Halogenised amide biocidal compounds and methods of processing water systems with from nearly neutral to high ph
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of fighting microorganisms in water system. Claimed method includes processing of water system with efficient amount of formula I compound, with water system containing reducing agent in amount at least 10 ppm. In formula X represents halogen; R and R1, respectively, represent hydrogen and aminoradical of formula Invention also relates to application of formula (I) compound for fighting microbes in water system, containing reducing agent.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to efficiently fight microorganisms in water systems under deactivating conditions, created by presence of reducing agent.
10 cl, 4 tbl, 5 ex
Cross-reference to related applications
This patent application claims the priority of provisional patent application U.S. serial No. 61/179159, filed may 18, 2009, which is included here by reference in its entirety.
The scope of the invention
The invention relates to methods of combating microorganisms in aqueous systems that contain one or more reducing agents.
The level of technology
Water systems provide fertile breeding ground for algae, bacteria, viruses, fungi and other pathogenic microorganisms. Microbial contamination can create numerous problems, including aesthetic, such as muddy greens on the surface of the water, serious health risks, such as fungal, bacterial or viral infection, and clogging or corrosion.
With biofouling in water systems that are susceptible to microbial contamination, typically struggling through the use of biocidal agents. For example, 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide ("DBNPA") is a commercially available biocide, which is particularly desirable because it is fast, cheap material that shows efficacy against a broad spectrum of microorganisms.
However, it is known that various physical and/or chemical condition is I in the aqueous system can lead to premature deactivation of the biocide, making biocide essentially ineffective before achieved microbiological control. As an example, many pulp and paper mills process water (white water) contains as an impurity ions, sulfite from the processing of raw materials and sodium sulfite. In the oil and gas industry bisulphite added to injection water or liquid, and water and frac fluid as oxygen scavenger. In addition, some of the microorganisms that live in the wastewater of pulp and paper production, and other process waters can lead to the formation of regenerating metabolites, such as hydrogen sulfide. Sulfites, bisulfite and sulfides are reducing agents which are known to rapidly inactivate biocides, such as 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA), making biocides prematurely ineffective.
Would be a significant progress in the area of technology, providing biocides, which are fast-acting, long-lasting and stable when exposed to potentially deactivating conditions in an aqueous system, for example, in the presence of reducing agents.
The invention provides a method of combating microorganisms in an aqueous system that contains restore the tel. The method includes processing the aqueous system an effective amount of the compounds of formula I:
in which X, R and R1are as defined in the present description.
DETAILED description of the INVENTION
As indicated above, the invention relates to methods of combating microorganisms in aqueous systems that contain one or more reducing agents. The method includes the processing of such water system compound of formula (I). The inventors have unexpectedly found that the compounds of formula (I) are more resistant to deactivation by reducing agents in the water system in comparison with other biocides, including commercial connection DBNPA. In particular, the examples below demonstrate that a reduction in the efficiency of 2.2-dibromomalonamide (DBMAL), as illustrative of the compounds according to the invention is much smaller than the DBNPA (biocide comparison), when comparing the effectiveness of both compounds in an aqueous system containing sulfite ion (example reductant).
The compounds of formula (I) have the following chemical structure:
in which X represents a halogen; and R and R1, respectively, represent hydroxyalkyl and a cyano radical (-C≡N), or R and R1accordingly, represent hydrogen, amido radical of the formula:
img src="https://img.russianpatents.com/1196/11960132-s.jpg" height="13" width="24" />
Preferably, X in the compounds of formula (I) represents a bromine, chlorine or iodine, more preferably bromine.
A preferred compound of formula (I) is 2,2-dibromo-2-cyano-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)ndimethylacetamide.
A further preferred compound of the formula (I) is 2,2-dibromomalonamide. The term "2.2-dibromomalonamide" denotes a compound of the following formula:
Specialists in this field can prepare the compounds of formula (I) using techniques well known from the literature.
The compounds of formula (I) are applicable to combat microorganisms in aqueous systems that contain a reducing agent. Such aqueous systems include, but are not limited to, the storage tank and waste water pulp and paper mill and wood pulp plant, waste water pulp and paper production, injection, used for hydraulic fracturing and produced water oil and gas fields, oil and gas wells and tanks, deaerator, oil and gas operating and transporting system, the functional fluid of oil and gas fields, oil and gas wells and reservoirs, oil and gas separation system and storage tanks, oil and gas pipelines, gas tanks, arastou water, Metalworking fluids, system, leather industry and filtration systems on the membrane basis. Preferred water systems are wastewater pulp and paper mill and wood pulp plant, waste water pulp and paper production, water injection or liquid water or liquid frac and produced water or liquid oil and gas fields, Metalworking fluids and filtration systems for membrane-based.
