of wind erosion on light soils, and on heavy soils otvalnuyu autumn plowing replace the no-till treatment.
Spring to conserve moisture in the soil and alignment of arable land during the first field trip, otvalnuyu the plowing harrowing. Then spend 2-3 cultivation simultaneously harrowing and pre-packing.
Joint application of nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers creates the most favorable conditions for plant nutrition. Buckwheat responds well to fertilization at sowing seeds in ADCI.
Sowing produced during the heating of the soil at a depth of 8-10 cm to 10-12°C and when the danger of a return spring frosts. In conditions of Western Siberia is the end of may - beginning of June. Buckwheat sown in a continuous way. The placement of seeds produced at a depth of 7-8 cm
Care for sowing is from the soil simultaneously with the sowing, pre-emergence, and sometimes harrowing post-harvest and 1-2 inter-row treatments for weed control and cultivation of row spacing. On a heavily littered areas apply herbicides. In the system of care for the crops provide the pollination by bringing bee colonies to the crops.
Cleaning produce separately, plants harvested in rolls with brown 75-80% of the grains, 3-4 days a beveled mass are thrashing.
The disadvantages of this method include the high material costs of tillage, harvesting and bringing to the basal condition for humidity commodity grain. When this occurs the destruction of the soil structure numerous mechanical treatments, the development of buckwheat large vegetative mass.
Known a better way of growing buckwheat - prototype (resource-Saving technology of production of buckwheat: guidelines [Text] / C. I. Zotikov, H. I. Glazov, G. A. Borzenkova and other eagle: GNU VNIIBT, 2009. page 15 - 40 C.), including alleway plowing to a depth of 20-22 cm or surface-ploskoreznyh processing, presowing treatment of winter tillage. When the sprouts of weeds applies cultivation harrowing and rolling. In fields with autumn processed by subsurface cultivator., in the spring of moisture close needle harrows, conduct pre-sowing cultivation. On the day of sowing perform preplant, planting and packing.
The optimal timing of fertilizer are: first, before sowing, the second - in rows at sowing, the third - 10-15 days after germination (phase branching-budding). During the vegetation period buckwheat fed once before flowering nitrogen and complex fertilizers 10-15 kg D. C. on 1 hectare Effective foliar ordinary crops of complex mineral fertilizers. The best planting dates come with a steady warming of the soil at a depth of 8-10 cm to 10-12°C. Buckwheat sown usual ordinary, narrow and wide-row methods. The seeding rate for ordinary and broadband planting of 2.5 - 3.5 million viable seeds per 1 ha, for wide-row - 1.5 to 2.5. The depth of sowing on cultivated structural soils - 5-6 see Caring for the crops consists of poslepoletnogo rolling, harrowing up the shoots and in the designation of rows, inter-row cultivation. On very weedy crops during branching-budding apply herbicides. For best pollination of flowers, 1-2 days before black is the shadow of buckwheat, on the field ride hives based 2-3 full bee 1 ha, placing groups at a distance of not more than a mile from the crops. Harvesting buckwheat start when brown on plants 75-80% of the fruit and finish within 4-5 days. The primary method of harvesting buckwheat - separate.
This way, according to the above authors guidelines, increases productivity and efficiency of production of buckwheat by saving money and energy resources.
The disadvantages of this method include the material costs for primary and pre-seeding tillage, annual seeding and separate annual harvest, in which there are significant irrecoverable loss of grain.
The technical result of the invention is to eliminate the disadvantages of the prototype, in particular the creation of more efficient technologies of growing of buckwheat with reduced grain loss and material costs for tillage.
Delivered by the invention technical result is achieved by a combination of known features, including pre-sowing tillage sowing seeds and new signs, namely, that the sowing of seeds in the soil carried out periodically every two years, the first of which seeding is carried out in the late period carry out late harvest direct combine harvesting, in the second year shoots windfall Vibranivo to density of 2.0-3.0 million plants per 1 ha and harvesting implement separate way as maturing buckwheat.
Sowing seeds in the first year of cultivation buckwheat carry on stubble at a depth of 5-6 cm ordinary way, the norm of 3.0-3.5 million viable seeds per 1 ha, with simultaneous application of mineral fertilizer dose of N30P30K30.
Late sowing seeds in the first year of cultivation buckwheat carried out in the second half of June.
