Water divider for channels with stormy flow condition
SUBSTANCE: water divider includes supply (2) and transit (3) channels, control gates and bottom well (1) with division walls (8-10) located in it and provided with horizontal caps (11-13) in the upper part dividing the well into chambers. Bottom well (1) is provided with L-shaped caps (15-18), the flange of which faces downwards, which are arranged in each chamber and attached to the middle part of the chamber wall opposite to a horizontal cap. Division walls (8-10) have water-carrying slot-shaped openings (20-22) covered from above with horizontal flanges (23-25) and from below with horizontal flanges (26-28) respectively. Water outlet slot-shaped holes (20-22) are arranged in series opposite L-shaped caps (15-17). The upper part of division walls (8-10) has fractures (29-31) in a vertical plane with specified angles functionally depending on a value of water intake with each chamber of bottom well (1). Surface areas of inlet openings of chambers increase in flow direction above well (1). Each chamber of bottom well (1) has cone-shaped bottom (32-35) directed with a convex in an upward direction. Well (1) with chambers arranged in it is connected to an outlet channel by means of a water-jet damping well. Operating efficiency is improved due to stabilisation of discharged consumption and carrying capacity is increased in a mode of free flow at a wave structure of a flow.
EFFECT: formation of a stable hydraulic jump is provided; with that, spreading of a common jet in an outlet channel is maintained.
2 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to hydraulic engineering and can be used for single-sided and double-sided stable selection of water in irrigation and diversion channels of the micro channel with turbulent regime and Swinburne (wave) mode currents.
Known water divider for channels with turbulent regime of flow, comprising placed between the supply and transit channels well and discharge conduits placed in the well of the transverse partitions dividing it into chambers, horizontal canopies, fixed in the upper part of each chamber and facing towards the flow, and l-shaped visors with downward shelf, separated in each chamber and fixed to the middle part of the opposite horizontal canopy wall camera (USSR Author's certificate No. 1016424, CL E02B 13/00, 1983).
The downside of it is the low bandwidth of each camera, i.e., has a low coefficient of discharge panel hole at the end in the discharge conduits. The flow entering the camera well with shields, partially extinguished, missing elements, hydraulic resistance, which causes a change in the exhaust flow in the well when the change speed of the flow (pressure) in the inlet channel, i.e., there is no stream compression in the chamber of the well that leads to change is ashada water in the taps. As a result of such changes in the flow rate of the water in the taps required manual adjustment processes in the water supply. However due to the action of l-shaped visors are helical flow in the forward direction to discharge channels and the flow of water must constantly be adjusted side gates, and the output occurs sbinet flow in the discharge channel. Thus, the limited range when changing costs in the supply channel. The design of the water divider does not allow in one technological cycle problem for a stable intake of water consumption of each chamber of the well, and to significantly increase throughput well in General.
Known also water divider for channels with turbulent regime of flow, comprising placed between the supply and transit channels well and discharge conduits placed in the well of the transverse partitions dividing it into chambers, horizontal canopies, fixed in the upper part of each chamber and facing towards the flow, and l-shaped visors with downward shelf placed in each chamber and fixed to the middle part of the opposite horizontal visor walls of the chamber, and the chambers are made with an increasing in the direction of flow width and topped hinged grating (the Author is the certificate of the USSR No. 1654447, CL E02B 13/00, 1991).
The disadvantage of this water divider is difficult to ensure a steady flow of water from each camera in the bends. The bandwidth of each cell depends on the construction of the lattice with longitudinal slits along the length of the well. Therefore, the stability of the flow is insufficient as selection of water each camera well, especially with the increase of consumption in excess of the calculated and, on the contrary, when the flow decreases, less than estimated due to the lack of additional hydraulic resistance in each cell well. While at the same time when the water flow in the inlet channel below the expected level sharply decreases the pressure in the chambers of the well.
Channels-chutes with gradients more critical (i>0,02) can be a wave, bezosnovnymi (protivobolevye transverse profiles) and works in two modes (wave - pass some of the costs, and Bessonova - when ignoring other costs). Therefore, to have created new structures, taking into account characteristics of the channel flow, the speaker, in each case as a source of water supply to consumers (for example, irrigation canals or channels of the micro).
