Production of compacted articles from 6000-series aluminium alloy

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: this process comprises casing of ingot from 6000-series aluminium alloy, it homogenisation, hot pressing at the rate of outflow of 3.0-30.0 m/min from heated container, heat treatment to solid solution by quenching in water, straightening after quenching by stretching and artificial ageing.

EFFECT: development of high-alloyed Al-Mg-Si system alloy with good mechanical, processing and antirust properties.

5 tbl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to the technology of production of extruded semifinished products from aluminum alloy system Al-Mg-Si with improved performance and technological properties of the products in the form of long, thin-walled panels and profiles designed for use in rail transport, rail transport and other transport systems.

Technology of production cars from large aluminum extrusions and panels is a cost-effective solution. Large profiles can replace many complex classical details. Extruded profiles can be supplied ready for mounting integral parts. Such technologies can be used in many areas of technology. Existing advantages and possible applications of products from aluminum alloys allow them to compete successfully with steel structures

Additional requirements for cars transport systems, the most important is the reduced mass of the body that can achieve significant energy cost savings for passenger and cargo transportation. The use of extruded semi-finished products from aluminum alloys allows for 20-25% reduction in the weight of the body, in comparison with steel bodies. This increases the carrying capacity of wagons n is 20-25%; increases the durability of the cars due to the higher corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys; reduced maintenance costs of cars; reduces the complexity of Assembly of cars by 25-30%; expand design possibilities.

Consider the features wrought aluminium alloys with position requirements railcar. The most important requirement is that the alloys had the necessary complex structural characteristics. This is a sufficient strength, good resistance to cyclic loads and high corrosion resistance of the base metal and welded joints.

The second and very important requirement for aluminum alloys used in the building, is a high technology in machine-building and metallurgical production. High technology in machine-building production implies, first of all, good weldability: low tendency to cracking during welding, low attenuation coefficient of welded joints compared with the base metal, high ductility and toughness of welded joints.

Technology in the metallurgical industry is characterized by a complex of properties, which include:

1) Low tendency to cracking during casting of ingots;

2) Good processability when is riscovanii (low deformation resistance, providing the ability to produce thin-walled panels and profiles of complex shape, with a fairly high speeds expiration date).

3) High stability of the supersaturated solid solution, enabling them to harden extruded semi-finished products.

Known the world practice the manufacture of wagons for rail transport on the basis of alloys of the following systems:

system Al-Mg, 5000 series (AMG, AMG, AMg5, AMg6, 5086, 5083, 5383, 5186, etc.);

system Al-Mg-Si series 6000 (AD31, AD, AD, 6060, 6061, 6063,6005 A, 6082 and others);

system Al-Zn-Mg series 7000 (1915, 1925, 7020, 7039, and others).

In the patent of Russia No. 2443798, IPC C22F 1/057, C22C 21/18, publ. 27.02.2012) describes the manufacture of products from aluminum alloys of the 2000 series, namely deformed products with a relatively large thickness of 30-300 mm the Lack of ductility is not possible to apply this alloy in the manufacture of products in the form of long, thin panels and profiles.

Known alloy 5000 series type AMG HOST-97. The alloys have a relatively inadequate mechanical properties and require more complex technology of welding compared with most other alloys series.

Famous product of wrought aluminum alloy of the 7000 series and the method of production of the said product (RF Patent No. 2413025, IPC C22C 21/10, C22F 1/053, publ. 27.02.2011). The product is obtained having a reduced sensitivity is ity to hot cracking, having improved properties of strength and fracture toughness and hardness of more than 180 HB when in artificially aged condition. The disadvantage is the reduced plasticity, complicating the extrusion of thin-walled panels and profiles, as well as the tendency to corrosion under stress.

According to statistics, about 90% of the volume of semi-finished products used in this technology are aluminum alloys of the system Al-Mg-Si (series 6000). Long-term operation of cars of alloys of the system Al-Mg-Si (several decades) indicates their reliability in normal conditions

The 6000 series alloys in General comply with the technical requirements for railway transport for corrosion resistance, processability in extrusion and steel production and are economically competitive.

