Development method of freezing overburden rock

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: after performance of drilling and blasting operations in an overburden bench during layer-by-layer excavation of the blasted rock to an extended bench and a final blade circuit on the formation roof of the mineral deposit within excavation heading throughout the length of the slab there left is a layer of the rock with negative temperature. This allows developing a zone of stable freezing, warming it up and strengthening it by action of solar insolation during development of the upper part of the breakdown. The rest rock layer is excavated to a final blade circuit after disposal of the upper part of breakdown throughout the length of the excavation slab.

EFFECT: reduction of influence of repeated freezing on productivity of a drag line and provision of its stable operation during excavation of blasted rocks of an overburden slab.

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The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in open development bedded deposits of the permafrost zone on the basis of bestransportnye system development overburden.

A known method of mining overburden, in which by means of a special organization of work and by limiting the length of the excavator unit depending on the determining factors can significantly reduce or even completely eliminate the influence of the secondary freezing breed on the operation of the equipment [1].

This technology includes: drilling and blasting of the upper pedostop, excavation blasted rock from the roof of the lower pedostop in predator, drilling and blasting the bottom of pedostop and excavation shattered rocks in the final contour of the blade.

The method is as follows.

First, two work benches blown up to clear the rocks of the upper pedostop. When performing the first Zachodni dragline prepares the ground standing, removing the upper part of the collapse, located on the roof of the lower pedostop. Moving along the front of the work, he excavatum portion of the volume of the upper pedostop in the direction of the goaf, creating predator. After completing work on the first section of the dragline moves to a pre-planned predator. Working here, he moves before the thwala and rocks of the upper pedostop, not included in the final contour of the blade in the scope of this outline.

Then organizes the work on the lower pedoscope. After blasting onto the surface of a slope of the blade dragline, performing a third section, preparing a site standing and at the same time excavatum volumes of the second pedostop in the final contour of the blade.

Excavating in the block must be executed before the completion of the freezing process, the length of the excavator unit should be no more than:

where Qe- operational performance of the excavator;

Tpthe temperature of the breed;

dcpthe average size of the piece;

andthermal diffusivity of rocks;

Tin- temperatures;

In - the width of the excavation Zachodni;

h - the height of pedostop;

Kp, Kwith, Kprespectively the coefficients of loosening, reset and preexcavation.

This principle limits the length of exploding block is successfully applied when developing one Stripping ledge.

The disadvantage of this method is that it does not account for the formation of the temperature field in the collapse blown permafrost overburden ledge defining the zone of freezing.

The formation temperature in the collapse of the blown permafrost is complex and determined by many is their factors such as: thermo-physical properties of rocks, phase transitions moisture, temperature changes, atmospheric air, temperature, humidity and density of the rocks, the capacity of overburden, the angles formed by the slopes, as well as the quality of explosive training. However, even the definition of true thermal diffusivity separate piece of rock located in different areas of the collapse is a very time consuming task.

From the point of view of the practice of mining the most efficient would be the definition of the zones of stable freezing breed in the collapse, and the choice of preventive technology development unit, providing excavation of rock without significant reduction in performance of dragline.

To determine areas of sustainable freezing of blasted rock, with high probability, it is possible, knowing the dynamics of temperature fields in the array permafrost in different periods of the year and the distribution of rocks in the collapse after the explosion.

Typical temperature fluctuations array permafrost in the annual cycle for conditions Kangalassky lignite deposits are presented in [2]. The coupling temperature of the rock with the depth and period of the year is typical of other fields in the zone of permafrost rocks.

When is ravenii Stripping ledge, the distribution of the pieces in the collapse takes place in accordance with known strain pattern of the array when blasting [3], from which also it is obvious that the layer is destroyed breed with a strong negative temperature is in the lower part of the collapse.

Thus, to ensure stable operation of the dragline without significant reduction in performance during the entire period of testing of the unit must first be excaberate rocks from the upper part of the collapse to a certain depth, along the entire length of the block, laying them in predator and the final contour of the blade. At the top of reservoir minerals within excavation Zachodni leave a layer of rock with a negative temperature. This allows you to open the area of sustainable freezing and to ensure the thawing of blasted rock in the block with a corresponding reduction in its strength. Left a layer of rock excaberate in the final contour of the blade after cleaning the upper part of the collapse of the entire length of the excavation block.

Enhance the effect of the thawing zone sustainable freezing, you can:

1) by loosening the surface of the bulldozer-Ripper, creating additional surface reinforcing effect of solar insolation;

2) processing of surface-active substances which lower the temperature and strength marzani the rocks.

The proposed method of mining overburden, including the drilling unit and blasting of overburden ledge excavation blasted rock from the roof of the formation of minerals in predator and the final contour of the blade, and subsequent excavation of pretotal and the remaining volumes in the final contour of the blade, characterized in that the excavation shattered rocks Stripping ledge within the excavation Zachodni carry out a dragline layers and along the length of the block, leaving a layer of rock with a negative temperature at the top of reservoir minerals, due to the thawing and loss of strength of this layer under the influence of solar insolation in the process of working out the unit and ensure the stable operation of the dragline without significant reduction in performance during the entire period of mining block.