The known device, in this case, the bottom intake with cameras in well with side bends and bars in the presence of rolling waves and reset them in transit is to stabilize the water supply to the consumer does not allow to increase at a higher throughput when transferring turbulent flow in a calm state in a discharge channel. It is known that the flow along the length of the well varies in mind part of the selection of each chamber, resulting in non-uniform velocity distribution and flow over the lumen of the cameras. Therefore, inside each cell there is a change in exhaust flow of water. Additionally, there is no outlet in the channel formation of stable hydraulic flow (you will need to fill). In addition to the absence of stabilizing ability of each camera relative flow rate Qresp/Qmax, i.e., depends on the relative flow in the channel-flow, the throughput of each camera is not correlated with the distribution of water that violates the parallel-jet forward movement of the out-flow in the discharge channel and contributes to sbeinati in the open discharge channel. It is also not high throughput famous buildings, the cost of construction increases. In addition, there is provided a symmetric splitting of the flow in the direction of flow width of each camera, i.e., does not provide the increase of inlet chambers with the flow due to water abstraction and also due to the absence of inclined parts in the upper part of the separating walls and the location of these parts at angles α1α2α3functionally dependent led the ranks of the water.
The aim of the invention is the extension of functionality by providing stabilization of the exhaust flow and increase throughput in free mode expires when the wave structure of the stream.
This objective is achieved in that the water divider for channels with turbulent regime of flow, comprising placed between the supply and transit channels well and discharge conduits, a partition dividing it into chambers, horizontal canopies, fixed in the upper part of each chamber and facing towards the flow, and l-shaped visors with downward shelf placed in each chamber and fixed to the middle part of the opposite horizontal visor walls of the chamber, and the chambers are made with an increasing in the direction of flow width and topped hinged bars, dividers culvert have slotted holes, through which the chambers communicate with each other over the course of a stream and culvert slotted holes is limited to two horizontal shelves, one of which is located above it before angle of fracture of the upper part of the partition in a vertical plane, and the second is located below the discharge slot relative to the first, and the bottom of each camera made anusaaraka, directed bulge up during this part of the fracture cubicles are located in relation to the parts of the cubicles at an angle α1α2α3and based on the amount of water intake at the expense of area changes of the inlet chamber.
In addition, the camera well on the outer side of the lower edge is connected with the beginning of the water well, the output end of which is connected to the discharge channel.
On the basis of the interrelation and interdependence of the main elements of the structure of turbulent flow coming from the inlet channel, is divided by each camera for different flow rate through culvert slotted holes vertical dividing partitions with two horizontal shelves, as well as fractures of the parts in the upper part of the walls with different angles of inclination α1α2α3in the vertical plane relative to the lower vertical parts that are functionally dependent on the value of water, while ensuring stabilization of the water drainage due to the narrowing in the first stage, coonabarabran bottom bulge upwards, and taking into account the flow part of the flow of water into the second chamber (their number is determined by calculation). As a consequence, increases the pressure of the expiration of the Ho. With increasing pressure the expiration increases the compression stream, istakais the th from under the gate in the outlet according to that leads to a decrease of the coefficient of discharge of each chamber of the well width, i.e., µ is inversely proportional to. This ensures the stabilization of the flow coming into the discharge conduits. Given that b=cont (width) of each individual camera, you will get Qresp=f(a), i.e. the function of the shutter opening. In addition to stabilizing ability of each chamber of the water divider bandwidth, respectively, was higher in comparison with the known construction, which reduces the cost of construction of water distribution facilities. This approach to design can increase water consumption by at least 15...20%. Water divider can be used for one-way and two-way selection of water (not shown bilateral water abstraction). The combination of pressure and screw driving modes and gave rise to the creation of new technical solutions. Ultimately, the presence of new elements in well water divider for mixing flows increases the pressure of the expiration and the compression stream, and the flow in the outlet channel enters the water well, but not so much that the stream is completely flooded stream in the downstream, so the output is made sloping bottom, and uniformly dispersing, enters the downstream channel, giving it a superficial structures is.
The originality and simplicity of this design ensures even distribution of water velocities and specific charges at the output of the camera in the water well and then into the discharge channel.
The total number of cells in the well take depending on their relative changes of flow in the drainage Qresp/Qmaxand, depending on the relative flow in the channel-flow Q/Qmax. The path length of the well is divided into chambers by placing the vertical dividers into the water with slotted holes, limited by two horizontal shelves and the upper ends of the fracture walls (parts thereof) under the angle α1α2α3that provides an increase in the area of the cross section in these cells, as acting head of the stream when entering the camera drainage decreases in cross-section. This achieves a more uniform distribution of water velocities and specific charges.