The sources of the presence of a reducing agent in aqueous systems according to the invention can be different. For example, many pulp and paper mills process water (white water) may contain as an additive a sulfite, a reducing agent, from processing paper pulp and sodium sulfite. In the oil and gas industry bisulphite added to injection water or fluid injection or fracture treatment as an oxygen scavenger. In addition, some of the microorganisms that live in the process water, such as waste water pulp and paper production, injected or used for fracturing or produced water or liquid oil and gas fields, oil and gas wells and reservoirs, operational, separating, transporting system and storing the deposits of oil and gas fields, ballast water, Metalworking fluids and systems for the leather industry, can lead to the formation of regenerating metabolites, such as hydrogen sulfide, which is also a reducing agent. Thus, the reducing agents that may be present in the aqueous system include, but are not limited to, a sulfite ion, bisulfite ion or sulfides, such as hydrogen sulfide. Typically, the water system according to the invention contains from about 5 to about 200 ppm, more preferably from about 10 to about 100 ppm by weight of reducing agent.
In addition to stability with respect to the reducing agent, the compounds according to the invention unexpectedly turned out to be more stable to hydrolysis at pH in the range from nearly neutral to alkaline, compared with other biocides. In particular, the examples below demonstrate that at pH 6,9 2,2-dibromomalonamide (DBMAL), illustrating the connection according to the invention is significantly more stable compared to the DBNPA (biocide comparison). No loss DBMAL is not detected during 96 hours, whereas 84% DBNPA is lost during the same period of time under identical conditions.
Thus, in a further embodiment, compounds of formula (I) used in the method of dealing with microorganisms in an aqueous system which contains a reducing agent, where the aqueous system has a pH or more. In some embodiments, the implementation of the pH is 6 or more. In further embodiments, the implementation of the pH is 7 or more. In additional embodiments, the implementation of the pH is 8 or more.
Typical filtration systems for membrane-based include systems containing one or more semi-permeable membranes, including, but not limited to, membranes, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and ion exchange. Applicable systems include systems containing one type of membrane (e.g., microfiltration), and systems containing many types of membranes (e.g., ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis). For example, the filtration system on the membrane basis may include the above flow membrane microfiltration or ultrafiltration and located downstream membrane nanofiltration or reverse osmosis.
Which is the object of the invention biocidal compounds can be added to the original solution before filtering (for example, add to the storage tank or pool that contains the original solution to be processed) or for filtering (for example, to dose in a pressurized source solution for filtering). Moreover, which is the object of the invention biocidal compounds can be added to cleaning solutions or what I store, in contact with the membrane. For the purposes of this description, an aqueous solution (for example, a raw solution, cleaning solution, a solution for the storage of the membrane, and so on) in contact with the membrane system, called the "original solution". In one embodiment, the source solution includes a solution for storage, which immerse the membrane. U.S. patent 7156997 describes a typical layout package for storage membranes.
When used within a system having a membrane as micro - or ultrafiltration, and nanofiltration or reverse osmosis, which is the object of the invention, the biocidal compounds provide biocidal effect for each membrane (for example, membranes located both upstream and downstream).
Part of biocidal compounds, sorted by the membrane(s) can be extracted from the concentrate stream and re-returned for use in subsequent treatments (for example, referring back to the storage tank or metered file in the incoming raw materials). Recycling biocidal compounds may be part of a periodic or continuous method.
In many filtering systems based on membranes pH of the initial solution is at least 7, often at least 8, in some embodiments, the implementation of at least 9 and at other VA is Ianto implementation at least 10. Examples of such systems based on membranes are described in U.S. patents 6537456 and 7442309. Moreover, many membrane systems usually clean or store source solutions having a pH of at least 11, and in some embodiments, the implementation of at least 12. Unlike DBNPA (as described in WO 2008/091453), biocidal compounds, which is the object of the invention remain effective for such neutral and alkaline conditions. As a result, biocidal compounds, which is the object of the invention, can be added to a wider range of initial solutions (for example, water and raw materials with adjusted pH, aqueous cleaning solutions, water solutions for storage), used in connection with the filtration membrane basis.
