Water divider for channels with stormy flow condition

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: water divider includes supply (2) and transit (3) channels, control gates and bottom well (1) with division walls (8-10) located in it and provided with horizontal caps (11-13) in the upper part dividing the well into chambers. Bottom well (1) is provided with L-shaped caps (15-18), the flange of which faces downwards, which are arranged in each chamber and attached to the middle part of the chamber wall opposite to a horizontal cap. Division walls (8-10) have water-carrying slot-shaped openings (20-22) covered from above with horizontal flanges (23-25) and from below with horizontal flanges (26-28) respectively. Water outlet slot-shaped holes (20-22) are arranged in series opposite L-shaped caps (15-17). The upper part of division walls (8-10) has fractures (29-31) in a vertical plane with specified angles functionally depending on a value of water intake with each chamber of bottom well (1). Surface areas of inlet openings of chambers increase in flow direction above well (1). Each chamber of bottom well (1) has cone-shaped bottom (32-35) directed with a convex in an upward direction. Well (1) with chambers arranged in it is connected to an outlet channel by means of a water-jet damping well. Operating efficiency is improved due to stabilisation of discharged consumption and carrying capacity is increased in a mode of free flow at a wave structure of a flow.

EFFECT: formation of a stable hydraulic jump is provided; with that, spreading of a common jet in an outlet channel is maintained.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to hydraulic engineering and can be used for single-sided and double-sided stable selection of water in irrigation and diversion channels of the micro channel with turbulent regime and Swinburne (wave) mode currents.

Known water divider for channels with turbulent regime of flow, comprising placed between the supply and transit channels well and discharge conduits placed in the well of the transverse partitions dividing it into chambers, horizontal canopies, fixed in the upper part of each chamber and facing towards the flow, and l-shaped visors with downward shelf, separated in each chamber and fixed to the middle part of the opposite horizontal canopy wall camera (USSR Author's certificate No. 1016424, CL E02B 13/00, 1983).

The downside of it is the low bandwidth of each camera, i.e., has a low coefficient of discharge panel hole at the end in the discharge conduits. The flow entering the camera well with shields, partially extinguished, missing elements, hydraulic resistance, which causes a change in the exhaust flow in the well when the change speed of the flow (pressure) in the inlet channel, i.e., there is no stream compression in the chamber of the well that leads to change is ashada water in the taps. As a result of such changes in the flow rate of the water in the taps required manual adjustment processes in the water supply. However due to the action of l-shaped visors are helical flow in the forward direction to discharge channels and the flow of water must constantly be adjusted side gates, and the output occurs sbinet flow in the discharge channel. Thus, the limited range when changing costs in the supply channel. The design of the water divider does not allow in one technological cycle problem for a stable intake of water consumption of each chamber of the well, and to significantly increase throughput well in General.

Known also water divider for channels with turbulent regime of flow, comprising placed between the supply and transit channels well and discharge conduits placed in the well of the transverse partitions dividing it into chambers, horizontal canopies, fixed in the upper part of each chamber and facing towards the flow, and l-shaped visors with downward shelf placed in each chamber and fixed to the middle part of the opposite horizontal visor walls of the chamber, and the chambers are made with an increasing in the direction of flow width and topped hinged grating (the Author is the certificate of the USSR No. 1654447, CL E02B 13/00, 1991).

The disadvantage of this water divider is difficult to ensure a steady flow of water from each camera in the bends. The bandwidth of each cell depends on the construction of the lattice with longitudinal slits along the length of the well. Therefore, the stability of the flow is insufficient as selection of water each camera well, especially with the increase of consumption in excess of the calculated and, on the contrary, when the flow decreases, less than estimated due to the lack of additional hydraulic resistance in each cell well. While at the same time when the water flow in the inlet channel below the expected level sharply decreases the pressure in the chambers of the well.

Channels-chutes with gradients more critical (i>0,02) can be a wave, bezosnovnymi (protivobolevye transverse profiles) and works in two modes (wave - pass some of the costs, and Bessonova - when ignoring other costs). Therefore, to have created new structures, taking into account characteristics of the channel flow, the speaker, in each case as a source of water supply to consumers (for example, irrigation canals or channels of the micro).