Screw the rotation of the nucleus of the liquid in the chamber is divided into several movements, and is the most dense (compressed) in the cross section in comparison with the known device. The flow in each chamber itself forms its movement when opening the outlet hole shutter before water well, and this leads to the complete elimination of a misbehaving flow freely passed on the indoor discharge channel, this ensures smooth flow of the stream for water ledge of the well.
Based on the above, the author believes that it is possible to argue that the proposed solution meets the criterion of "Significant differences".
In Fig.1 shows a water divider for channels with turbulent regime of flow, in terms of Fig.2 - section a-a in Fig.1; Fig.3 - section b-B in Fig.1.
Water divider for channels with turbulent regime of flow contains the bottom of the well 1, is made between the inlet 2 and transit 3 channels with the wave structure of the flow outlet openings separated by flat valves 4, 5, 6, 7 equal width, and located in the well 1 dividers 8, 9, 10 with a horizontal peaks 11, 12, 13, 14 in the upper part, and with G-shaped visors 15, 16, 17, 18, shelf, which is facing down, on the opposite wall in the middle part.
Partitioning 8-10 divide the well 1 to the camera, increasing the flow area. Water divider provided with a hinge attached to the upper front edge of the well 1 bars 19 with the longitudinal rods.
Partitioning 8-10 performed with culvert slotted holes 20, 21, 22, covered by horizontal shelves 23, 24, 25 and bottom, respectively, horizontal shelves 26, 27, 28. Culvert slotted holes 20-22 consistently RA is medeni opposite l-shaped visors 15-17. In the upper part of the partition 8-10 performed by the kinks 29, 30, 31 in the vertical plane, and the upper inclined portion 29 to 31 are located above the upper horizontal shelves 23-25 and placed in relation to the parts of the vertical separation peregorodok 8-10 angles α1α2α3functionally dependent on the amount of water each chamber bottom of the well 1, with square openings of the chambers increase in traffic flow over the well 1. Each chamber of the bottom of the well 1 has a bottom 32, 33, 34, 35 cone-type, directional convexity upwards, i.e. towards the l-shaped visor 15-18, shelf, which is directed downward, and the lower horizontal shelves 26-28. Included in each cell l-shaped visors 15-18, horizontal shelves 23-25 and 26-28, and the bottom 32-35 conical form with regard to the water outlet slot 20-22 create hydraulic resistance. At the same time the gaps culvert slot 20-23 between the two horizontal walls (top and bottom), respectively, restricting the entrance of water in each chamber, oriented consistently in width in the direction directed to the l-shaped visor, shelf, which is directed downward, i.e., there is a narrowing of the space in the chamber. Outlet openings with flat paddles 4-7 are connected to their vychodni water well 36, which is connected with the discharge channel 37. Water divider can be used for one-way and two-way selection of water (two-way water divider not shown).
The operation of the device is as follows.
High speed Overbury flow from the inlet channel 2, with a slope of more critical, horizontal cutoff visors 11-14, enters the chamber bottom of the well 1 and is given to consumers through a lateral hole closed with a flat gates 4-7 with a given opening. At the same time the flow of water coming into the camera pit 1 has longitudinal and transverse non-stationarity of the velocity, cutoff visors 11-14. The bandwidth of each chamber increases as the ratio of the areas of intake openings of the chambers to flow through the inclined parts 29-31 (kinks) angles α1α2α3functionally dependent on the value of water.
The flow, getting in the camera of the well 1 has a helical movement with translation in the forward direction to the outlet openings of the valve, which is regulated by the latter. Therefore, when the twisting part of the kinetic energy of the translational motion of water flow and increasing pressure over the well 1, is divided into parts with the l-shaped visor and two horizontal shelves, bounding in topropose slit a hole in the partition wall (wall) compress stream as it moves to the bottom 32-35 cone types in each chamber, and the chamber is filled with water, increasing the compression coil flux flowing between the gaps G-shaped visor, two horizontal walls and culvert slot (the latter also have the hydraulic resistance), which generally increases the degree of resistance in the cavity of each camera, provided the proposed design elements. Thus, the value supplied in the exhaust flow rate is regulated by the opening of the shutter 4-7, the stabilizing properties of which can be verified by determining the variation of the relative flow in the drainage Qresp/Qmaxdepending on the relative flow in the channel-flow Q/Qmax. Thus, the design of the water divider can be used as a stabilizer water flow in the drainage, for example, under given relations of the opening side of the hole flat button (less than 0.75) and the costs in the supply flow Q/Qmax>0,4.
