Method of testing gas analytical sensors for operation speed with response time of less than 4 seconds

FIELD: instrumentation technology.

SUBSTANCE: change of control of gas mixtures with different preset concentrations of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor is carried out in dynamic mode at constant and equal, equal to the predetermined, consumptions from different sources of control gas mixtures with different preset concentrations of the controlled component. Change of gas mixtures with different preset concentrations of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor and achievement of stabilisation of the output signal of the sensor, corresponding to the level of concentration of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor is provided at equal parameters of the control gas mixtures and for minimum time which is easily calculated and taken into account in determining the operation speed of the gas analytical sensor. This ensures accuracy of determining of the operation speed of the gas analytical sensor. Use of the dynamic mode of feeding the first gas mixture, as well as change of the first gas mixture to the second gas mixture during the testing of the gas analytical sensor enables to stabilise faster the predetermined concentration of the controlled component on the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor and thus to ensure the constancy of pressure and composition of gas mixtures on the sensor element of the sensor, which increases the accuracy of evaluation of its operation speed. With this mode of feeding the gas mixtures the performance data of the gas reducers on the sources of feeding the control gas mixtures remain dynamic and do not affect the process of feeding the stable gas mixture at program switches of the valves.

EFFECT: increase in reliability of determining the operation speed of the gas analytical sensor by feeding to the sensor element of the gas analytical sensor of control gas mixtures stable in composition and pressure in dynamic mode.

3 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the instrument and can be used when testing for performance gas analysis sensors with a response time less than 4 seconds.

The most important factor of security testing oxygen-hydrogen rocket blocks (RB), propulsion systems (DU) and liquid rocket engines (LRE) is the control of dangerous concentrations of the working components of the fuel [1]. Components fall into the atmosphere, in space and in lockers products as a result of pressure loss or destruction of the storage or transportation of the components associated with, for example, accidental outcome of the test. Basic link in the control systems of dangerous accumulations (SCONE) are gas analysis sensors that determine the concentration of components of a fuel (hydrogen, oxygen) in the atmosphere of the rooms and compartments of the product. High fire-explosive mixtures of hydrogen with air requires maximum performance and reliability of the gas analyzing sensor. The gas analyzing signals of sensors operatively enabled system fire-explosion prevention fire prevention and explosion of hydrogen-air mixtures. Potentially dangerous zones and compartments filled with inert gases blown into the drainage system for the disposal of dangerous accumulations. The accumulation of hazardous areas more than 80 the grams of hydrogen safety tests decreases and becomes insufficient. The reason for this is the limited resources systems fire-explosion prevention. To purge or extinguishing the fire may, for example, not enough accumulated inert gases, the effects of crash outcomes trials often develop an avalanche. In regard to gas analyzing the sensors installed on the test benches of the oxygen-hydrogen do with LRE, high demands on performance and reliability. At the present time to ensure the safety of oxy-hydrogen test stands, rocket launches and installations for the production of liquid hydrogen requires gas analysis sensors for hydrogen and oxygen, having the actual performance is less than 4 seconds (the response time from receipt of leakage of hydrogen on the sensor until it reaches a threshold output signal causing actuation system fire-explosion prevention). This is the response time for security reasons, testing is limited to the top. From the analysis of the results of experimental rocket engines that use liquid hydrogen as fuel, it is established that the modern system of fire-explosion prevention are unable to cope with the release of hydrogen greater than the mass of the second quadruple consumption odor is Yes, flowing through the rocket engine. Destruction from the explosion of such quantities of hazardous mixture will be unacceptably large. Therefore, the system is fire-explosion prevention should start no later than 4 seconds from the time detect leakage of hydrogen gas analyzing sensor.

Causes of delay gas analysis sensors identified and numerically evaluated [2]. It is shown that the largest duration of the delay is caused by the slow transfer of controlled components (hydrogen, oxygen) from the leak to the sensing element (SE) of the sensor. The duration of the transportation of the target component to SE gas analyzing sensor is a characteristic of the workplace, not just a single sensor gas analysis. After delivery of the target component to SE the delay time of the sensor is determined by its own performance, that is, the inherent characteristics of the sensor. It follows that the tests are required gas analysis sensors, including performance, as part of a special test sets.