The known device, in this case, the bottom intake with cameras in well with side bends and bars in the presence of rolling waves and reset them in transit is to stabilize the water supply to the consumer does not allow to increase at a higher throughput when transferring turbulent flow in a calm state in a discharge channel. It is known that the flow along the length of the well varies in mind part of the selection of each chamber, resulting in non-uniform velocity distribution and flow over the lumen of the cameras. Therefore, inside each cell there is a change in exhaust flow of water. Additionally, there is no outlet in the channel formation of stable hydraulic flow (you will need to fill). In addition to the absence of stabilizing ability of each camera relative flow rate Qresp/Qmax, i.e., depends on the relative flow in the channel-flow, the throughput of each camera is not correlated with the distribution of water that violates the parallel-jet forward movement of the out-flow in the discharge channel and contributes to sbeinati in the open discharge channel. It is also not high throughput famous buildings, the cost of construction increases. In addition, there is provided a symmetric splitting of the flow in the direction of flow width of each camera, i.e., does not provide the increase of inlet chambers with the flow due to water abstraction and also due to the absence of inclined parts in the upper part of the separating walls and the location of these parts at angles α1α2α3functionally dependent led the ranks of the water.

The aim of the invention is the extension of functionality by providing stabilization of the exhaust flow and increase throughput in free mode expires when the wave structure of the stream.

This objective is achieved in that the water divider for channels with turbulent regime of flow, comprising placed between the supply and transit channels well and discharge conduits, a partition dividing it into chambers, horizontal canopies, fixed in the upper part of each chamber and facing towards the flow, and l-shaped visors with downward shelf placed in each chamber and fixed to the middle part of the opposite horizontal visor walls of the chamber, and the chambers are made with an increasing in the direction of flow width and topped hinged bars, dividers culvert have slotted holes, through which the chambers communicate with each other over the course of a stream and culvert slotted holes is limited to two horizontal shelves, one of which is located above it before angle of fracture of the upper part of the partition in a vertical plane, and the second is located below the discharge slot relative to the first, and the bottom of each camera made anusaaraka, directed bulge up during this part of the fracture cubicles are located in relation to the parts of the cubicles at an angle α1α2α3and based on the amount of water intake at the expense of area changes of the inlet chamber.

In addition, the camera well on the outer side of the lower edge is connected with the beginning of the water well, the output end of which is connected to the discharge channel.

On the basis of the interrelation and interdependence of the main elements of the structure of turbulent flow coming from the inlet channel, is divided by each camera for different flow rate through culvert slotted holes vertical dividing partitions with two horizontal shelves, as well as fractures of the parts in the upper part of the walls with different angles of inclination α1α2α3in the vertical plane relative to the lower vertical parts that are functionally dependent on the value of water, while ensuring stabilization of the water drainage due to the narrowing in the first stage, coonabarabran bottom bulge upwards, and taking into account the flow part of the flow of water into the second chamber (their number is determined by calculation). As a consequence, increases the pressure of the expiration of the Ho. With increasing pressure the expiration increases the compression stream, istakais the th from under the gate in the outlet according to that leads to a decrease of the coefficient of discharge of each chamber of the well width, i.e., µ is inversely proportional to. This ensures the stabilization of the flow coming into the discharge conduits. Given that b=cont (width) of each individual camera, you will get Qresp=f(a), i.e. the function of the shutter opening. In addition to stabilizing ability of each chamber of the water divider bandwidth, respectively, was higher in comparison with the known construction, which reduces the cost of construction of water distribution facilities. This approach to design can increase water consumption by at least 15...20%. Water divider can be used for one-way and two-way selection of water (not shown bilateral water abstraction). The combination of pressure and screw driving modes and gave rise to the creation of new technical solutions. Ultimately, the presence of new elements in well water divider for mixing flows increases the pressure of the expiration and the compression stream, and the flow in the outlet channel enters the water well, but not so much that the stream is completely flooded stream in the downstream, so the output is made sloping bottom, and uniformly dispersing, enters the downstream channel, giving it a superficial structures is.

The originality and simplicity of this design ensures even distribution of water velocities and specific charges at the output of the camera in the water well and then into the discharge channel.

The total number of cells in the well take depending on their relative changes of flow in the drainage Qresp/Qmaxand, depending on the relative flow in the channel-flow Q/Qmax. The path length of the well is divided into chambers by placing the vertical dividers into the water with slotted holes, limited by two horizontal shelves and the upper ends of the fracture walls (parts thereof) under the angle α1α2α3that provides an increase in the area of the cross section in these cells, as acting head of the stream when entering the camera drainage decreases in cross-section. This achieves a more uniform distribution of water velocities and specific charges.