According to the well-known formula hydraulics bandwidth shield holes on the allotment with regard to the determination of flow coefficient µ of water divider is defined:
where µresp.the coefficient of discharge panel holes; Ho- head speed of approach flow Voc- compressed depth for flat gate.
Changing cubicles constructively made also with a break in the vertical plane; the presence of a culvert slot bounded by two horizontal shelves and a cone-shaped house camera towards the bulge up, distribute the water flow over the cross section of the camera, resulting in increased throughput facilities, no ripples and splashes on the surface of the water.
Wave flow from the inlet channel 2, passing over the well 1, does not exert its influence and direction of a given water flow in the chamber, thereby compensating surplus consumption resulting from uneven distribution of speeds and costs in the frontal and caudal part of the wave that provides a high stabilization of consumption and increased throughput of water divider supplied through holes in the water well 36, and then into the discharge channel 37.
The cone-shaped bottom of each chamber of the well 1 does not settle also concentrated in the chamber during the rotation movement of the muddy water and small particles of sediment. They roll down towards the walls of the chamber, where the flow rotates at a high speed. This leads to the translation of crayons the fractions of sediment in suspension, their removal through the side hole is closed with a flat gate.
The location of water wells 36 takes into account the fact that the axis of the jet coming out of each hole camera, does not reach the outlet channel 37, in which you want to save rasplastyvanija total jets at the beginning of the discharge channel and the formation of a stable hydraulic jump. The indicated element of the structure in this case is called the soothing water of the well 36, which end has an inclined bottom for connection with the discharge channel 37, which allows free after water out of the holes blocked by a gate, and is connected in a common thread in the beginning of the discharge channel 37, respectively, through the sequential actions protected distribution downstream channel 37 excitement, the flow is almost evenly distributed over the cross section of the discharge channel 37.
The application of the invention solves the problem of stabilization of consumption with increased bandwidth in open channels not only with Swinburne, but the strong current in the composition of the structures, working with the free mode expires, and promotes uniform movement of water across the width and length of the discharge channel.
The economic efficiency of the proposed water divider is to combine in one technological cycle C the cottages optimal intake stable flow and increase throughput.
1. Water divider for channels with turbulent regime of flow, comprising placed between the supply and transit channels well and discharge conduits, a partition dividing it into chambers, horizontal canopies, fixed in the upper part of each chamber and facing towards the flow, and l-shaped visors with downward shelf placed in each chamber and fixed to the middle part of the opposite horizontal visor walls of the chamber, and the chambers are made with an increasing in the direction of flow width and topped hinged grating, characterized in that with the purpose to increase functionality by providing stabilization of the exhaust flow and increase throughput in free mode expires when the wave structure of the flow dividers have a culvert slotted holes through which the chambers communicate with each other over the course of a stream and culvert slotted holes is limited to two horizontal shelves, one of which is located above the hole before the angle of fracture of the upper part of the partition in a vertical plane, and the second is located below the discharge slot relative to the first, and the bottom of each chamber are made conical, directed issue what clostly up when this part breaks cubicles are located in relation to the parts of the cubicles at an angle α1, α2, α3 and depend on the size of the intake at the expense of area changes of the inlet chamber.
2. Water divider under item 1, characterized in that the camera well on the outer side of the lower edge is connected with the beginning of the water well, the output end of which is connected to the discharge channel.
SUBSTANCE: drainage-humidification system comprises a supply 1 and a discharge 2 closed irrigation pipelines interconnected with water distribution executive unit. The water distribution executive unit consists of a vertical pipe 3 mounted on the supply pipeline 1 and the working chamber 4 of pressure with separation from it by the membrane 5 with the rod 6. The water distribution executive unit, the valve gear 19, the container 24 with the float 23, and the rotary valve 44 with the control pipeline are located in series. The cavity 11 of the chamber 4 is connected via the hydraulic pipeline 64 provided with a valve 65, with the switch 27, the shank of which is fixed pivotally with one end of the lever 50 to the rod 22. Movement of the upper lever 50 is limited by the upper stop 58, and the lower lever 51 - by the lower stop 59 above and below the threshold level in the storage container 24. The valve gear 19 is made in the form of a cylinder and has a double piston 20 which is pivotally coupled to the rod 22 of the float actuator. The valve gear 19 is connected to the supply irrigation pipeline 1 through the control pipeline 34 to the valve 35 and is respectively connected to the manifold 42 with drains-humidifiers 43. The storage container 24 with a siphon 28 communicates through the rotary valve 44 to the control pipelines 31, 34, respectively, with valves 32, 35 and with the supply pipeline 1.