The purpose of the test gas analysis sensors is the detection performance, primarily on their own performance. Performance gas analyzing sensor is determined by the stabilization time of closing the signal, measured from the moment a reliable contact of the component being controlled on the SE. It is important absence in the surrounding gas environment components that distort the characteristics of the gas analyzing sensor. So, for example, helium, oxygen, vapors of organic substances have a distorting effect and cause false readings gas analyzing sensor of some type. Actual performance gas analyzing sensor relative to the target component (for example, hydrogen) depends on its insensitivity (selectivity) with respect to the uncontrolled components contained in gas-air mixtures. In this regard, the settings for the dynamic tests, the gas analyzing sensor high demands on the speed and reliability of the replacement test control mixtures on the sensitive element of the sensor.

The known method of testing the performance of a gas analyzing sensor comprising alternately applying to the sensitive element of the gas analyzing sensor control gas mixtures with different predetermined concentrations of the component being controlled with the discharge of each mixture from the cavity gas analyzing sensor in the drain, check the output signal of the gas analyzing sensor and determining performance gas analyzing sensor time stabilize its output the signal [3].

The method is implemented on the experimental setup for testing sensors of hydrogen generated in the research centre Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the Energy Institute in the Netherlands [3]. The purpose of the installation, conduct research, testing the characteristics of hydrogen sensors in climatic conditions similar to operating conditions. It consists of the preparation device and the accumulation of two control gas mixtures, the feeder of the two control mixtures to the subject gas analyzing sensor, computerized control device and display settings and control the plant. Preparation device control mixtures include gas regulators, gas mixers, evaporators, moisture meters, flow meters and chromatographs.

Installation JRC allows to carry out tests, which consists in measuring the time delay of the response of the gas analyzing sensor with electrochemical principle on changes in the concentration control of the gas mixture on the sensitive element of the sensor, since such sensors have low self-performance at the level of tens of seconds. Use installation JRC to assess the performance of modern high-speed sensors HA with response time after receiving the control gas mixture in SE at the level of less than 4 seconds is impossible due to her weeks the mistakes. This is due to the fact that the control gas mixture supplied to the SE of the sensor in the first seconds of testing on the plant JRC, does not match the specified composition and pressure. This disadvantage is due to the transients inevitable for preparation and supply of gas mixtures, namely:

- slow stabilization of the composition of the control mixtures generated by the device the preparation of the mixtures in the first seconds after turning on.

- instability pressure control mixture supplied gas reducers in static and dynamic modes.

Consider first the cause more. Control of the gas mixture in the experimental setup JRC are created using the electrically controlled metering valves-flow regulators gas company Brooks with thermal feedback. Dynamic properties of such valves-regulators is not high enough, the time from the start to obtain the required composition of the control mixture is measured in minutes. The supply of the control mixture filled in cumulative capacity also causes deviations previously defined settings of the metering valve, which inevitably distorts the composition of the control mixture in the storage tank. Consequently, control of the gas mixture supplied to the storage capacitor, the non-conforming in composition.

Similar data on di is amicucci expenditure characteristics of valves-regulators has a domestic generator gas mixtures gap-03-03, the characteristics of which are specified in [4]. The gap generator-03-03 is based on a similar valves-flow regulators firm Brooks with thermal feedback. Obtaining a generator SGN-03-03 conditional on the composition of the model gas mixtures may not be less than 30 minutes after turning on the generator. The specified time interval unacceptably large for determining the response time gas analysis sensor 4 c.

The second reason is the instability of the pressure control mixtures supplied installation to gas analyzing sensor in the first seconds of the test is the following. Both control mixture created in the installation are stored in cylinders and periodically, at the time, served to the subject to the sensor by means of valves and spring-gas regulators. After receiving the response of the test sensor flow control mix is terminated by closing the shutoff valve. It is known that static (bezyshodnaya) characteristics of the gas regulator with spring feedback differ from their dynamic (expense) characteristics. After cessation of gas movement through the gear configure it to set the output pressure, as a rule, spontaneously changed upward in accordance with its static operating characteristics. The sensitive element is the test sensor in the first few seconds will be arranged in a gas mixture with high and time-varying pressure. Because gas analysis sensors have the sensitivity to pressure controlled gas environments, the sensor output signal will be distorted, depending not only on the concentration of the target component, but also from the pressure of the feed mixture. This is a violation of the external conditions in which the sensor operates gas analysis.