Late harvest direct combine harvesting in the first year of cultivation buckwheat carried out when the plant is cut at a height of 20-25 cm from the soil surface.
Harvest direct combine harvesting in the first year of cultivation buckwheat spend 5-7 days after the onset of the first autumn frost, the role of desiccation (drying leafy mass and grain at the root).
To increase yields flowering buckwheat is pollinated by bees from the calculation 2-4 bee on 1 hectare
Thickened shoots windfall in the second year of cultivation buckwheat Vibranivo to density of 2.0-3.0 million plants per 1 ha
The novelty of the proposed method is the planting of seeds in the soil periodically once in two years, the first of which seeding is carried out in the late period and perform a late harvest direct combine harvesting, the WTO is the second year shoots windfall Vibranivo to density of 2.0-3.0 million plants per 1 ha and harvesting implement separate way as maturing buckwheat.
So, late sowing seeds in the first year of cultivation buckwheat carries the seed maturation and harvest at a later time, including the onset of the first frost. This fact, in combination with the cleaning direct combine harvesting in the first year of cultivation, allows seeds windfall evenly distributed across the treated area and get the following spring amicable shoots windfall after harrowing until the required thickness of 2.0-3.0 million plants per 1 ha, which does not require new planting seed in the soil and does not require additional processing.
Signs of sowing seeds in the first year of cultivation buckwheat stubble to a depth of 5-6 cm ordinary way, the norm of 3.0-3.5 million viable seeds per 1 ha, with simultaneous application of mineral fertilizer dose of N30P30K30the implementation of late sowing seeds in the first year of cultivation of buckwheat in the second half of June, holding a late harvest direct combine harvesting in the first year of cultivation buckwheat when the plant is cut at a height of 20-25 cm from the soil surface, and 5-7 days after the onset of the first autumn frost, the role of desiccation (drying leafy mass and grain at the root), can reveal the features of the main clause is Isakov way and to ensure the achievement of invention technical result.
Signs of Chelopechene flowering buckwheat is based 2-4 bee colonies per 1 ha and Vybornova shoots windfall to the density of 2.0-3.0 million plants per 1 ha, harvesting the 2nd year of growing buckwheat separate way in connection with the early seed-windfall and ripening of the grain prior to the major harvesting can achieve the optimum conditions for obtaining high yields and, consequently, reduce labor costs.
According to the results of the patent information research combinations of features with new sources of scientific, technical and patent information is not detected, that is to treat them as non-novel. The combination of new and known characteristics of the proposed method is not obvious from the current level of technology, which makes them to have an inventive step.
Technology description of the proposed method allows to refer it to the industrial doable.
The proposed method of growing buckwheat is as follows.
Buckwheat sowing in the first year of cultivation carried out in the second half of June ordinary way, to a depth of 5-6 cm, with a rate of 3.0-3.5 million viable seeds per 1 hectare Simultaneously with the sowing of seeds in the soil make a fertilizer dose of N30P30K30. Flowering crops they pollinate the honey bee and is based 2-4 bee on 1 hectare Harvesting buckwheat carried out at a higher speed of movement of the harvester, directly, when cut in 20-25 cm from the soil surface to reduce the amount of obmolachivanie mass in minimum time - 2-3 days 5-7 days after the onset of the first autumn frost, the role of desiccation, after cormophyte weight will fall off and dry the grain to a moisture content of 16-18%, which allows to reduce grain losses at 2-4 kg/ha and achieve economies of funds - by 70-80% compared with separate cleaning. Fallen for cleaning grain, in the amount of 80-90 kg/ha, it overwinters on the soil surface in the stubble, keeping their crop quality by covering with snow that is retained stubble. In the spring of fallen grain plays the role of a seed, the seeds grow together and form a good germination. High stubble contributes to the accumulation of snow, which increases the spring the water content in the soil. Next year thickened shoots windfall Vibranivo to density of 2.5-3.0 million plants per 1 ha At flowering fields, depending on the number of bees in the family, ride 2-4 bee colonies per 1 ha for pollination of flowers. Harvest in the 2nd year of growing buckwheat carry out separate ways due to early seed-windfall and ripening of the grain prior to the main harvest work.