The type of membranes used in these systems are not specifically limited and includes sheet, tube and hollow fiber. One preferred class of membranes includes thin-film composite polyamide membranes commonly used in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis, as generally described in U.S. patent 4277344, 2007/0251883 and 2008/0185332. Such membranes nanofiltration and/or reverse osmosis are usually provided in the form of flat sheets inside configuration with spiral wrapped. Polyamide membranes are sensitive to many chlorine compounds(for example, chlorine, hypochlorous acid, hypochlorite), which are commonly used for disinfection of water systems. In order to neutralize such chlorine compounds in source solutions often add reducing agents such as bisulfite, sulfite or sulfide, at a point upstream from the polyamide membrane. Unlike DBNPA, biocidal compounds, which are the object of the invention are more resistant to deactivation by such reducing agents.
Non-limiting examples of membranes for microfiltration and ultrafiltration include porous membranes made of various materials, including polysulfones, polyethersulfone, polyamides, polypropylene and polyvinylidene fluoride. Such membranes for micro - and ultrafiltration, usually made in the form of hollow fibers.
The person skilled in the art can easily determine, without undue experimentation, an effective amount of compounds of the formula I, which should be used in the concrete industry. For example, is usually sufficient quantity of at least 5 ppm by weight, more preferably at least 10 ppm, or at least 50 hours per million In some embodiments, the implementation of a number, preferably 500 ppm or less, or 300 ppm or less, or 200 ppm or less, or 100 mln or less.
The compounds of formula I can be used in the water system together with other additives, such as, but not limited to, surfactants, ionic/non-ionic polymers and inhibitors of the formation of deposits and corrosion, oxygen scavengers and/or additional biocides.
These compounds appeared to be surprisingly resistant to deactivation by reducing agents compared with other biocides, including commercial connection DBNPA. Therefore, compounds useful for combating microorganisms in a wider range of water systems than currently known biocides, and, therefore, provide a significant advantage for the industry.
For the purposes of this description of "microorganism" refers to bacteria, algae and viruses. The words "struggle" and "controlling" in a broad sense should be interpreted as including in its meaning, and is not limited to, suppression of growth or development of micro-organisms, destruction of microorganisms, disinfection and/or preservation.
Under the "hydroxyalkyl" understand alkyl group (i.e., aliphatic group with unbranched and branched chain), which contains from 1 to 6 carbon atoms and substituted by a hydroxyl group. Examples include, but are not limited to, hydroxymethyl, hydroxyethyl, 2-hydroxypropyl, 3-HYDR shall xypropyl and similar groups.
"Halogen" refers to fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine.
Unless specified otherwise, attitude, interest, parts and similar, used here, is the mass.
The following examples are illustrative and there is no intention to limit the scope of patent protection of the invention.
The examples are evaluated following songs:
2,2-Dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide ("DBNPA") obtained from Dow Chemical company.
2.2-Dibromomalonamide ("DBMAL") obtained from Johnson Mathey.
CMIT/MIT (5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one) was obtained from Dow Chemical company.
The glutaraldehyde obtained from the Dow Chemical company.
Chloride, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium (ADBAC) were obtained from Lonza.
1-Bromo-3-chloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin ("BCDMH") obtained from Clariant Corporation.
Sodium hypochlorite obtained from Clorox.
Getting 2,2-dibromo-2-cyano-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)ndimethylacetamide (DBCHA)
To a solution of 0.1 mole of metalloelastase (10.1 g) in methanol (40 grams) is added to 0.1 mol of 3-amino-1-propanol (7,51 grams). The mixture is stirred and heated to 60°C for 30 minutes. The methanol solvent is distilled off from the reaction product under vacuum. The reaction product, without the need for any additional purification, is dissolved in water and carry out its interaction with 0.1 mol of bromine (16,0 g) and 0.03 mole of sodium bromate (5,0 Gras is m). The temperature of the reaction mixture is kept lower than 30°C. After complete addition of bromine and bromate sodium, the reaction mixture is stirred for 30 minutes before neutralizing it to pH 3 to 4 with dilute sodium hydroxide. The output is of 0.09 mole of 2,2-dibromo-2-cyano-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)ndimethylacetamide (28 grams).