These drawbacks of the experimental setup JRC does not allow for a test of high-speed gas analysis sensors to reliably estimate the response time if it is less than 4 seconds. To determine such small values of the response time required to perform the replacement of stable composition and pressure of the control gas mixtures on the sensitive element of the sensor over time, measured in tenths to tenths of a second, and the flow rate and pressure control mixtures at all testing time should remain stable and the same.

The technical problem solved by the invention is to improve the reliability of determination of the performance of gas analyzing sensor by supplying the sensing element of the gas analyzing sensor stable in composition and pressure of the control gas mixtures in dynamic mode.

This is achieved in that in the method of testing the performance of a gas analyzing sensor with a response time less than 4 seconds, including vet is erenow supply to the sensor, gas analyzing sensor control gas mixtures with different predetermined concentrations of the component being controlled with the discharge of each mixture in the drainage, check the output signal of the gas analyzing sensor and determining performance gas analyzing sensor time stabilize its output signal at each reference gas mixture according to the invention pre alternately establish the same volume flows of control gas mixtures with different predetermined concentrations of the component being controlled by the sensing element gas analyzing sensor with discharge of each mixture into the drain, then perform tests for gas analysis sensor, while serving on the sensitive element of the gas analyzing sensor of the first control gas mixture with discharge it to drain and simultaneously serves the second control gas mixture to bypass the sensing element of the gas analyzing sensor with discharge it to drain after achieving stabilization of the output signal of the sensor replaces the first control gas mixture for the second in the dynamic mode, at the same time: stop supply of the first control gas mixture to the sensor, gas analyzing sensor and reset it to bypass the sensing element of the gas analyzing sensor in the drain, stop the discharge of the second control gas mixture to bypass the sensing element of the gas analyzing sensor in the drain and serve it on Chu is responsive element gas analyzing sensor with discharge it to drain and the speed of the gas analyzing sensor is determined taking into account the delay time of receipt of each control gas mixture to a sensitive element of the gas analyzing sensor.

First on the sensitive element of the gas analyzing sensor serves the control gas mixture with a lower concentration of the component being controlled, and then more.

Alternate installation of the same volume of expenditure control gas mixtures with different predetermined concentrations of the component being controlled through the sensor gas analyzing sensor is carried out after the alternate setting such as volume control costs of gas mixtures with different predetermined concentrations of the component being controlled to bypass the sensing element of the gas analyzing sensor with discharge of each mixture into the drain.

The essence of the invention lies in the fact that a change of control of gas mixtures with different predetermined concentrations of the component being controlled on the sensitive element gas analyzing sensor is in the dynamic mode at constant and equal pre-established, the costs of different sources of control gas mixtures with different predetermined concentrations of the component being controlled. The change of gas mixtures with different set conc what traceme controlled component on the sensitive element gas analyzing sensor and the stabilization of the output signal of the sensor, the appropriate level of concentration of the component being controlled on the sensitive element gas analyzing sensor is provided with the same parameters of the control gas mixtures within the shortest time, which is easily calculated and taken into account when determining the performance of gas analyzing sensor. This ensures the reliability of determining the performance of the gas analyzing sensor.

In Fig.1 shows a diagram of an installation implementing the method of testing gas analyzing sensor performance, and Fig.2 - site supply of the control gas mixtures to a sensitive element of the gas analyzing sensor and drainage in the drainage (rotated 180 around a horizontal axis), Fig.3 - operating characteristic gas analyzing sensor is a graph of the dependence of the output signal U from the concentration C of Fig.4 is a graph which shows the dependence of the output signal from the gas analyzing sensor from the time when receiving the control gas mixtures with different concentrations of the component being controlled.