The cultivation of buckwheat in predlagaemaya allows to increase the grain yields of 3-4 t/ha due to saving seeds at sowing and reduce loss of grain during the harvest directly in the first year. The use of direct straight combining technology saves 3-4 l/ha fuel. Compared with the known method of the prototype cultivation of buckwheat, the proposed method allows to reduce production costs by 50-60% and to reduce the cost of grain.
A specific example of implementation of the proposed method.
On the lands of the three farms of the Smolensk district of Altai Krai: KFH "Chance" on the square 100-155 ha in 2008-2011, LLC "homeland" in the area of 200 ha in 2008-2009, in PI "Golden garner" the area of 260 ha in 2009-2010, where there was a field hospital for the study of science-based agricultural practices in the cultivation of buckwheat, was carried out experimental work on the cultivation of this crop on the proposed method.
After cleaning predecessor - winter wheat, fall tillage was not made on the principle of no-till farming. Direct buckwheat sowing was carried out on the stubble in late deadline June 19-20 drill NWS-3,6 at a seeding depth of 5-6 cm ordinary way, the norm of 3.0-3.5 million viable seeds per 1 ha with the consolidation of the soil. Fertilizer in the soil was carried out simultaneously with the seeding locally at a dose of N30P30K30. Flowering crops pollinated by three bee colonies per 1 ha grain Ripening on the vine in the first year of cultivation buckwheat reached 95%.
Cleaning was performed directly in minimal the timeframe 2-3 days after 6 days after the onset of the first autumn frost, when the leaf-stem mass showered and dried grain at the root to a moisture content of 17%, when the plant is cut at 20-25 cm from the soil surface harvester-don-1500B with minimum drum speed and with maximum gaps between the slats of the deck and pests at high speed. The number of chipped grain buckwheat does not exceed 13-15%, which is lower than the loss in a separate cleaning. Chipped grain was not frozen and served as seeds for the next year, in which the seeds are not produced. Save money on seeds reached 1500 rubles/ha, plus the decrease in depreciation of agricultural machinery and reducing the cost of fuel and lubricants required for the model technology for annual planting and separate cleaning.
The following year in the spring, thickened shoots windfall Vibranivo to density of 2.5-3.0 million plants per 1 ha Zubov harrows BSSS to 1.0 at a speed of 4-5 km/h, in 2 track across and/or along the diagonal of the field. Thinned plots was podseval drill NWS-3.6V. On flowering crops organized Chelopechene. Cleaning was performed on the 2nd year separate way, in connection with the early seed-windfall and ripening of the grain prior to the main harvest work.
Currently, the proposed method is developed the technical documentation, experimental work on introduction into production in farms of the Smolensk district of Altai Krai, showed good results. So, in 2012, KFH "Chance" buckwheat yield increased by 3.1 t/ha compared with standard technology and amounted to 12.3 kg/ha, the cost of grain - 46 rubles/kg; in 2010 LLC "homeland" received 22,1 kg/ha at a cost of 39 rubles/kg, which is higher than 4.5 kg/ha; in 2011 in PI "Golden granary" - 10,2 kg/ha at a cost of 59 rubles/kg, which is also greater than 1.9 t/ha yield, obtained by standard techniques.
Decided after the substantive examination to issue recommendations for cultivation of buckwheat on leached Chernozem steppe of the Altai territory.
1. The method of growing buckwheat, including pre-sowing tillage sowing of the seed, wherein the seed into the soil carried out periodically every two years, the first of which seeding is carried out in the late period and perform a late harvest direct combine harvesting, in the second year shoots windfall Vibranivo to density of 2.0-3.0 million plants per 1 ha and harvesting implement separate way as maturing buckwheat.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the seed in the first year of cultivation buckwheat carry on stubble at a depth of 5-6 cm ordinary way, the norm of 3.0-3.5 million viable seeds per 1 g is, with simultaneous application of mineral fertilizer dose of N30P30K30.
3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that late sowing seeds in the first year of cultivation buckwheat carried out in the second half of June.
4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that late harvest direct combine harvesting in the first year of cultivation buckwheat carried out when the plant is cut at a height of 20-25 cm from the soil surface.
5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the harvest direct combine harvesting in the first year of cultivation buckwheat spend 5-7 days after the onset of the first autumn frost, the role of desiccation - drying leafy mass and grain at the root.