Stability against hydrolysis: comparison of DBMAL and DBNPA
Dilute solutions (less than 0.5 mass. %) DBMAL and DBNPA is prepared at three different pH. pH establish and maintain using standard buffer solutions at pH of 6.9, 8.0 to 9.0. These solutions are then incubated at a constant temperature or at -1°C or at 30°C. Periodically, aliquots analyzed HPLC to determine the level of remaining DBMAL or DBNPA. The results are shown in table 1.
Table 1 shows that even under almost neutral conditions (pH=6,9) and a temperature of 30°C DBMAL significantly more stable than DBNPA (biocide comparison). No loss DBMAL not been defined within 96 hours, whereas it was lost 84% DBNPA during the same period of time under identical conditions.
Testing the stability of the biocide to decontamination sulfite by pre-treatment biocide sulfite before testing effectiveness: against the of DBMAL and DBNPA
DBMAL and DBNPA pre-mixed with sulfite, adding to the sample waste water pulp and paper production (at about pH 7.5) containing 80 ppm of sulfite. The typical level of sulfite pulp production and paper ranges from 50 ppm up to 80 h/million the same pattern of "white water" without sulfite is used as nestorgames the sulfite of the comparison sample and the same sample of "white water", containing no biocide containing and nesadurai the sulfite is used as control samples. Water samples incubated at 37°C for 5 min and then inoculated with bacteria that were isolated in the field, at a concentration of approximately 107CFU/ml of the mixture is incubated at 37°C for 4 hours. After that retained bacteria count using the method of serial dilutions. Table 2 compares the effectiveness of DBMAL and DBNPA, pre-treated with sulfite, and DBMAL and DBNPA, not treated with sulfite.
Comparison of the effectiveness of DBMAL and DBNPA in sulfacetamide water
|Biocide||Sulfite treatment||Decrease bacteria log10after treatment with biocide when FS is cnyh concentrations for 4 h.|
|a 100.0 ppm||66,7 ppm||44,5 h/million||29,7 ppm|
|DBMAL||Not treated with sulfite||the 4.7||5,0||4,3||1,7|
|Pre-treated with 80 ppm of sulfite||2,3||2,3||1,0||1,0|
|The reduction in efficiency due to sulfite pretreatment||2,4||2,7||3,3||0,7|
|DBNPA*||Not treated with sulfite||>=5,7||>=5,7||>=5,7||the 4.7|
|Pre-treated with 80 ppm of sulfite||2,3||1,3||1,3||1,3|
|The reduction in efficiency due to sulfite pretreatment||>=3,4/td>||>=4,4||>=4,4||>=3,4|
|* Example comparison|
When pre-mixed with 80 ppm of sulfite, reducing the effectiveness of DBMAL is much less than in the case of DBNPA, showing that the biocidal activity of DBMAL more resistant to the reducing agent compared with DBNPA.
Biocidal efficacy in the presence of sulfite: comparison of DBMAL and DBNPA
DBMAL and DBNPA add to the sample contaminated wastewater of pulp and paper production (approximately 106CFU/ml of bacteria, pH of 7.6), containing about 80 ppm of sulfite, at final concentrations of active biocides 50 ppm and 25 h/million same samples contaminated wastewater without biocide used as control samples. The mixture is incubated at 37°C with shaking (100 rpm) for 96 hours. At time intervals of 1 hour, 3 hour, 24 hour, 48 hour, 72 hours and 96 hours after addition of biocide which are still in force bacteria count using the method of serial dilutions, and the reduction of bacteria log10counting, comparing the number of retained bacteria in the aliquot treated with biocide, and the aliquot control. Starting from 24 hours after sampling, the mixture subcultured bacteria selected in field conditions is s, with a content of about 105CFU/ml and added an additional amount of sulfite, maintaining the concentration of sulfite 80 h/million table 3 shows the effectiveness of DBMAL and DBNPA at different points in time, expressed as log10reduce the number of bacteria.