The installation includes two lines 1 and 2, connected with a source of control gas mixtures with different predetermined concentrations of the component being controlled (in the drawing conventionally not shown). As a source of control gas mixtures may use the I cylinders with gas gearboxes or generators gas mixtures, for example, SGN-03-03 [4]. As a reference gas mixture No. 1 uses a certified gas mixture of known concentration of the component being controlled, for example hydrogen, and as a reference gas mixture No. 2 uses a certified gas mixture with other known concentration of the monitored component or, for example, pure hydrogen. Both links 1 and 2 are connected with the annular manifold 9 is connected to the test gas analyzing sensor 3, the volume flow cavity 10 to a sensitive element 4 which is minimized (see Fig.2). This is achieved by installing the seal 5 between the sensor housing 3 and a work table 7, on which the sensor 3 is fixed by means of the clamping ring 6 and the tie rods. When this node for supplying a control gas mixtures to a sensitive element 4 gas analyzing sensor 3 of highways 1 and 2 of the supply of the control gas mixtures # 1 and # 2 with different predetermined concentrations of the component being controlled and their allocation made in the form of coaxially installed collector ring 9 and the pipe 8, respectively. The annular manifold 9 is connected to the mains supply of the control gas mixtures No. 1 and No. 2 sensor 3, and the pipe 8 from the drain line 23. On highway 1 to sensor 3 sequentially installed the manual valve 11 and the fast-acting valve 12, is on highway 2 - the manual gate 13 and the fast-acting valve 14, respectively. In addition, in the section between the valve 11 and valve 12 are sequentially installed a pressure gauge 15 and the adjustable throttle 16, and the section between the valve 13 and valve 14, respectively serially installed a pressure gauge 17 and an adjustable choke 18. While these areas after the inductors 16 and 18 are connected to drain lines 19 and 20, which has a quick-acting valves 21 and 22 respectively. And drainage of highway 19 and 20 are combined into a common header, the output of which has a volumetric gas flow meter - 25, and the drain line 23 - volumetric gas flow meter 24. The electrical outputs of all fast-acting valves connected to the control system (CS) (in the drawing conventionally not shown). The electrical output of the sensor 3 is connected with the registration system (conventionally in the drawing not shown). Cross-sections and lengths of segments of highways 1 and 2 of the supply of the control gas mixtures to a sensitive element 4 gas analyzing sensor 3 and the drainage of highways 23, 19 and 20 respectively. Consequently, an equal volume control costs of gas mixtures and, as a consequence, to ensure equality of pressures and flow rates of the two control mixtures on the sensing element 4 of the sensor 3 at the time of switching is Otoko. The duration of the purge control mixture collector ring 9 and the cavity with the sensor element 4 is calculated according to their size and the magnitude of the volumetric flow rate of gas mixtures.

Method of test sensors for gas-dynamic performance is as follows.

According to the available operating characteristic (Fig.3) gas analyzing sensor specified in the passport, determine the flow rate of the control gas mixtures to a sensitive element 4 gas analyzing sensor 3, which should be implemented during the test performance. Calculate the volume flow of the control gas mixture in the cavity 10 with a sensor 4 sensor 3, using in the calculation of the previously assigned to the flow velocity of the mixtures and the geometrical sizes of coaxial annular manifold 9 and the pipe 8.

Before performing the test gas analyzing sensor 3 alternately establish the same volumetric charges (equal to the previously calculated) test gas mixtures # 1 and # 2 through the sensor 4 gas analyzing sensor 3 with the discharge of each mixture into the drain line 23 through the flow meter 24. When closed all the valves open valves 11 and 13 and provide, for example, using bottled gas regulators (in the drawing conventionally not shown) is and highways 1 and 2 at the inputs of the valves 12, 14, 21, and 22, the alignment of the static pressures of the mixtures with control gauges 15 and 17.

Then open the valve 12 and the flow meter 24 in the drain line 23 to control the flow rate of the control gas mixture from highway No. 1 on the sensitive element 4 of the test sensor 3. Using an adjustable throttle 16 set set volume flow (equal to the previously calculated) of the control gas mixture No. 1. After that, the throttle 16 is fixed in this position and close the valve 11 and the valve 12. Using an adjustable throttle 18 is similarly set the same volume flow control of the gas mixture No. 2, thus opening the valve 14 and control the flow control mix of highway No. 2 through the sensor 4 of the test sensor 3 into the drain line 23 to the flow meter 24. After that, the throttle 18 is fixed in this position and close the valve 13 and valve 14.

Then proceed to the test gas analyzing sensor 3 performance with alternate supply to the sensing element 4 gas analyzing sensor 3 control gas mixtures No. 1 and No. 2.