However, the present alloys Al-Mg-Si is not fully satisfy the requirements according to the following criteria:

- loss of strength when welding welds are characterized by poor ductility and low fracture toughness;

- lack of strength, resulting in emergency situations, which, unfortunately, cannot be avoided even in the most developed and prosperous countries, such as Germany, Italy, Japan and other serious consequences.;

Task this is the future of the invention to provide in an existing industrial equipment serial extruded products for railway transport of aluminum alloy of 6000 series with excellent structural and technological properties.

The technical result is to obtain extruded products with stable Polynesians structure, providing maximum mechanical properties in excess of 20-35% mechanical properties of known samples of extruded semi-finished products for railway transport of aluminum alloy of 6000 series, while the production process is characterized by high technology, the possibility of obtaining complex thin-walled panels, high stability of the resulting mechanical properties of the products.

This technical result is achieved by a method of manufacturing extruded products of aluminum alloy of 6000 series includes the casting of an ingot of aluminum alloy of 6000 series, having a chemical composition containing, in wt.%:

Si 0,65-0,80

Mg 0,45-0,60

Mn 0,20-0,40

Zn≤0,20

Cu≤0,30

Cr≤0,05

Fe≤0,25

Ti 0,04-0,1

In≤0,001

other impurity ≤ 0,05%,

the amount of other impurities ≤ 0,15%,

the basis of Al,

the ratio of Mg/Si=0.6 to 0.8,

the ingots are subjected to homogenization at a temperature of 450-480°C for 8-12 hours, hot pressing is carried out at a temperature of 420-490°C, at a speed of expiration of 3.0-30.0 m/min, from a heated container, heated at 10-20°C below the temperature of the heated billet, heat treatment in the solid solution is performed to a temperature of 480-540 the C and holding at this temperature for 15-60 min, and quenching in water at a cooling rate of 10-100°C/s to a temperature of 20-40°C, after quenching involves editing the stretching residual strain of 0.5-3.5%, with an interval between quenching and edit the extension is not more than 8 hours of artificial aging is performed at a temperature of 140-200°C, the extract 4-12 hours, with a break between edit stretching and artificial aging is not more than 48 hours

The proposed method for the production of extruded products of aluminum alloy of 6000 series is based on the synergetic effect of all alloying elements on properties of aluminum alloy, so the component ratio of the alloying elements and the optimal modes pressing and heat treatment can significantly improve the mechanical properties of manufactured products compared with similar known products produced analogues of aluminum alloy of 6000 series.

When the selected value presence of basic hardening alloying elements magnesium and silicon in the range of Mg/Si=0.6 to 0.8 as possible the formation of phase - reinforcer: Mg2Si.

The structure of the weld metal of a welded joint depends on the contents and ratios of Mg and Si in the alloy. A certain ratio Mg/Si a few grinds of dendritic cell (microsemi) and increases the number of evenly distributed the military grains of Mg2Si phase.

The content of Si in the alloy is limited to 0.8%, exceeding this value increases the sensitivity of the metal to hot cracking, which greatly impairs the weldability of the material. For the same reason, the magnitude of the presence in the alloy Fe should not exceed 0.25%. The content of Si in the alloy is less than 0,65% does not provide the required strength alloy properties.

The presence in the alloy Cu≤0,30%; Zn≤0,20%; Cr≤0,05% improves the corrosion resistance of the alloy and provides good weldability. The presence of manganese in the stated range - Mn (0,20-0,40%), creates the effect of intercrystallite and contributes to thermal stabilization Polynesians patterns. The presence of Ti (0.04 to 0.1%) and B (0,001%) as modifiers ensures a homogeneous fine-grained structure in the alloy.