Comparison of the biocidal effectiveness of DBMAL and DBNPA against bacteria in sulfacetamide waste water pulp and paper production (1-96 hours)
|Biocide||Decrease bacteria log10at different time points after addition of biocide|
|Active concentration||Chemical drug||1 hour||3 hours||24 hours||48 hours||72 hours||96 hours|
|50 ppm||DBMAL||>=4,0||the 3.8||>=4,3||4,3||4,2||the 3.8|
|* Example comparison|
As shown in table 3, DBMAL shows the initial slower killingly effect compared with DBNPA, but its effectiveness (killing >3 log10) proceeds in two days more than in the case of DBNPA in the same active concentration of 50 ppm, and lasts for one day more than in the case of DBNPA, at the same activity concentration equal to 25 h/million
Biocidal efficacy in the presence of sulfite: comparison of DBMAL with other biocides
Sterile artificial waste water pulp and paper production (111 mg CaCl2, 60 mg MgSO4, 168 mg NaHCO32HPO4, 480 mg NH4Cl, 1,04 mg FeCl3·6H2O, to 1.48 mg Na2EDTU, 3000 mg of dextrose, 10 mg yeast extract in 1 l of water, pH 8,1) pollute selected in the field by bacteria with a concentration of approximately 107CFU/ml. Then aliquots of this contaminated water is treated eight dose levels DBMAL and six other commonly used biocides for wastewater of pulp and paper production. As control using the same aliquots of contaminated water without biocide. After incubation at 37°C for 4 hours, still in force bacteria in the aliquot counted using the method of serial dilutions, and the reduction of bacteria log10counting, comparing the number of retained bacteria in the aliquot treated with biocide, and the aliquot control. Table 4 compares the effectiveness of seven biocides, expressed as a reduction of bacteria log10. As you can see, DBMAL is one of the most effective molecules in this comparative study.
Comparison of the biocidal effectiveness of seven biocides against bacteria isolated from wastewater of pulp and paper production
|Biocide||The minimum is the second dose (ppm, active substances) required for at least 3 log10reducing the number of bacteria in 4 hours|
|BCDMH* (ppm active substance is measured according to the bromine and chlorine||71,74 (chlorine/bromine)|
|* Example comparison|
Although both oxidizing biocide, BCDMH and monochloramine (prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of ammonium bromide and sodium hypochlorite), show good performance, they have corrosion problems and are not durable biocides.
While the invention has been described above according to their preferred options for implementation, it can be modified within the essence and scope of this description. Therefore, it is understood that this application presence covers the any changes use or adaptation of this invention, using the General principles described here. Moreover, it is understood that the application covers such departures from the present description that fall within known or customary practice in the prior art to which this invention relates, and which are within the boundaries of the following next of the claims.
1. The way to combat microorganisms in the aqueous system, and the method includes processing the aqueous system an effective amount of the compounds of formula I
in which X represents a halogen; and
R and R1accordingly, represent hydrogen and amidoethyl formula
where the water system contains a reducing agent in the amount of at least 10 hours/million
2. The method according to p. 1, in which X represents bromine.
3. The method according to p. 1 or 2 in which the reducing agent is a sulfite, a bisulfite, or a sulfide.
4. The method according to p. 1 in which the aqueous system has a pH of 5 or more.
5. The method according to p. 1, in which the water system is a storage tank and waste water pulp and paper mill and wood pulp plant, waste water pulp and paper production, injection, used for hydraulic fracturing and produced water oil and gas is the first field, oil and gas wells and tanks, deaerator, oil and gas operating and transporting system, the functional fluid of oil and gas fields, oil and gas wells and reservoirs, oil and gas separation system and storage tanks, oil and gas pipelines, gas tanks, ballast water, Metalworking fluids, system, leather industry and filtration systems for membrane-based.
6. The method according to p. 1, in which the microorganisms are bacteria.
7. The method according to p. 1, in which the system includes a filtration system for membrane-based, comprising at least one semipermeable membrane, the selected at least one of: membrane microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and ion exchange membrane, where the method includes adding the compounds of formula I in the original solution, followed by contact of the starting solution with a semi-permeable membrane.
8. The method according to p. 1, in which the filtration system on the membrane basis includes, at least: i) one membrane microfiltration or ultrafiltration, and (ii) at least one nanofiltration membrane or reverse osmosis.