To ensure full-scale operating conditions gas analyzing sensor is advisable to test the sensor, feeding on the sensor first gas mixture with a lower concentration of the counter is controlled component (mixture No. 1), and then - more (blend # 2). This is due to the fact that the main purpose of the gas analyzing sensor is detecting in a controlled atmosphere of occurrence of impurities dangerous component, resulting in the concentration of the hazardous component in the atmosphere is increasing, not decreasing. This does not exclude reverse feed control gas mixtures when tested under the proposed method, whose goal may be to determine the rate of decrease of the output signal of the gas analyzing sensor, in real terms, taking place, for example, when you switch systems, fire and explosion safety.

In the initial position all the valves and the valves are closed. SU at the command of the operator opens both valves 12 and 22, and the valves 11 and 13 are opened manually and include the registration of the output signal U from the gas analyzing sensor 3. Thus begins a control duct of the gas mixture No. 1 through the annular manifold 9, a flow cavity 10 on the sensitive element 4 of the test sensor 3, and the pipe 8 into the drain line 23 to control the volumetric flow rate by the flow meter 24, and the control gas blend # 2 is discharged into the drain line 20 through the flow meter 25. Due to previously made the adjustment cost of gas mixtures No. 1 and No. 2 inductors 16 and 18 costs of the gas mixture No. 1 through the sensor 3 and the drain line 23 and the gas is th mixture No. 2 through the valve 14 into the drain line 20 remain equal and constant. By Registrar control output signal U gas analyzing sensor 3 to achieve compliance with the concentration of C1controlled component in the test gas mixture No. 1 (see Fig.4) the value of this concentration on the working characteristics of the sensor (see Fig.3). Generally, the performance of the sensor is measured at the time of stabilization of the output sensor signal U corresponding to 95% (see Fig.4) the values of this concentration on the working characteristics of the sensor (see Fig.3) after the supply of the gas mixture to a sensitive element of the sensor. This time the concentration values of C1corresponds to the magnitude of the output signal U1.

At this point, SU simultaneously delivers the control signals to the valves 12, 22, 14, and 21. At the same time closes the valves 12 and 22 and opens the valve 14 and 21, and the control gas blend # 2 starts to flow through the collector ring 9, a flow cavity 10 on the sensitive element 4 of the test sensor 3, through the pipe 8 into the drain line 23 to the flow meter 24, and the control gas mixture No. 1 ceases to flow to the sensor 4 sensor 3 and begins to be discharged into the drain line 19 on the flow meter 25. In the cavity with the sensor element 4 is replaced gas mixture No. 1 gas blend # 2 in the dynamic mode, as DL is required simultaneous switching valves 12, 14, 21 and 22 is hundredths of seconds, which corresponds to the time interval t1(see Fig.4). The registration system continues to log the output signal of the gas analyzing sensor whose value at time t3increases from the value U1up to 95% of U2corresponding to the concentration of the monitored component C2the control mixture # 2 on the working characteristics of the sensor (see Fig.3). The time to reach stabilization of the output signal U2gas analyzing sensor t3(see Fig.4) corresponding to 95% of the values of this concentration on the working characteristics of the sensor (see Fig.3), is the value of the performance of the test gas analyzing sensor 3 concentration of the monitored component in the gas mixture No. 2.

If the design of the gas analyzing sensor not allowing you to install the specified flow volumes of gas mixtures # 1 and # 2-flow through the sensor in the drain under the terms of the violation of his integrity, or failure of, conduct first alternate installation of the same volume of expenditures (equal to the previously calculated) test gas mixtures No. 1 and No. 2 to the gas analyzing sensor 3 with the discharge of each mixture into the drain line 19 and 20 through the flow meter 25. When closed all the valves open valves 11 and 13 is provided, for example, using bottled gas regulators (in the drawing conventionally not shown) on lines 1 and 2 at the inputs of the valves 12, 14, 21, and 22, the alignment of the static pressures of the mixtures with control gauges 15 and 17.

Next, open the valve 21 to the drain line 19 and by an adjustable throttle 16 to the flow meter 25 establish the flow of the mixture No. 1, is equal to the previously calculated flow mixtures. Then the valve 21 is closed and valve 22 opens and installs the same volumetric flow of the gas mixture No. 2.

Then alternately establish the same volumetric charges (equal to the previously calculated) test gas mixtures # 1 and # 2 through the sensor 4 gas analyzing sensor 3 with the discharge of each mixture into the drain line 23 through the flow meter 24 (described above).