Screw the rotation of the nucleus of the liquid in the chamber is divided into several movements, and is the most dense (compressed) in the cross section in comparison with the known device. The flow in each chamber itself forms its movement when opening the outlet hole shutter before water well, and this leads to the complete elimination of a misbehaving flow freely passed on the indoor discharge channel, this ensures smooth flow of the stream for water ledge of the well.

Based on the above, the author believes that it is possible to argue that the proposed solution meets the criterion of "Significant differences".

In Fig.1 shows a water divider for channels with turbulent regime of flow, in terms of Fig.2 - section a-a in Fig.1; Fig.3 - section b-B in Fig.1.

Water divider for channels with turbulent regime of flow contains the bottom of the well 1, is made between the inlet 2 and transit 3 channels with the wave structure of the flow outlet openings separated by flat valves 4, 5, 6, 7 equal width, and located in the well 1 dividers 8, 9, 10 with a horizontal peaks 11, 12, 13, 14 in the upper part, and with G-shaped visors 15, 16, 17, 18, shelf, which is facing down, on the opposite wall in the middle part.

Partitioning 8-10 divide the well 1 to the camera, increasing the flow area. Water divider provided with a hinge attached to the upper front edge of the well 1 bars 19 with the longitudinal rods.

Partitioning 8-10 performed with culvert slotted holes 20, 21, 22, covered by horizontal shelves 23, 24, 25 and bottom, respectively, horizontal shelves 26, 27, 28. Culvert slotted holes 20-22 consistently RA is medeni opposite l-shaped visors 15-17. In the upper part of the partition 8-10 performed by the kinks 29, 30, 31 in the vertical plane, and the upper inclined portion 29 to 31 are located above the upper horizontal shelves 23-25 and placed in relation to the parts of the vertical separation peregorodok 8-10 angles α1α2α3functionally dependent on the amount of water each chamber bottom of the well 1, with square openings of the chambers increase in traffic flow over the well 1. Each chamber of the bottom of the well 1 has a bottom 32, 33, 34, 35 cone-type, directional convexity upwards, i.e. towards the l-shaped visor 15-18, shelf, which is directed downward, and the lower horizontal shelves 26-28. Included in each cell l-shaped visors 15-18, horizontal shelves 23-25 and 26-28, and the bottom 32-35 conical form with regard to the water outlet slot 20-22 create hydraulic resistance. At the same time the gaps culvert slot 20-23 between the two horizontal walls (top and bottom), respectively, restricting the entrance of water in each chamber, oriented consistently in width in the direction directed to the l-shaped visor, shelf, which is directed downward, i.e., there is a narrowing of the space in the chamber. Outlet openings with flat paddles 4-7 are connected to their vychodni water well 36, which is connected with the discharge channel 37. Water divider can be used for one-way and two-way selection of water (two-way water divider not shown).

The operation of the device is as follows.

High speed Overbury flow from the inlet channel 2, with a slope of more critical, horizontal cutoff visors 11-14, enters the chamber bottom of the well 1 and is given to consumers through a lateral hole closed with a flat gates 4-7 with a given opening. At the same time the flow of water coming into the camera pit 1 has longitudinal and transverse non-stationarity of the velocity, cutoff visors 11-14. The bandwidth of each chamber increases as the ratio of the areas of intake openings of the chambers to flow through the inclined parts 29-31 (kinks) angles α1α2α3functionally dependent on the value of water.

The flow, getting in the camera of the well 1 has a helical movement with translation in the forward direction to the outlet openings of the valve, which is regulated by the latter. Therefore, when the twisting part of the kinetic energy of the translational motion of water flow and increasing pressure over the well 1, is divided into parts with the l-shaped visor and two horizontal shelves, bounding in topropose slit a hole in the partition wall (wall) compress stream as it moves to the bottom 32-35 cone types in each chamber, and the chamber is filled with water, increasing the compression coil flux flowing between the gaps G-shaped visor, two horizontal walls and culvert slot (the latter also have the hydraulic resistance), which generally increases the degree of resistance in the cavity of each camera, provided the proposed design elements. Thus, the value supplied in the exhaust flow rate is regulated by the opening of the shutter 4-7, the stabilizing properties of which can be verified by determining the variation of the relative flow in the drainage Qresp/Qmaxdepending on the relative flow in the channel-flow Q/Qmax. Thus, the design of the water divider can be used as a stabilizer water flow in the drainage, for example, under given relations of the opening side of the hole flat button (less than 0.75) and the costs in the supply flow Q/Qmax>0,4.