9. The method according to p. 1, in which the original solution has a pH of at least 8.
10. The use of soedineniya (I), defined in paragraph 1, for the control of microbes in the water system where water system contains a reducing agent in the amount of at least 10 hours/million
FIELD: chemistry, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of obtaining 4-amino-3-quinolinecarbonitryl, which includes: a) combining aminocompound with cyanoacetic acid and acid catalyst obtaining cyanoacetomide; b) condensing cyanoacetomide from stage a with aniline, alcohol solvent and trialkylorthoformiate obtaining 3-amino-2-cyanoakrylamide; and c) combining 3-amino-2-cyanoakrylamide with phosphorus oxychloride in acetonitryl, butyronitrile, toluol or xylol, optionally in presence of catalyst, obtaining 4-amino-3-quinolinecarbonitryl. Also described is method (version) of obtaining 4-amino-3-quinolinecarbonitryl, method of obtaining 7-aminothieno[3,2-b]pyridine-6-carbonitrile and method of obtaining cyanoacetamide.
EFFECT: creation of efficient method of obtaining 4-amino-3-quinolinecarbonitryl.
24 cl, 50 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to installations for activation of liquid water media by electrochemical method and is intended for preparation of two types of water: alkaline and acidic in production conditions. Industrial installation for electrochemical water processing has several reactors, separated in pairs. Each pair of reactors has control cabinet and power electric equipment, system of water supply, collection reservoirs for activated water, pump equipment for its transportation and ventilation system. Each reactor with volume 200 l is made of dielectric material; anode and cathode chambers with electrodes are separated with ion-permeable diaphragm; electrode of anode chamber is made of titanium sheet, rolled in form of 850 mm high cut cylinder with diameter 175-180 mm; electrode of cathode chamber is made of stainless steel in form of 850 mm high cut cylinder with diameter 275-280 mm; and ion-permeable membrane is made of cotton filter fabric. Reactors in pair are switched on to each other with possibility of operating by turns - one in mode of production of electrochemical activated water, and the other - in preparation mode.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of installation operation and obtaining activated water in industrial volume.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of multi-stage processing of industrial and circulating mother waters from organic and nitrogen-containing pollutants of different origin and can be applied at factories of chemical industry, predominantly in technology of purifying mother water of synthesis of toxic and explosive compounds of substances, which contain hydrazine, azides and ethanol. Hydrazine oxidation is carried out by hydrogen peroxide in mother waters, with ethyl alcohol and sodium azide in form of volatile compound being blown by air from mother waters with the following oxidation of steam-air mixture on catalyst; oxidation of hydrazine with hydrogen peroxide is carried out at pH=10 and temperature t=60°C for 2 hours; conversion of sodium azide into volatile compound is carried out by acidifying of mother waters by sulphuric acid to pH=1.65; blowing of ethanol and nitrogen hydride from mother waters is carried out by acidification of mother waters with sulphuric acid to pH=1.65; flowing of ethyl alcohol and nitrogen hydride from mother waters by air is carried out at temperature t=60°C, oxidation of ethyl alcohol steam and nitrogen hydride is carried out by air oxygen on aluminium-copper-chrome catalyst at temperature t=300-350°C and W=10000 h-1.
EFFECT: complex purification of mother waters, which contain hydrazine, sodium azide and ethyl alcohol with minimal expenditures for process realisation.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrochemical water treatment and can be used for purification of drinking water for country cottages, village not connected to water supply lines but located nearby minor exposed water pools. Water is poured in chambers of porous electrodes, anode and cathode chambers being communicated via through hole 9 made at top part of sealed web. Electric current is fed to charge anode and cathode to voltage lower than that of hydrogen and oxygen release. Then, ionistor charge is interrupted to cut off ionic bond between filled chambers of both electrodes by draining a portion of water therefrom. Thereafter, charges accumulated at porous electrodes are discharged to drain water therefrom into different tanks for store of catholyte and anolyte Prior to using, stored water fractions with different pH are mixed. Proposed device comprises housing of ionistor 1, anolyte and catholyte tanks 7 and 8, water level gages 10 for two tanks, switch 11, voltage source 12, electric power accumulator 13, connection hoses, valves, control device 14, voltage converter 16 and current converter 15.
EFFECT: electric power savings.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of purifying sewage waters from cationic surface-active substance tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide and can be used at enterprises of light industry, machine-building, petrochemical and organic synthesis and ore processing. Method consists in the following: mixture, containing sodium dodesulphate, alumosilicic coagulant-flocculant and granulated sulphate polyacrylamide in ratio :[1-1.2:0.25-0.5:0.008-0.01], is introduced into sewage water, which contains cationic surface-active substance, with further electroflotation extraction of formed compounds from sewage water.