The completion time of stabilization of the output signal of the sensor to ~95% of the maximum value is measured, logged and is characteristic of the performance of the test sensor.

Using dynamic mode, supply of the gas mixture No. 1, as well as replacement of the gas mixture No. 1 gas blend # 2 during the test gas analyzing sensor allows faster to stabilize a given concentration of the component being controlled on the sensitive element gas analyzing sensor and thereby ensure the constant pressure and composition of gas mixtures on the sensitive element of the sensor, which increases the reliability assessment of its performance. In this mode the feed gas mixtures performance gas regulators for the supply of the control gas mixtures are dynamic and do not affect the process of supplying a stable gas mixture with software switching valves.

In addition, due to previously completed configuring equal cost of gas mixtures No. 1 and No. 2 adjustable chokes 16 and 18 through the sensor 3 and through the drain line 20 and 21, their costs remain equal and constant switching valves, which corresponds to the natural conditions of the functioning of the gas analyzing sensor and increases the reliability of the test results.

Sources of information

1. Development of measures to ensure the security of the test bench for hot and cold test booster with dressing 4.5 tonnes of liquid hydrogen. Development of methodological foundations of ground tests of the oxygen-hydrogen Doo upper stage for long-term operation in space mode multiple inclusions. / Report FSUE Niikhimmash. 2004.

2. Popov B. B. Control of hydrogen concentrations on the test benches of space-rocket systems. / Hundred all-Russian. scientific and technical. the magazine "Flight", at. vol. BFC "nits RKP, 2009, S. 18-24.

3. O. Salyk and P. Castello. Hydrogen sensors in systems for alternative fuels. Chem. Listy, 99, Environmental Chemistry & Technolgy. 2005. s-49-s 652.

4. Generator gas mixtures gap-03-03. Manual SDC. 418313.001 re. NGOs Monitoring, St. Petersburg, 2000

1. The method of testing the performance of a gas analyzing sensor with a response time less than 4 seconds, including alternately flowing the feed gas analyzing sensor element of the sensor control gas mixtures with different predetermined concentrations of the component being controlled with the discharge of each mixture in the drain, check the output signal of the gas analyzing sensor and determining performance gas analyzing sensor time stabilize its output signal at each reference gas mixture, wherein the pre alternately establish the same volume flows of control gas mixtures with different predetermined concentrations of the component being controlled by the sensing element gas analyzing sensor with discharge of each mixture into the drain, then perform tests for gas analysis sensor, while serving on the sensitive element of the gas analyzing sensor of the first control gas mixture with discharge it to drain and simultaneously serves the second control gas mixture to bypass the sensing element of the gas analyzing sensor and dump it into the drain, after achieving stabilization of output is ignal sensor replaces the first control gas mixture for the second in the dynamic mode, at the same time: stop supply of the first control gas mixture to the sensor, gas analyzing sensor and reset it to bypass the sensing element of the gas analyzing sensor in the drain, stop the discharge of the second control gas mixture to bypass the sensing element of the gas analyzing sensor in the drain and serve it on the sensitive element of the gas analyzing sensor reset it in the drainage, and the speed of the gas analyzing sensor is determined taking into account the delay time of receipt of each control gas mixture to a sensitive element of the gas analyzing sensor.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the first sensor element gas analyzing sensor serves the control gas mixture with a lower concentration of the component being controlled, and then more.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the alternate installation of the same volume of expenditure control gas mixtures with different predetermined concentrations of the component being controlled through the sensor gas analyzing sensor is carried out after the alternate setting such as volume control costs of gas mixtures with different predetermined concentrations of the component being controlled to bypass the sensing element of the gas analyzing sensor reset each is Messi in the drainage.