Leave a layer of rock with a negative temperature at the top of reservoir minerals is calculated by the following formula [4]:

where taboutthe time of thawing, h; Tcf- average over a given period of time taboutsurface temperature, °C; hO. N.- the depth of thawing at the initial moment, m; Qabout- the cost of heat for defrosting 1 m3frozen rocks, kcal/m3; λ is thermal conductivity of rocks, kcal/is·h·°C.

All of this suggests that the present invention has novelty and inventive level.

The proposed technology has the following advantages compared with prototype:

under the influence of solar insolation in the process of working out the block is achieved by thawing and the softening zone of freezing and ensures stable operation of the dragline without significant reduction in performance during the entire period of mining block;

- increases the actual length of exploding block due to the stable operation of the dragline and increase its performance;

- reduces explosive blocks, the reduced downtime on the tracks of the excavator.

In Fig.1 and 2 shows how the development Merseyside overburden. In Fig.1 - cut on the front, along the excavation unit, and Fig.2 is a cross-section of the excavation zagadki.

The method is as follows. After blasting Stripping on the ledge of the excavator begins excavation collapse of blasted rock from the roof of the formation of minerals in predator and the final contour of the blade.

This excavation shattered rocks Stripping ledge within the excavation zagadki and along the length of the unit carry out a dragline in layers, leaving a layer of rock with a neg is a negative temperature at the top of reservoir minerals, due to the softening of the layer under the influence of solar insolation in the process of working out the unit and ensure the stable operation of the dragline without significant reduction in performance during the entire period of mining block.

Leave a layer of rock with a negative temperature at the top of reservoir minerals is calculated by the formula (2).

For example, let's do the calculation of accumulation of melt layer under the following conditions:

Table 1
The accumulation of melt layer hom, λm=1,7 W/(m·deg) (sand), Qbeats=59,74 MJ/m3(ice content of 150 kg/m3), the initial temperature of the rock tn0=-5°C.
T, hAir temperature, °C
51015202530
10.0170.0240.0290.0340.0380.041
60.041 0.0580.0720.0830.0920.101
120.0580.0830.1010.1170.1310.143
240.0830.1170.1430.1650.1850.202

Table 2
The accumulation of melt layer hom, λm=1,2 W/(m·deg) (loam), Qbeats=59,74 MJ/m3(ice content of 150 kg/m3), the initial temperature of the rock tn0=-5°C.
T, hAir temperature, °C
51015202530
10.0140.0200.0250.0280.032 0.035
60.0350.0490.0600.0690.0780.085
120.0490.0690.0850.0980.1100.120
240.0690.0980.1200.1390.1550.170

Table 3
The accumulation of melt layer hom, λm=0.9 W/(m·deg) (sandy loam peated), Qbeats=59,74 MJ/m3(ice content of 150 kg/m3), the initial temperature of the rock tn0=-5°C.
T, hAir temperature, °C
51015202530
10.012 0.0170.0210.0250.0270.030
60.0300.0430.0520.0600.0670.074
120.0430.0600.0740.0850.0950.104
240.0600.0850.1040.1200.1340.147

Then, for example, (table 1) with a width of excavation Zachodni 60 m, the block length 100m, ambient temperature of 20°C the amount of thawing per day will be 50X100X0,165=990 m3. This amount will correspond to the stable operation of the dragline performance 990 m3/change.

Sources of information

1. Copyright certificate №1624152, CL E21C 41/00. The method of mining overburden / I. I. Zawalski, A. S. Marchenko, S. N. Petrov and others (USSR); Appl. 17.10.1998; Publ. 01.10.1990. // Discovery, invention. - 1991. No. 4. - S. 89.

2. Panichev, C. C. the Effect of temperature on effective the industry development overburden drainage / S. C. Panichev, S. A. Ermakov // Physical-technical problems of development of mineral resources. - 2013. No. 2. - S. 132-138.

3. The Latrines A. C., Hunter C. N., Blinov A. N. The transformation of the structure of mountain ranges when blasting in open pits. - Ekaterinburg: Institute of mining, Ural branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1999. - 140 C.

4 Potemkin S. C. Softening frozen and cemented rocks alluvial deposits. - M.: Moscow state geological prospecting Academy, 1995. - 120 S.

Method development Merseyside overburden, including the drilling unit and blasting of overburden ledge excavation blasted rock from the roof of the formation of minerals in predator and the final contour of the blade, and subsequent excavation of pretotal and the remaining volumes in the final contour of the blade, characterized in that in the process of layer-by-layer excavation of blasted rock overburden ledge within the excavation Zachodni along the length of the block leave some layer of rock with a negative temperature at the top of reservoir minerals, which under the influence of solar insolation roleplays and is softened during the testing of the upper part of the collapse in the process of working out the block and which Excalibur in the final contour of the blade after cleaning the upper part of the collapse of the entire length of the excavation block, the height of this layer of rock with a negative temperature R is Skitalets by the formula
m,
where taboutthe time of thawing, h;
Tcf- average over a given period of time taboutsurface temperature, °C;
hO. N.- the depth of thawing at the initial moment, m;
Qabout- the cost of heat for defrosting 1 m3frozen rocks, kcal/m3;
λ is thermal conductivity of rocks, kcal/m·h·°C.



 

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