EFFECT: system enables to create closed automated systems in land reclamation, to save water resources, to obtain the necessary productivity of agricultural products with the effective use of land.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering, in particular, to methods for determination of water losses from irrigation ditches. The method consists in arrangement of an insulated compartment in a ditch, comprising two polymer water impermeable links, which for the time of determination of filtration losses are closed into slots on the bottom of the ditch at the distance of 30÷50 m, with subsequent hydraulic insulation of joint areas. Maintenance of polymer water impermeable links in the stable position is carried out with the help of a metal polymer rope pulled into open holes in the upper part of links and fixed to coastal anchors. To reduce impact in process of measurements of external factors, on top between water impermeable links there is a tent pulled from light impermeable polymer film. Measurement of water level in the compartment is carried out in special pockets fixed at the outer side to links and communicating with an insulated compartment with the help of three rows of holes in upper, middle and lower parts. For measurement of water level each pocket is equipped with a portable needle level metre (point-gauge) with a vernier scale division price of 0.1 mm, which is fixed on the metal stand, installed in the upper part of the slope above the measured water level.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurement of water losses for filtration from channels with anti-filtration lining.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of ecology, environment protection and rational nature management and can be used for purification of river water, climate regulation in drought and also contributes to creation of a reserve of fresh water for the economic and social needs of the population. The essence of the technical solution is that the water reservoirs with the depth of 2.5-3 m, the width of 120-150 m, the length of 250-280 m, the surface area of water of 3-3.5 ha are formed in interstream areas on the river banks at a distance of 150-200 m from the mainstream. The water reservoirs are connected to the river bed by input and take-out channels. At the bottom of the water reservoirs the zeolite-containing clay - irlites are placed with the layer of 10-15 cm.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce the level of pollution of river waters, to create optimal climatic conditions for human living, flora and fauna, the sustainable development of coastal ecosystems and the whole lowland interfluvial landscapes, while simultaneously providing reserve of ecologically clean fresh water for domestic, household and other needs of the population.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology and soil science. The method of assessment of degradation degree of industrial landscape in chemical contamination provides the analytical determination of the total number of the chemical pollutant element, the quantity of chemical pollutant element being in the mobile form in soil of the industrial landscape, and, separately, geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape. A procedure of assessment of pollution of the landscape is proposed, consisting of three stages: normalisation of industrial landscape pollution and geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape; determination of the ratio of pollution standard of industrial landscape and the pollution standard of geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape; determination of the degree of degradation of industrial landscape on the ratio of pollution standards under the proposed nonlinear scale of degradation degree of industrial landscape.
EFFECT: proposed method in practical use enables to improve the reliability of detection of degradation degree of industrial landscape in case of chemical pollution.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: weed plants are preliminarily mowed in discharge canal to water level and is left to dry. After drying reed and rush plants are selected. Selected plants are used as sorbent. Filtering cassette net of cassette-holding device is filled with sorbent. Sorbent-containing device is fixed in discharge canal bed in monolithic manner and drainage outflow is passed through it. Plant mowing and replacement of filtering cassette are carried out when rice plant passes from one vegetation stage into another.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve reclamation state of soil and ecological situation on rice fields due to reduction of suffusion and removal of nutrients from soil.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a supply 1 and a transit 2 channels, coupled with a water-receiving chamber, a draining pipeline with a flat gate in its inlet part and a dirt-collecting lattice 9. At the inlet of the water-receiving chamber there is a wall face. The wall face is made on top with a hollow pipe 8, having air outlet holes 10, connected by flexible hoses 12 with perforated tubes 13, separated on a garbage protection device in the form of the lattice 9. Perforated pipes are fixed on the lattice 9 at the side of the flat gate that closes the inlet hole of the draining pipeline. Perforated pipes 13 are connected to a source of compressed air supplied momentarily with a compressor 14, connected with a time relay 16, along an air duct 15 into a hollow pipe 8.