6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that to increase yields flowering buckwheat is pollinated by bees from the calculation 2-4 bee on 1 hectare
7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the thickened shoots windfall in the second year of cultivation buckwheat Vibranivo to density of 2.0-3.0 million plants per 1 ha
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to all-the-year-round cultivation of vegetables with rotation of cultures. The method includes the cultivation of sprouts, planting of sprouts in a hothouse, care of the planted cultures and harvesting. The planted sprouts are the enrooted second caulises from mother plants - overgrown stepsons taken at the phase of blooming - lignifying with the growth 15-18 cm with two or three flower-bearing stems and additionally grown up to 20-30 cm. And the stepsons expelled from bases of the second - third leaf of mother plants, treated after separation with root-forming stimulators and grown afterwards in substrate are used. Meanwhile the additionally grown enrooted overgrown stepsons are planted with enrooted medium. Root forming stimulators are the preparations Epin- extra or NV-101. Rootage id performed in a substrate of the types Vipon within 10-20 days. Meanwhile the mother plants for vegetative propagation in Ural region are early varieties and hybrids, in particular F1 Energo, F1 Kupets or Cherry (Sweet Cherry).
EFFECT: meanwhile the mother plants for vegetative propagation in Ural region are early varieties and hybrids, in particular F1 Energo, F1 Kupets or Cherry (Sweet Cherry).
2 cl, 2 dwg, 10 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to horticulture. The method includes cutting the cuttings, treatment of the lower part of the cuttings before rooting with low-concentration aqueous solution of growth regulator for 12-24 hours and rooting. The growth regulator is uses as β-(3-indolyl)propionic acid in a concentration of 100 or 400 mg/l.
EFFECT: method enables to shorten the period of rooting by 5-10 days and to increase the rooting rate of the cuttings by 4,5-8%.
2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises autumn pre-sowing soil treatment, planting seed tubers in the ridges, inter-row treatments, mowing the stalks for fodder and harvesting the tubers. At that artichoke is places by predecessors, which are used as green manure - winter legume-grass mixtures. In the first year in spring on shoots of green manure artichoke tubers are planted in two to four rows with the width between the rows of 20-40 cm to form after the emergence of the ridge with the width of 120 cm, alternating with the technological gap with the width of 60-120 cm for the passage of harvesting and transport machines. After harvesting of artichoke on the harvested rows the formation of two to four rows on each ridge is carried out by the cultivator. On the second year in spring period prior to the emergence of plants of artichoke the cultivation and the formation of ridges is carried out, harrowing weeds and rows with small tubers. After sprouting of artichoke the thinning or bunching of rows is carried out with bringing the distance between the remaining slots of plants up to 60-80 cm.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the growing conditions, to reduce damage during inter-row cultivation and harvesting the stalks for fodder and tubers.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to the field crop production. The method comprises estimation of the soil composition of the cultivated land and its production potential based on soil samples, the status monitoring of crop development on video images of crops, obtained by visual control module, and man-made impacts on technological processes. Taking and delivery of soil samples and fragments of crops from depressed sites of the cultivated land is performed using robotic devices, in the operation of which the harmful effect on soil and crops is eliminated. At that, assessment of soil composition and its production potential and the status monitoring of crop development is carried out in two stages. At that, at the first stage the assessment of the soil composition and its production potential is carried out by comparison of video images of crops, located on the cultivated land. According to the results of comparison of video images the cultivated land is divided into areas that are homogeneous in composition of the soil and its production potential. At the second stage of assessment the depressed areas of the cultivated land are revealed, on which the man-made impacts are necessary, increasing the production potential of the soil. From these depressed areas the delivery of fragments of crops and soil samples is carried out. After that, the laboratory analysis of comparison of soil and crops is carried out for each depressed area of the cultivated land. The man-made impacts are developed and implemented on the technological processes of cultivation, the crops and soil to increase crop productivity on depressed areas of the cultivated land. The device comprises the laboratory-control complex and the module of visual control of the state of crops on the cultivated land. The device comprises the module of delivery of crop fragments from the cultivated land into the laboratory-control complex. At that the module of delivery of plant fragments from the cultivated land is used as unmanned flying machine. The module of visual control of the state of crops on the cultivated land, the laboratory-control complex, and the module of delivery of crop fragments from the cultivated land are interconnected infocommunication bond.