EFFECT: invention provides increased degree of electroflotation extraction of cationic surface-active substance tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide from sewage waters.
2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention aims at processing and decontaminating aqueous media of various types for the purpose of microorganism protective, particularly cooling water of cooling towers, heat-exchange equipment for preventing biological growth of heat-exchange surfaces and other industrial systems. The biocidal composition for processing the aqueous media involves polyhexamethyleneguanidine compounds, isothiasolinone compounds and non-ionic surfactants.
EFFECT: invention enables producing the composition having the high biocidal activity on bacteria, fungi and algae.
5 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biocides. Biocidal composition includes dibromomalonamide and biocide, based on isothiazolinone of formula I , where R and R1 independently represent hydrogen, halogen or C1-C4 alkyl or R and R1 together with carbon atoms, which they are bound to, form C4-C7 cycloalkyl ring or aryl group and Y represents H, C1-C12 alkyl, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, aryl or aralkyl. Control of microorganism growth in water system or in water-containing system is realised by processing water system or water-containing system with efficient quantity of claimed composition.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase processing efficiency.
10 cl, 15 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: installation contains an operation vessel with an inlet and an outlet nipples which is designed in the form of a cylindrical screen body where a perforated resonating chamber and a sieve screen body are coaxially mounted. A circular coil is wound on the side surface of the screen body. The operation vessel is equipped with a lid whereon a UHF generator unit (the radiator whereof is directed into the perforated resonating chamber) is installed. On the outside of the side surfaces of the cylindrical screen body and under its lower base ultrasonic oscillations sources represented by piezoelectric elements with ultrasonic generators are installed. The operation vessel inlet and outlet nipples are connected to a circulation pump, an isolation valve and an uviol glass pipeline parallel whereto an ultraviolet rays source is installed.
EFFECT: liquid products disinfection in continuous flow mode by a complex impact of physical factors such as UHF electromagnetic field, ultraviolet rays bactericidal flux and ultrasonic oscillations; the complex impact of physical factors kills vegetative form of microorganisms at a temperature lower than in case of separate impact of each physical factor.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a purifying device adapted to carry out a method of photochemical removal of xenobiotics present in water. The purifying device comprises a photochemical reactor unit having at least one inlet for contaminated water and one outlet for purified water, which provides a direction for continuous flow of water from the inlet to the outlet, and is equipped with a radiation source module providing ultraviolet radiation in a wavelength range ranging from 100 to 280 nm. The purifying device further comprises at least one membrane filtration unit designed to perform ultra-filtration and connected upstream of said photochemical reactor unit via said inlet and at least one device for feeding air or dioxygen into the water contained in the photochemical reactor unit, and a device for feeding hydrogen peroxide into the photochemical reactor unit.
EFFECT: invention provides reliable removal of xenobiotics from water.
11 cl, 2 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of effluents and drinking water by their UV disinfection. Proposed system comprises some UV radiators (30) arranged in tubular shells (18). These are arranged, in fact, in symmetry about lengthwise axis (11). Besides, it include cleaner intended for said tubular shells (18). Said cleaner comprises the following elements: at least, one cleaning ring (1) for every said shell (18) arranged there around. Note here that said one cleaning ring (1) has scraper ring (7) thrusting against tubular shell (18). At least one cleaning ring (1) drive means (31, 32) is arranged in lengthwise axis (11). Pressurised fluid is fed from pressure source to scraper ring (7). The latter if fitted in cleaning ring (1) to be displaced therein and radially squeezed towards tubular shell (18) by pressure.
EFFECT: long-term efficient cleaning.
13 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of industrial effluents. Proposed clarifier comprises initial fluid feed chamber 1, means 2 to distribute said fluid in laminar flow with horizontal top and bottom edges, housing with inclined lengthwise parallel walls with thin-ply modules, bottom and chamber 9 for clarified fluid. Thin-ply modules are composed of inclined equal-height plates 5 arranged along horizontal fluid flow. Bottom is composed by the set 4 of separate precipitate collectors composed of pits. Top and bottom edges of module plates 5 are located in horizontal plane.