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of operation of a device on channels with high inclinations and prevented clogging of a lattice.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proportionate water separator includes a supply channel 1 and a drain channel 2, where an elastic partition 3 is installed, equipped along the external contour with a rigid belt in the form of a movable shell 4, fixed on top to a flow divider in the form of a vertical plate 5 as capable of interaction with it along the drain channel axis. The bottom of the drain channel is coupled with the bottom of the supply channel in the form of a drop. The supply channel is coupled with a distribution chamber 6 expanded in plan of rectangular cross section. The distribution chamber 6 by its other end is installed on top onto boards of the drain channel in the form of a cantilever part with a gap in a coupling unit relative to the bottom of the drain channel and with coverage of the upper part of the throughput section to the specified channel. On the opposite wall of the drain channel board there is a vertical wall 7 of the chamber 6 fixed rigidly. The bottom of the distribution chamber 6 is equipped with a board - a threshold 9 in front of a vertical plate 5, facing the flow with reverse inclination. The flow divider is made as composite of the vertical plate 5 with a central hole installed on the horizontal axis, a movable shell 4, capable of horizontal-reciprocal displacement along the axis of the drain channel within the limits of the working position along width of the cantilever part of the chamber. At the same time the ratio of the length to the width of the board - the threshold makes at least 1 with the angle of inclination 10…15° relative to the bottom of the distribution chamber.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of water separation by reduction of forces for displacement and control of speed structure of a flow in a water separation zone.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method includes division of sloping areas to at least two levels, performing the preparatory works associated with digging and displacement the soil to create the limited amounts on the areas of different levels. And on the sloping and divided to sections areas the diking is made with the creation of the reservoir for moisture collection located upward the irrigated areas. Then in spring period of thawing of soil to the depth of 0.5-0.8 height of topsoil the water is released from the reservoir into the lower irrigated diked areas with its uniform distribution on the irrigated areas. The moisture collection in the reservoirs located at a higher level is carried out throughout the year with use of underwater channels and trays made in the soil.
EFFECT: method provides long-term conservation of water and physical soil properties when used effectively.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: water meter comprises a measuring device made by crosspieces in the form of beams 1. At the ends of the beams 1 there are frames 2 fixed in the form of a spillway with belts inside, having a form of a shield of a metering spillway with a thin wall 3, and the height of the shield is equal to the height of cut in a rift 7. Frames are fixed to crosspieces at diametrically opposite sides. Beams 1 by means of an axis of rotation 4 installed on boards of a canal, are connected to a reduction gear 5 with a metering device 6. Frames are attached to ends of beams along a generatrix relative to rotation of its axis along a longitudinal cut of the rift in vertical and circular direction along the flow. In the middle and lower part of a spillway rift 7 there is a washing window 8 with a spring loaded plate 9 with a visor 12, arranged as bent to the bottom of the canal.
EFFECT: invention provides for the possibility to measure water flow in narrow canals between their streamlined walls.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: structure comprises a chamber placed between a supply channel 1 and a drain channel, and the bottom of the chamber is arranged below the bottom of the supply channel at the elevation of the drain channel bottom. The chamber is divided into galleries with a wall 3, parallel to the axis of the drain channel, with a horizontal shelf with a visor in the upper part, directed towards the supply channel. The bottom of the supply channel is made with a slant at the sharp angle to the horizon. In the end of the supply channel 1 there is a vertical wall 9 installed, as well as a jet-directing system. The jet-directing system is made in the form of vertical longitudinal walls 10, ends of which are aligned along the bottom of the inclined section parallel to each other and at the angle 10-15° to the axis of the closed gallery. The walls of the bottom of the inclined section under a separating shelf are arranged with reducing height. In the end of the separating shelf there is a vertical plate installed with a gap to the bottom of the drain channel with a hinged joint 13 and with a spring, which is connected to the separating shelf. A protective visor 15 is fixed to the side wall of the gallery above the horizontal separating shelf.