EFFECT: group of inventions enables to increase the efficiency of control of processes of crop growing in real time without damaging the soil and crops.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of horticulture, namely to control means to assess the physical and mechanical properties of berries. The device consists of a portable housing with control buttons located in it, alphanumeric LCD display, force measuring sensor connected to the electrical measuring device provided with a peak detector and compensator of packaging, as well as a grip for berries mechanically connected to the force measuring sensor through the rod force distributor and made in the form of a hinged fixed and spring-loaded movable gripping cup-shaped jaws, and a control device of gripping berries fixed to the housing, and kinematically connected to the shank of the movable gripping cup-shaped jaw for providing opening and closing the gripping jaws. In addition, the device comprises a movable spring-loaded pressure rod arranged so that its pressure surface is located between the gripping cup-shaped jaws and in its motion without berries there is no mechanical contact with the elements of gripping berries, and in the presence of fruit between the gripping jaws, it presses it with its pressure surface to its the inner surface of the gripping jaws, a mechanical actuator of the pressure rod mounted on the portable housing, and the device of determining the coefficient of relative strength of berries.
EFFECT: device provides improved performance in carrying out control operations by combining the operations.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises the procedures to obtain information about the physical properties, chemical composition of the soil and weather conditions on the agricultural field, as well as information about the actual yield of the previous year on each part of the agricultural field, compared to the signals of the system of determining the spatial coordinates at the time of harvesting, the use of mathematical models of the influence of soil and climatic factors on the final yield, production of calculations on the parameters of main technologies before sowing plants and carrying out of technological impacts in real time in accordance with these calculations for each part of the agricultural field. Before the start of the vegetation period the optimal program of changes of the plant development indicators average in the field and the parameters of the soil environment is determined by finding the maximum of the parameters of technological operations of the optimality criterion, taking into account the difference between the cost of the crop and the cost of its preparation. In real time at the working pass of the agricultural machine with tools its spatial coordinates are measured, the signals from the meteorological station on the ambient temperature, the level of solar radiation, the precipitation intensity is periodically recorded. According to the measured information the parameters of models of plants and the soil environment are precised, the measured values of the parameters of the plant development and the parameters of soil environment are compared for each part of the field to their optimal average values, according to the results of comparing the corrections to the average optimal values of parameters of technological impacts are formed. For each fragment of the field the size of the overall technological impact is determined, which is created from the optimal average and local correction, which is transmitted by the modem connection in the form of the task to the on-board controller of the machine tool, which carries out the technological impact. The information about the physical properties, chemical composition of the soil and plants is received by periodic sampling on test sites located next to the main field, on which the same culture is cultivated as on the main field, and which differ from each other by different fixed levels of irrigation and doses of mineral fertilizer applications and regulators of growth and development of plants. Simultaneously with the sampling on the test sites by means of aircraft remote sensing the multispectral images of the test sites and the main field are formed, according to the resulting spectral information and the selected samples the mathematical model of the optical measurements is precised, which reflect the connection of condition of the crops and the soil environment on the test sites with the parameters of reflection in all the used spectra, on the spectral information obtained over the entire area of the main field, the condition of the crops and the soil environment on the main field is assessed using the mathematical model of the optical measurements for each time of measurement, according to the obtained estimates and signals from the meteorological station on the ambient temperature, the level of solar radiation and the precipitation intensity the parameters of mathematical models of conditions of crop and soil environment are precised, on which the optimal program of changes of the plant development indicators and soil environment parameters mean in the field are then precised in real time. When working passes of the technological machines simultaneously with the measurement of the spatial coordinates the multispectral pattern of the entire area of the main field is repeatedly formed, on which with the predetermined pitch the condition of the crops and the soil environment is assessed, the resulting estimates on individual parts of the field are compared to their optimal average values obtained during the formation of an optimal program of change of the plant development indicators and soil environment parameters mean in the field. By comparing the results the corrections are formed to the average optimal values of parameters of technological impacts, and for each part of the field the amount of the overall technological impact is determined, created from the optimal average and local corrections in a given spatial coordinate.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the amount and reliability of the process of yield formation while substantial reducing the amount of manual labour.