According to the well-known formula hydraulics bandwidth shield holes on the allotment with regard to the determination of flow coefficient µ of water divider is defined:

where µresp.the coefficient of discharge panel holes; Ho- head speed of approach flow Voc- compressed depth for flat gate.

Changing cubicles constructively made also with a break in the vertical plane; the presence of a culvert slot bounded by two horizontal shelves and a cone-shaped house camera towards the bulge up, distribute the water flow over the cross section of the camera, resulting in increased throughput facilities, no ripples and splashes on the surface of the water.

Wave flow from the inlet channel 2, passing over the well 1, does not exert its influence and direction of a given water flow in the chamber, thereby compensating surplus consumption resulting from uneven distribution of speeds and costs in the frontal and caudal part of the wave that provides a high stabilization of consumption and increased throughput of water divider supplied through holes in the water well 36, and then into the discharge channel 37.

The cone-shaped bottom of each chamber of the well 1 does not settle also concentrated in the chamber during the rotation movement of the muddy water and small particles of sediment. They roll down towards the walls of the chamber, where the flow rotates at a high speed. This leads to the translation of crayons the fractions of sediment in suspension, their removal through the side hole is closed with a flat gate.

The location of water wells 36 takes into account the fact that the axis of the jet coming out of each hole camera, does not reach the outlet channel 37, in which you want to save rasplastyvanija total jets at the beginning of the discharge channel and the formation of a stable hydraulic jump. The indicated element of the structure in this case is called the soothing water of the well 36, which end has an inclined bottom for connection with the discharge channel 37, which allows free after water out of the holes blocked by a gate, and is connected in a common thread in the beginning of the discharge channel 37, respectively, through the sequential actions protected distribution downstream channel 37 excitement, the flow is almost evenly distributed over the cross section of the discharge channel 37.

The application of the invention solves the problem of stabilization of consumption with increased bandwidth in open channels not only with Swinburne, but the strong current in the composition of the structures, working with the free mode expires, and promotes uniform movement of water across the width and length of the discharge channel.

The economic efficiency of the proposed water divider is to combine in one technological cycle C the cottages optimal intake stable flow and increase throughput.

1. Water divider for channels with turbulent regime of flow, comprising placed between the supply and transit channels well and discharge conduits, a partition dividing it into chambers, horizontal canopies, fixed in the upper part of each chamber and facing towards the flow, and l-shaped visors with downward shelf placed in each chamber and fixed to the middle part of the opposite horizontal visor walls of the chamber, and the chambers are made with an increasing in the direction of flow width and topped hinged grating, characterized in that with the purpose to increase functionality by providing stabilization of the exhaust flow and increase throughput in free mode expires when the wave structure of the flow dividers have a culvert slotted holes through which the chambers communicate with each other over the course of a stream and culvert slotted holes is limited to two horizontal shelves, one of which is located above the hole before the angle of fracture of the upper part of the partition in a vertical plane, and the second is located below the discharge slot relative to the first, and the bottom of each chamber are made conical, directed issue what clostly up when this part breaks cubicles are located in relation to the parts of the cubicles at an angle α1, α2, α3 and depend on the size of the intake at the expense of area changes of the inlet chamber.

2. Water divider under item 1, characterized in that the camera well on the outer side of the lower edge is connected with the beginning of the water well, the output end of which is connected to the discharge channel.



 

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1 dwg

FIELD: irrigation, particularly artificial water canals.

SUBSTANCE: method involves punching perforation orifices in film web; cutting furrows; breaking down and spreading soil lumps; laying perforated film webs along furrow perimeter and securing film web edges to berm. Number of perforation orifices made in film web increases from front furrow end to rear end thereof. Method is realized with the use of device including frame carrying working tool used for furrow cutting. Spreader, perforated film web accumulation means and pressing rollers are serially installed behind the working tool. The spreader comprises two rows of paired rollers freely rotating about their axes fixedly secured to shaft by means of bearings and loaded with spring. Roller is installed behind perforated film web accumulation means. The roller may perform limited vertical movement and is pressed with spring to furrow bottom and sides. Pressing rollers and scrapers are arranged behind the roller.

EFFECT: prevention of irrigation water losses during furrow filling with water; elimination of plant rootage damping-off.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to nondestructive methods for control and diagnostics of operational condition of tray channels. Device for diagnostics and forecasting of technical condition of tray channels in irrigation systems includes frame, antenna blocks and motion sensor. Device is equipped with processing module. Frame copies channel shape and is equipped with support rollers. Antenna blocks are arranged along frame perimetre.