EFFECT: higher efficiency in operation due to reduced water head upstream a unit with wave structure of a flow.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, desalinization of saline soil of agricultural lands.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting slits on plot to be desalinized; feeding rinse water onto strips between slits; removing salt from slit surfaces and spilling soil therein, with slits being cut to depth exceeding depth of season soil wetting with precipitation; providing cavities on strips between slits; closing cavities with shields of hydrophobic water-impermeable material, said shields being equipped with perforations extending along their central axes and float members; fastening shield edges in upper part of slits; providing soil desalinization facilitated by precipitation. Upon precipitation, rain water flows over walls of cavities to infiltrate through perforations and fill cavities bottom part, with the result that salt is washed into depth of soil to be desalinized. Moisture will be preferably moved by capillary force and due to evaporation of moisture from slit wall surfaces toward slit walls, accompanied by accumulation thereon of salts. Washing process may be accomplished during one or several seasons depending upon precipitation intensity and salt concentration. After completing of desalinization processes, shields are removed, salts are buried by spilling soil into slits, and soil on desalinized plot is mellowed to depth of season soil wetting. Burying of salts at the level below depth of season soil wetting and destruction of capillaries by deep mellowing of desalinized soil layer protect it from secondary salinization.
EFFECT: increased fertility of agricultural areas on unirrigated agricultural lands in the absence of potable water sources without the necessity of constructing expensive water feeding systems.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, desalination of agricultural lands.
SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding water to land to be desalinated; cutting slits therein; irrigating strips between slits; removing salt from slit wall surfaces and spilling soil thereon, with slits being provided at distance from one another which does not exceed doubled value of capillary transfer of soil moisture at land under desalination process and slit cutting depth being set so that it exceeds value of capillary lifting of moisture by soil at land under desalination process; forming ridges with two sloping surfaces on strips between slits; placing pipelines with droppers thereon, said pipelines being connected to water supply main; covering strip surfaces with water-impermeable shields made from hydrophilic material; fastening shield edges in upper part of slits; supplying water from droppers up to termination of desalination procedure, with following interrupting of water supplying process; moving soil layer with salt from slit walls onto slit bottom and forming water-impermeable layer of hydrophilic material above said soil layer; leveling slits.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of washing water, increased efficiency in soil desalination, decreased consumption of labor and costs for extraction, conveyance and disposition of salts settled on slit walls.
FIELD: agriculture, particularly irrigation ditches, namely gravity flow, open channel water distribution systems to control water flow in irrigation canal with water consumers, which take water along the canal.
SUBSTANCE: water-distribution system comprises irrigation canal with head gate, sealed chamber with sliding float communicating with upper pool and discharge means through three-way gate installed in supply pipeline, three-way gate control sensor, movable water consumer with water-intake means, blocking structure made as elastic shell and water level sensor. Water-intake means of water consumer is provided with sheet fixedly secured to upper end part thereof and adapted to block upper part of water flow. The sheet is associated with spherical elastic shell, which blocks remainder water flow part and provided with balancing means. The balancing means is located around spherical elastic shell perimeter. The sheet is linked to head part of water-intake means by flexible tie. Hollow body is connected to outer side of water-intake means. The hollow body is adapted to receive water level sensor made as float with vertical post. The post has two parallel contact rods connected to one post end and associated with power source. The contact rods cooperate with trolley cables in horizontal plane. The trolley cables are carried by masts installed on irrigation canal berm and distributed along the full canal length. The trolley cables are connected to power source through spring-loaded contact rods arranged in water-intake means and receiver/transmitter unit. Time delay unit is connected with gate control sensor. Sliding float is connected with head gate through kinematical connection means. Movable water consumer is provided with programmable control device, which controls water-intake means location height.
EFFECT: reduced operational costs, decreased water consumption for agricultural crop watering, decreased water reserve volume, simplified structure and reduced costs of irrigation system object construction.
FIELD: irrigation, particularly artificial water canals.
SUBSTANCE: method involves punching perforation orifices in film web; cutting furrows; breaking down and spreading soil lumps; laying perforated film webs along furrow perimeter and securing film web edges to berm. Number of perforation orifices made in film web increases from front furrow end to rear end thereof. Method is realized with the use of device including frame carrying working tool used for furrow cutting. Spreader, perforated film web accumulation means and pressing rollers are serially installed behind the working tool. The spreader comprises two rows of paired rollers freely rotating about their axes fixedly secured to shaft by means of bearings and loaded with spring. Roller is installed behind perforated film web accumulation means. The roller may perform limited vertical movement and is pressed with spring to furrow bottom and sides. Pressing rollers and scrapers are arranged behind the roller.
EFFECT: prevention of irrigation water losses during furrow filling with water; elimination of plant rootage damping-off.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to nondestructive methods for control and diagnostics of operational condition of tray channels. Device for diagnostics and forecasting of technical condition of tray channels in irrigation systems includes frame, antenna blocks and motion sensor. Device is equipped with processing module. Frame copies channel shape and is equipped with support rollers. Antenna blocks are arranged along frame perimetre.