SUBSTANCE: moorberry rootage on mineral soils. Within the territory of the Russian Federation the survival ability of moorberry transplants is ensured by preliminary rootage of semi-lignified transplants in covered ground. The ground consists of the mix of high-moor peat and valley peat with the acidity level pH 5.6 with the following composition by mass mg/kg: nitrogen 400-450; phosphorus 400-450; potassium 400-500. Then transplants are planted in the open mineral soil.
EFFECT: method allows to improve the survival ability of moorberry transplants, growing at the territory of the Russian Federation.
2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to plant-growing. The method uses the early varieties of potatoes as fallow crop for cultivation of fruit and berry and medicinal cultures on permafrost soils.
EFFECT: method allows to minimize the diversity and abundance of weed grasses and is environmentally safe.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. In the method pre-sowing treatment of a field, sowing grass and its harvesting are carried out. In the first year solid mixed sowing o annual legume and grain fodder crops is carried out with undersowing into stubble of legumes (green manure) crops with their subsequent embedding into soil. In the second year the mixed sowing of perennial legumes and grain crops is carried out, in the 3th, 4th and 5th year the care for crops and harvesting grass is carried out. In the sixth year the mixed sowing of legumes, grain and grain fodder crops is carried out, and in the seventh year the grain crops are sown or potato or Jerusalem artichoke are planted.
EFFECT: method enables to enhance the quality of fodder by sowing in the fodder crop rotation of grain, grain fodder and legume crops, to increase the productivity of an area with the introduction of nitrogen-fixing crops in the intermediate sowing of green manure crops for green fertiliser.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to the fodder production. The method comprises seeding a mixture of maize with amaranth. At that the seeds of maize hybrids of early-maturing, mid-season and late-ripening groups are sown in the mixture with amaranth and broad beans in a half-rate per hectare for each component. And amaranth seeds are enveloped with the mixture of crushed zeolite-containing clay - irlits and maize cobs in a ratio of 1:2. Harvesting of the ensilaged mass is carried out in the phase of milk ripeness of the early-maturing hybrid.
EFFECT: method enables to obtain fodder of a better quality and reduce costs for ensilaging.
2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: seed treatment is carries out in two cycles, the first of which is carried out by irradiation with pulsed infrared radiation with the wavelength from 3.0 to 4.0 microns, and the flux density from 5 to 10 kW per 1 m2 for 10 seconds with the speed of the temperature regime from 4.5 to 5°C/s. After the first cycle of treatment, the seeds are placed for binning for a period of 8-10 days. The second cycle of treatment is carried out as treatment of seeds with complex fungicidal protectant with the application rate of 0.4 litres per 1 ton of irradiated seeds for 5-7 minutes.
EFFECT: invention enables to activate the inner potential of seeds and their resistance to the causative agents of various diseases of cereal crops, contributing thereby the increase in productivity of cereal crops and their yield.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in seed treatment during five cycles. In the first cycle the seeds are treated with hot air with the temperature of 70°C. In the second and third cycles - with pulsed infrared radiation with a wavelength of 3.0-4.0 microns and the flux density of 5-10 kW/m2. In the fourth cycle - with the infrared radiation with a wavelength of 1-1.4 microns and the flux density of 25-30 kW/m2. In the fifth cycle - with the ultraviolet radiation with the wavelength of 0.25-0.3 microns. The interval of each cycle separately from each other is 1-2 sec. The speed of the temperature regime ranges from 1 to 5°C/sec.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the quality parameters of seeds - germination capacity and germination power.
1 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of increasing soil fertility includes pre-sowing treatment of Lucerne seeds with liquid biopreparation, cultivation and mowing of lucerne green mass. For seed treatment used is liquid bacterial biopreparation based on strain Sinorhizobium meliloti Yakutskiy No 2 SRI ARRIAM RCAM00826. Said preparation is taken in amount 1 billion of cells per 1 lucerne seed.
EFFECT: invention will make it possible to increase humus content in soil under old-aged lucerne grass stand.
2 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and biotechnology, in particular to plant-growing, and can be used at cultivation of plants of leguminous cultures. The method consists in that seeds before sowing are wetted in 2 % water solution of ferment preparation Tsello-Lux F within 8-10 hours.