EFFECT: separation of precipitate, replacement of thin-ply modules without interference with clarification process.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of super pure water by reverse osmosis process. Reverse osmosis plant permeate return pipe incorporates circulation pump and electrochemical ozone generator. Reverse osmosis plant permeate return pipe in direction of flow downstream of circulation pump and ozone generator is connected via circulation pipe with permeate feed pipe to make closed circulation circuit for ozonised permeate circulates unless all organic impurities are killed or destructed by ozone in this section of the pipe. Valve is built in circulation pipe and return pipe downstream circulation pipe bend. Circulation pipe valve at normal operation of reverse osmosis is closed for provision of connected dialysis instrument while the valve in return permeate pipe so that excess permeate not selected for dialysis can flow in accumulation tank. Alternatively, permeate can be diverted to drain line.
EFFECT: sparing cleaning of pipeline without damaging the pumps.
9 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to membrane gas separation. Membrane separator comprises membrane element immersed in processed liquid, processing bath, air distribution device located above membrane element, and set of plate arranged between membrane element and air distribution device. Note that plates are arranged in multistep configuration, width of every plate decreasing as they get off from said air distribution device.
EFFECT: better cleaning of membrane element.
6 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: ion-exchange membrane used to produce chlorine and alkali metal hydroxides is regenerated by feeding into electrode chambers of an electrolysis cell a solution consisting of 0.5-20 wt % citric acid, 0.1-1.5 wt % triethylsilyl methacrylic acid, 20-60 wt % ethyl alcohol and 18.5-79.4 wt % water, with solution temperature of 20-90°C, while maintaining voltage across the electrolysis cell of 1.3-2.4 V, without removing the membrane from the electrolysis cell.
EFFECT: longer working life of the membrane without further costs on removal and regeneration thereof.
1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment systems including local systems of tap water preparation from municipal water supply system waters. Proposed device comprises tight hollow housing with inlet and discharge branch pipes to feed water to be filtered and discharge filtered water, ceramic membrane filter arranged inside housing, two electrodes arranged inside ceramic membrane filter and connected with HF voltage source arranged outside filter casing, branch pipe to feed compressed air, and discharge branch pipe.
EFFECT: automatic regeneration of filter, simplified design and operation.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to film-type filter 7 from hollow fibers for filtration of initial solution on forcing it through film made up of hollow fibers immersed in work bath 24. Filtered fluid discharge channels (12a and 12b) are communicated with filtered fluid discharge pipeline (11) via open-and-shut valves (26a and 26b), respectively, pipeline (11) is communicated with suction port of suction pump (25), open-and-shut valve (30) is communicated with pipeline (11), in its turn, communicated with discharge port of suction pump (25), backwash channels (29a and 29b) are communicated via open-and-shut valves (28a and 28b) with backwash main line (27) branched from the section between open-and-shut valve (30) and section pump (25) of pipeline (11), channels (29a and 29b) comprises multiple hollow-fiber filtration film modules (16a and 16b).
EFFECT: ruling put wash pump or backwash tank in wash-out of suspensions or similar sticking.
6 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment equipment comprising bioreactor with tank 2 and membrane filtration module 12 including housing 133 to accommodate one or several membranes 14 and fluid feed pipeline 16 communicated with tank inner space. There is controlled discharge rinsing pipeline 20 communicated with connection chamber 18 on one side and, on opposite side, withdrawn from tank inner space. Pipeline to transfer fluid mix from tank into connection chamber may be shut off. Control device 23 serves to shut off said pipeline and open discharge rinsing pipeline 20 to rinse inlet side of membranes 14 and connection chamber 18 mounted there above.
EFFECT: efficient bioreactor.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for purifying liquid comprises the following, fitted in series: apparatus for inlet of the liquid (1) to undergo purification, an electrocoagulation unit (2), a hollow-fibre filter (3), a storage container (5) with top and bottom connection pipes, a reverse osmosis unit (4) and apparatus for outlet of purified liquid (6). The apparatus is also fitted with a check valve (21) for letting atmospheric air into the storage container (5) when pumping liquid from the storage container. A vacuum can be created in the storage container to let in atmospheric air and carry out reverse washing of the hollow-fibre filter (3). Washing of the hollow-fibre filter involves reverse washing with liquid under pressure created by an air cushion in the top part of the storage container, and the under pressure with a mixture of liquid and air coming from the storage container.
EFFECT: group of inventions prolongs the service life membranes used in the apparatus, increases efficiency of washing the filter while cutting the time of the washing cycle and reducing loss of liquid during washing.
12 cl, 6 dwg