EFFECT: makes it possible to improve quality of tray channel operational monitoring, to speed up their inspection with nondestructive test methods and to carry out forecasting of remaining service life of tray channels.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to operational monitoring of irrigation system tray channels technical condition in hydrotechnical construction. In method for performance of operational monitoring with the help of nondestructive check instruments and with application of ultrasonic method and method of impact pulse, reinforced concrete tray is separated into three survey zones by detection of specific defects and damages for each zone. Zone 1 is investigated to detect defects and damages that lead to destruction of tray bottom part. Zone 2 is investigated to detect skew cracks in tray board. Zone 3 - to detect long cracks, which lead to collapse of tray board. Using obtained data, technical condition of irrigation system tray channels is predicted.
EFFECT: more accurate assessment of stressed-deformed condition of reinforced concrete trays of irrigation channels and to predict their remaining service life.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a trench antifiltration curtain embedded into a confining layer with a vertical water-impermeable flexible screen and a trench filler from filtering material, closed along the perimetre of the dried area, inside which there is a secured site, a device for deep directed distributed supply of fresh water into the soil massif of the dried area and the secured site and a drainage device. The drainage device is made in the form of a drainage vertical well (wells) with depth below the level of ground waters. The device for fresh water supply is made in the form of water-absorbing pits (pit) with depth to the level of ground waters. In the first version the drainage well is installed in the centre of the secured site and is connected with the drainage horizontal wells arranged ray-like in the soil layer with ground waters under the secured site. Pits are arranged along the secured site perimetre in the medium of filtering material of the antifiltration curtain trench filler. In the second version two and more drainage wells are installed at one side of the secured site and are connected to each other by a drainage header. The device for water supply is made in the form of at least one pit arranged along the curtain perimetre in the medium of the filtering material of the curtain trench filler. In the third version two drainage wells are installed at one side of the secured site and are connected to each other by a drainage header and a slot drain installed at the depth below the ground waters level. The well is made at the opposite side of the secured site and is located in plan in the middle part of the trench filler from the curtain filtering material. In the fourth version two drainage well are installed one at two sides of the secured site, every of which is connected to drainage horizontal wells arranged ray-like in the soil layer with ground waters under the secured site. The device for water supply is made in the form of at least two pits, every of which is installed in the medium of the filtering material of the curtain trench filler. In the fifth version four drainage well are installed one at four sides of the secured site, every of which is connected to a drainage horizontal well arranged ray-like in the soil layer with ground waters under the secured site. The device for water supply is made in the form of at four pits, every of which is installed at the border of the dried area in the medium of the filtering material of the curtain trench filler.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of meliorative system operation and lower salt content in water-absorbing soil massif and drain flow down to rated parameters of mineralisation.
5 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a frame, a processing module, antenna units, a motion sensor and a propeller for free movement along a bottom. Antenna units are arranged along the frame perimetre. The frame consists of rods and represents three parts connected in a hinged manner.
EFFECT: increased quality of doing operational monitoring of feeder canals by surveying an entire feeder canal along the perimetre and much faster survey of canals.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flooding of worked out peatlands in the restoration of peat bogs. The method is carried out in the autumn-winter period with the establishment of a stable average daily air temperature below the freezing point of water with use of ice blocks made in the form of polyhedra. Near the available source of fresh water the blocks of ice are produced. Then the blocks manufactured using the vehicle are moved to the mapped areas of worked out peatlands and put in few layers in the structure in the form of a polyhedron. At that at each mapped area of worked out peatlands, depending on the area of the site one or more structures from blocks of ice are erected.
EFFECT: increased level of fire safety in the areas of worked out peatlands, reduced level of the risk of emergencies and improved overall environmental situation around the worked out peatlands.
SUBSTANCE: water discharge comprises a supply channel 1, a transit one 2, between which a trench 3 is arranged, a side drain water conduit 6 and a shield 11 with a drive. The water discharge is also equipped with a jet-forming element 4, which is installed on the bottom of the trench and is arranged according to the shape of the cross section of the supply channel in the form of a tray capable of turning towards the supply channel. The lower end of the tray is fixed on the bottom hingedly, and the upper one is coupled at the bottom with a lever mechanism 7 capable of vertical displacement relative to the drain water discharge arranged on boards of the transit channel 2.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability of operation under conditions of variable water level in a channel.
2 cl, 4 dwg