EFFECT: makes it possible to improve quality of tray channel operational monitoring, to speed up their inspection with nondestructive test methods and to carry out forecasting of remaining service life of tray channels.

3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to operational monitoring of irrigation system tray channels technical condition in hydrotechnical construction. In method for performance of operational monitoring with the help of nondestructive check instruments and with application of ultrasonic method and method of impact pulse, reinforced concrete tray is separated into three survey zones by detection of specific defects and damages for each zone. Zone 1 is investigated to detect defects and damages that lead to destruction of tray bottom part. Zone 2 is investigated to detect skew cracks in tray board. Zone 3 - to detect long cracks, which lead to collapse of tray board. Using obtained data, technical condition of irrigation system tray channels is predicted.

EFFECT: more accurate assessment of stressed-deformed condition of reinforced concrete trays of irrigation channels and to predict their remaining service life.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a trench antifiltration curtain embedded into a confining layer with a vertical water-impermeable flexible screen and a trench filler from filtering material, closed along the perimetre of the dried area, inside which there is a secured site, a device for deep directed distributed supply of fresh water into the soil massif of the dried area and the secured site and a drainage device. The drainage device is made in the form of a drainage vertical well (wells) with depth below the level of ground waters. The device for fresh water supply is made in the form of water-absorbing pits (pit) with depth to the level of ground waters. In the first version the drainage well is installed in the centre of the secured site and is connected with the drainage horizontal wells arranged ray-like in the soil layer with ground waters under the secured site. Pits are arranged along the secured site perimetre in the medium of filtering material of the antifiltration curtain trench filler. In the second version two and more drainage wells are installed at one side of the secured site and are connected to each other by a drainage header. The device for water supply is made in the form of at least one pit arranged along the curtain perimetre in the medium of the filtering material of the curtain trench filler. In the third version two drainage wells are installed at one side of the secured site and are connected to each other by a drainage header and a slot drain installed at the depth below the ground waters level. The well is made at the opposite side of the secured site and is located in plan in the middle part of the trench filler from the curtain filtering material. In the fourth version two drainage well are installed one at two sides of the secured site, every of which is connected to drainage horizontal wells arranged ray-like in the soil layer with ground waters under the secured site. The device for water supply is made in the form of at least two pits, every of which is installed in the medium of the filtering material of the curtain trench filler. In the fifth version four drainage well are installed one at four sides of the secured site, every of which is connected to a drainage horizontal well arranged ray-like in the soil layer with ground waters under the secured site. The device for water supply is made in the form of at four pits, every of which is installed at the border of the dried area in the medium of the filtering material of the curtain trench filler.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of meliorative system operation and lower salt content in water-absorbing soil massif and drain flow down to rated parameters of mineralisation.

5 cl, 14 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a frame, a processing module, antenna units, a motion sensor and a propeller for free movement along a bottom. Antenna units are arranged along the frame perimetre. The frame consists of rods and represents three parts connected in a hinged manner.

EFFECT: increased quality of doing operational monitoring of feeder canals by surveying an entire feeder canal along the perimetre and much faster survey of canals.

1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flooding of worked out peatlands in the restoration of peat bogs. The method is carried out in the autumn-winter period with the establishment of a stable average daily air temperature below the freezing point of water with use of ice blocks made in the form of polyhedra. Near the available source of fresh water the blocks of ice are produced. Then the blocks manufactured using the vehicle are moved to the mapped areas of worked out peatlands and put in few layers in the structure in the form of a polyhedron. At that at each mapped area of worked out peatlands, depending on the area of the site one or more structures from blocks of ice are erected.

EFFECT: increased level of fire safety in the areas of worked out peatlands, reduced level of the risk of emergencies and improved overall environmental situation around the worked out peatlands.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: water discharge comprises a supply channel 1, a transit one 2, between which a trench 3 is arranged, a side drain water conduit 6 and a shield 11 with a drive. The water discharge is also equipped with a jet-forming element 4, which is installed on the bottom of the trench and is arranged according to the shape of the cross section of the supply channel in the form of a tray capable of turning towards the supply channel. The lower end of the tray is fixed on the bottom hingedly, and the upper one is coupled at the bottom with a lever mechanism 7 capable of vertical displacement relative to the drain water discharge arranged on boards of the transit channel 2.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability of operation under conditions of variable water level in a channel.

2 cl, 4 dwg

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