 

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7 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means of efficient detection of poisoning substances and toxins and their instant neutralisation. Device contains microprocessor sets of first 16 and second 22 order, unit of template memory 17, units for detection of poisoning substances and toxins, audio-video system, and units of detection of poisoning substances and toxins are made in form of absorbing devices 3-7, which have sensors at outlet, which determine level of air environment contamination, outlets of sensors are connected to amplifiers-converters 11-15, connected with outlets-inlets with microprocessor set of first order 16, which is connected by outlets-inlets to unit of template memory 17, unit of question introduction 18 and microprocessor set of second order 22, unit of template memory 17 is connected by inlets-outlets to matrix field 21 in form of based on liquid crystals diode crystal lattice, unit of question introduction 18 is connected by inlets-outlets with unit of response analysis 19 and unit of analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of poisoning substances 20, which is connected by inlets-outlets to unit of response analysis and to matrix field 21, connected with inlets-outlets of unit of question introduction 18 and to microprocessor set of second order 22, connected by inlets-outlets with hazard warning unit 23, unit of analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of poisoning substances 20, matrix field 21 and unit of executive device 24 for neutralisation of poisoning substances and toxins, which is connected by outlets with executive mechanisms 25-27.

EFFECT: possibility of determining concentration of toxic materials and their neutralisation in the shortest terms and instant warning of people about hazard, ie maximally possible protection of people against impact of different toxins.

3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: method for determination of pipeline technical condition consists in technical condition integral characteristic quantitative evaluation from which pipeline state is evaluated and corresponding corrective measures are planned. To determine mentioned integral characteristic in-line inspection (ILI) and integrated corrosive survey of pipeline is performed. From results of ILI, proportion factor between technical condition characteristic and relative quantity of defective pipes is established depending on pipeline diameter. Pipeline integrated corrosive survey is performed by measuring electric current from external source along pipeline route with interval not exceeding 10 m. According to obtained data, proportion factor between relative quantity of defective pipes and relative length of damaged protective coating. From determined parameters, technical condition integral characteristic is determined which describes pipeline damage.

EFFECT: higher quality of pipeline reconstruction, repair and technical diagnosis planning.

1 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: nanotechnologies.

SUBSTANCE: bombardment of a surface with an ion beam and recording of intensity of reflected ions is performed; besides, analysed surface is bombarded with inert gas ions with energy of less than 100 eV, and energy spectrum of reflected ions is recorded in the energy range, which is higher than energy of primary ions; then, as per energies of peaks of pair collision in the obtained spectrum there determined are types of atoms in one upper monolayer of atoms, as per the available peak with energy equal to energy of bombarding ions there evaluated is availability of a crystalline phase on amorphous or amorphised surface, including in a film of nanodimensional thickness, and as per the ratio of values of the above peak without any energy losses to a peak or peaks of pair collision there determined is surface concentration of crystalline phase on amorphous or amorphised surface.

EFFECT: reduction of depth of an analysed layer till sub-nanodimensional values; improvement of reliability of analysis results and enhancement of compatibility of equipment for implementation of the method with other analysis methods and process equipment.

2 dwg

FIELD: thermal and nuclear power stations; meter calibration in extremely pure water of condensate type and power unit feedwater.

SUBSTANCE: for pH-meter calibration ammonia whose concentration varies by 1.5 - 2 times is dosed in working medium. Electric conductivity and temperature of working-medium H-cationized sample are measured. Measurement results are processed in computer with aid of set of equations characterizing ionic equilibrium in source sample and H-cationized samples. Calculated pH value is compared with measurement results.

EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability of meter calibration in extremely pure waters.

1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has housing provided with three cylinders made of a dielectric material. The housing receives the cylinder with a piston.

EFFECT: improved design.

5 dwg

FIELD: agriculture and soil science; evaluating water-physics properties of soils.

SUBSTANCE: porous probe communicating with water-filled tank is driven into soil, cathode is inserted in probe and anode, in soil. Voltage is applied to electrodes from dc power supply and soil moisture potential preventing water transfer from tank to soil is determined by measuring current between them.

EFFECT: reduced single measurement time due to eliminating escape of significant amount of water from measuring instrument.

1 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises measuring section made of dielectric pipe whose inner diameter is equal to the inner diameter of the pipeline, two electrodes which form a capacitor made of segments of the dielectric pipe, mounted diametrically opposite, and connected with the electronic unit. The electronic unit has a self-excited oscillator whose frequency-generating circuit includes the capacitor and device for processing frequencies with the indicator. The electrodes are arranged inside the dielectric pipe of the measuring section. The transverse length of each electrode can be greater than half inner diameter of the pipeline. The longitudinal length of each electrode may not exceed half length of the dielectric pipe.

EFFECT: enhanced sensitivity.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: analytical methods.