The target chemical composition allows for a maximum level of operational and technological profile properties of the alloy of 6000 series, fine-grained precrystallization (Polynesian) structure and high surface quality of the product after extrusion. Thus, the high mechanical properties are provided not only by the content of chemical elements, but also due to the effect of structural hardening (polygoncount structure).

Modes pressing chosen empirically depending on széchenyi square is pressed products, stability is ensured by maintaining a stable temperature in the container is heated by 10-20°C below the temperature of the workpiece for removal of excess heat from the deformation of the plastic zone that bring the pressing process to isothermal. In the process of pressing on the interphase boundaries are a significant field of elastic stresses, which are centers of recrystallization. Recrystallization intensive takes place at a high temperature treatment in solid solution (480-540°C) and high cooling rate during quenching (cooling rate of 30-100°C/s to a temperature of 20-40°C) prevents the growth of recrystallized grains in the products. Intercrystalline effect is enhanced due to the content of MP (0,20-0,40%). Saving a large number of centers of recrystallization, therefore, obtain particularly fine-grained structure is provided by the combination of processing solid solution and subsequent quenching. High temperature processing solid solution also provides a greater degree of supersaturation, which results in the artificial aging to increase strength properties. Uniform distribution of the products of decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution increases the corrosion resistance of the semi-finished product.

Exceeding the time interval between the Alcoy and edit stretching more than 8 hours is undesirable because products are gaining strength, preventing deformation by stretching. Edit by stretching residual strain of 0.5-3.5% provides acceptable geometrical dimensions of extruded products curvature. The range of tensile strain due to the fact that the deformation is less than 0.5% not effectively reduces thermal stresses and deformation over 3.5% leads to strain hardening products.

The padding in the aging process of this alloy is provided by processing solid solution at a relatively high temperature (for dissolution of alloying elements) and rapid quenching (for retention of dissolved elements in supersaturated solid solution). Subsequently, the hardening that occurs as a result of artificial aging is due to the fact that dissolved components held in a supersaturated solid solution, as part of the response in the equilibrium form of selection (secondary phases), which are dispersed in the grains in the form of units of small size and increase the ability of a material to resist shear. Break between edit stretching and artificial aging for more than 48 hours reduces the hardening effect.

The invention is illustrated in the photos, which shows the cross-section extruded products made with regard to the availa able scientific C with this invention:

Fig.1 - profile (dimensions 420×75 mm).

Fig.2 - panel (dimensions 790×52 mm).

Fig.3 - panel (dimensions 790×50 mm).

An example of a specific implementation.

In the electric furnace of the resistance type SAN with a capacity of 10 tons were made of melting, the following chemical composition, table 1:

Table.1
The number of meltMass fraction of elements, %
SiMgMnZnCuCrFeTiBAl
10,690,480,320,090,190,030,210,060,001base

Then were cast billets ⌀ 470. Casting ingots was carried out in the following modes table 2:

Table.2
The size of the ingot mmSettings casting
temperature, °Cspeed, mm/minThe water pressure, PA
⌀ 470705-70745,05×104

Modes of homogenization cast ingots are shown in table 3.

Table.3
The size of the ingot mmThe temperature of homogenization, °CThe duration of exposure, h
⌀ 470515-5188

Mechanical properties of extruded semi-finished products are shown in table 4. Control of hardness was carried out throughout the cross section profile and panels. The distance between control points is not more than 50 mm.

Table.4
σin, MPaσ02, MPaA, %tordos the ü, NVThe difference between max and min HB
Profile300-320285-30010-14br93.1-107,013,9
Panel293-329264-29311,0-17,691,0-to 106.015
Requirements EN755-2*≥255≥215≥8-≥20
* European standard EN755-2 (Aluminum and aluminum alloys. Extruded bars, rods, tubes and profile. Part 2. Mechanical properties).