EFFECT: invention allows to improve germinating capacity of seeds and to increase intensity of growth at the beginning of vegetation of leguminous cultures.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and breeding. In the method the seeds of stevia are soaked for 8 hours in the solution of zircon, the solution of hydroxycinnamic acids in alcohol at a concentration of 0.1 g/l. In early March, the seeds are sown in the greenhouse on a substrate from the mixture of soil:sand in the ratio of 2:1 in the trays without embedding. The conditions of excessive moisture content are created by covering with polyethylene film in the first days to germination.
EFFECT: method enables to increase seed germination and seedling survival, as well as to obtain quality planting material.
2 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes the reciprocating and oscillating motion of seeds and their treatment by magnetostatic field at a simultaneous fractioning and impaction of seeds. The method is implemented using the magnetic classifier which comprises the housing with the shape of truncated octahedral inverted pyramid (1) with flat sieves (2). The pyramid is installed in the frame (3). In the bottom of the housing one magnet (4) is installed. Above on the horizontal element of the frame two magnets are installed. The amount of sieves can be varied depending on the amount of fractions at separation of seeds.
EFFECT: invention allows to decrease the time of treatment and the cost price of pre-plant treatment of seeds at the expense of total refusal from the use of the electric power.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: pneumatic scarifier for presowing treatment of seeds of perennial grasses comprises a loading hopper for seeds with a dispenser, a fan for feeding a uniform flow of seeds from the dispenser using air through the tube into the hopper for seed scarification and their subsequent removal. Scarification is carried out using scarification surface coated with abrasive emery material. Feeding of seeds from the coil dispenser with injector is carried out through the work shaft which is provided with a dispensing head with drill tubes with the lower cut ends directed to scarification surface of toroidal shape. The latter is mounted on the wall of the hopper for seed scarification with the ability of vertical movement to adjust the angle of the sliding contact of seeds to it. On the suction nozzle of the fan a valve is mounted for adjustment of speed of contact of seeds.
EFFECT: use of the invention enables to improve the quality of scarification of solid seeds with a water-impermeable shell.
SUBSTANCE: device for ozonisation of bulk materials comprises a hopper, a dispenser, a vertical cylindrical container, an ozone generator with rate activator. Inside the container along the vertical axis the pipe is mounted, on the outer surface of which the short tilted blades of the multiple-threaded screw are mounted along the helical line.
EFFECT: use of invention enables to improve the efficiency of processing bulk materials while simultaneous simplifying the design.
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: linseed sprouts production method involves linseeds washing with distilled water with simultaneous removal of floating and damaged seeds. Seeds are treated with 0.0025% water solution of potassium permanganate and repeatedly washed with distilled water. Linseeds are placed for swelling into a flat vessel, distributed in a thin layer with thickness equal to 2-4 seeds between hygroscopic material layers, poured with electrochemically activated water with pH equal to 9…10 (catholyte) at a ratio of linseeds to electrochemically activated water being 1:2 and placed into a thermostat for 2 hours at a temperature of 25±2°C. Swollen seeds incubation is performed under moist conditions with periodical sprinkling of seeds surface with electrochemically activated water with pH equal to 9…10 (catholyte) in the thermostat at a temperature of 25±2°C during 12 hours till emergence of sprouts with length equal to 2-3 mm.
EFFECT: method allows to intensify the seeds sprouting process, increase biomass yield, enhance sprouting energy and seeds growth parameters percentage.
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SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular to the means of stimulation of germination of agricultural crop seeds, and can be used for pre-sowing treatment of seeds. Before sowing the seeds of agricultural crops are soaked for 3-4 hours in 5-6% aqueous solution of juice of creeping crown vetch pressed in a phase of flowering of the plants, and 2-3 ml of ethyl alcohol per 100 ml of the juice is added.
EFFECT: proposed method enables to stimulate the germination processes of seeds and to reveal simultaneously the protective properties with respect to seed and germinated plants.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of mechanisation of agricultural production. The method is characterised in that spraying of leaves of cultivated crops with fertiliser solutions is carried out and herbicides are applied with the tape. Spraying of leaves of cultivated crops is carried out in portions with a solution of mineral fertilisers, and application of the herbicides - on both sides symmetrically with respect to the row of plants within the protection zone with overlapping. To prevent the contact of the solution of the herbicide with the leaves of cultivated crops they are raised, and devices for application of fertilisers and herbicides are brought to the action zone of protective shields.
EFFECT: method provides improvement of quality of spraying, and also minimises the negative impact of herbicides on cultivated vegetative crops.