SUBSTANCE: electrodes of piezoelectric resonator are modified with menthol phenyl salicylate vaseline oil, recommended solvent being toluene, modifier film weight 5-20 μg, drying temperature 20-35°C, and drying time 40-48 h. The following gains in aromatic amine determination sensitivity are thus obtained: for aniline, from 282 to 368 Hz-m3/g; for o-tolidine, from 68 to 78 Hz-m3/g; for 9-nitroaniline, from 136 to 125 Hz-m3/g. Reductions in relative deviation are, respectively, 6.0 to 3.2%, 7.0 to 3.6%, and 6.0 to 4.3%, sensor response time is decreased by 5 times, regeneration time is decreased by 24 times, and aniline detection threshold is lowered from 0.84 to 0.11 Δ, g/m3.

EFFECT: increased sensitivity and accuracy of determination.

1 dwg, 2 tbl, 11 ex

FIELD: scanning probe microscopy.

SUBSTANCE: scanning probe microscope has sample holder, first platform, onto which case is mounted, and piezoscanner. Elastic membrane is placed between case and piezoscanner. There is unit for preliminary bringing sample and probe together, as well as housing and probe fixer. The second platform is introduced into the scanner, onto which unit for preliminary bringing sample and probe together. Base and sample holder is put together with cup by means of first hole and the second hole. Second hole is connected with inert gas source. Cup is made of chemically-proof material. Case is made to be air-proof. Locker of the probe is fastened to piezoscanner. Housing is mounted onto cup for interaction with airtight case. Aerostatic plain bearing is formed between housing and airtight case. Sample holder, cup, housing, airtight case, elastic membrane and probe locker form all together closed cavity of electrochemical cell.

EFFECT: simplified exploitation; widened operational abilities.

11 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: detector can be used in concentration meters as positive and negative aeroiones. Aeroion concentration detector has bias voltage source and receiving probe. Detector additionally has two resistors connected in series, auxiliary electrode and electrometer for measuring output voltage that is proportional to measured concentration of aeroiones. Receiving probe has to be volumetric electrode made of metal grid inside which the auxiliary electrode is located. The latter is isolated from volumetric electrode.

EFFECT: improved functional abilities.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes mounting a sample between panels of capacitor converter of electromagnetic radiation, deforming thereof in loading device. Loading device has oppositely mounted in metallic body of loading device metallic rods, force detector and registration system. Compressing external force is applied to sample from first metallic rod through force detector body and it is destroyed due to reaction force of conic indenter of second metallic rod. Metallic body of loading device is a first plate of capacitor converter, second plate - second metallic rod, mounted in bushing of dielectric material, placed in metallic body. Stand has screen, frame, capacitor converter, loading device, force detector and registration system. Between ends of metallic rods force detector and sample are positioned. Second metallic rod is provided with conic indenter.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 2 dwg

Antioxidant sensor // 2263904

FIELD: analytical chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: sensor can be used for inspecting level of oxidants and antioxidants in liquid. Device for detecting absence or presence of reduction-oxidation reactive-capable analyzed matter in water sample has electro-chemical cell with sensor chamber, first and second electrodes, hole for introducing sample into sensor chamber and reagent placed inside sensor chamber. Electro-chemical cell is designed to be removable after usage in any unique experiment. Reagent is capable of subjecting to reduction-oxidation reaction directly with analyzed matter to generate electric signal indicating absence or presence of analyzed matter. Method of detecting level of reduction-oxidation reaction-capable matter is also proposed as well as method of measurement of sulfur dioxide in sample of vine and method of producing device mentioned before.

EFFECT: improved precision.

36 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology; criminology.

SUBSTANCE: main and ancillary electrodes are installed before procedure of getting imprints of dust trace. Voltage applied to main and ancillary electrodes is regulated within wide high-voltage range. Device for getting imprints of dust traces has electric charge storage, main and ancillary electrodes and connecting cable of ancillary electrode, mechanical unit driven into action by muscle force of expert. Mechanical unit is connected with mechanical energy/electric energy converter which is connected with electric charge storage. Main electrode is coated with insulating dielectric film and connected with electric charge storage.

EFFECT: improved exploitation characteristics; independence on external electric power sources; reduced chance of electric current shock.

2 cl, 2 dwg

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