As can be seen from table 5 the achieved level of mechanical characteristics of the obtained products in the claimed method, exceed the minimum value requirements EN755-2 on average 20-35%. Stability of mechanical properties over the cross section and length of the products is confirmed by measurement protocols hardness throughout the cross section with the 2 ends of each pressing. On EN755-2 variation should not exceed 20 HB, the actual range of values was not more than 15 HB. Products made of p is of Ofili with the specified characteristics, will have high structural durability and reliability.

High mechanical and operational properties of the products made by this method were confirmed by testing of the base material and welded joints for fatigue strength in a specialized laboratory GSI SLV (Halle) in Germany table 5.

Table.5
Conclusion according to the main material
RTs, 90%:10%DIN EN 13981-1 (Pü=97,5%, N=107Ts, 90%:10%)The test result (Pü=97,5%, N=107, Ts, 90%:10%)Score
-1.01:1.146571
0.11:1.14110116
0.51:1.21180191
For the connectivity weld connection
-1.01:1.163031
0.11:1.185560
0.51:1.038083

The examples do not limit the applicability of the present invention, which may be other ways to perform within the scope of the attached claims.

Method for the production of extruded products of aluminum alloy of 6000 series, including the casting of an ingot of aluminum alloy of 6000 series, having a chemical composition containing, in wt.%:

Si0,65-0,80
Mg0,45-0,60
Mn0,20-0,40
Zn≤0,20
Cu≤0,30
Cr≤0,05
Fe≤0,25
Ti0,04-0,1
In≤0,001
impurities≤0.05% of each if their total content ≤0,15%
Alelse, when the ratio of Mg/Si=0.6 to 0.8, the

homogenization of the ingot at a temperature of 450-480°C for 8-12 h, hot pressing at a temperature of 420-490°C at a rate of expiration of 3.0 to 30.0 m/min from a heated container, heated at 10-20°C below the temperature of the heated billet, heat treatment for solid solution by heating to a temperature of 480-540°C, holding at this temperature for 15-60 min and quenching in water at a cooling rate of 10-100°C/s to a temperature of 20-40°C, holding after quenching editing by stretching residual strain of 0.5-3.5% and the interval between quenching and edit stretching no more than 8 hours and subsequent artificial ageing at a temperature of 140-200°C, the extract 4-12 hours with a break between edit stretching and artificial aging is not more than 48 hours



 

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SUBSTANCE: alloy contains following components, wt %: magnesium 4.1-4.9, titanium 0.01-0.04, beryllium 0.0001-0.005, zirconium 0.05-0.12, scandium 0.17-0.30, cerium 0.0001-0.0009, manganese 0.19-0.35, chromium 0.01-0.05, group of elements, containing iron and silicon 0.06-0.25, aluminium is the rest, at that value of iron content relation to silicon content has to be not less than unity.

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2 tbl, 1 ex

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SUBSTANCE: alloy and products out of this alloy contain the following elements, mas.% magnesium 0.6-1.2; silicon 0.6-1.2; manganese 0.3-1.0; iron 0.1-0.5; copper 0.05-1.0; titanium 0.005-0.05; at least one element out of the group: tin 0.6-1.0; bismuth 0.2-0.8; at least one element of the group: gallium 0.001-0.05; calcium 0.001-0.05; at least one element from the group: boron 0.0005-0.005; carbon 0.0001-0.005; aluminium - the rest.

EFFECT: there obtained an alloy and products out of it not containing lead and possessing upgraded machinability, high corrosion resistance and strength.

2 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: alloy includes the following component ratio, wt %: lead 20-40, zinc 5-15, and aluminium is the rest. An alloy obtaining method involves preparation of a hetero-phase alloy based on aluminium with 20-50 wt % of zinc, which is obtained by continuous mixing of the melt at 700°C during 10 minutes and quick cooling of the melt on a water-cooled copper plate, and contact of the obtained workpiece of the hetero-phase alloy to the lead melt at 530-570°C.

EFFECT: increasing strength and hardness of an alloy at reducing linear wear and friction coefficient.

2 cl, 1 tbl

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