Variator gear ratio between turbine shaft and aircraft engine starter-generator

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises first and second gears rigidly fitted in starter-generator shaft, first and second mid gears, clutch and clutch drive. Said first and second mid gears are fitted on turbine shaft to engage with first and second fixed gears, respectively, to allow different gear ratio. Said clutch is fitted in between mid gears and engaged mechanically with turbine shaft. Said clutch can displace on turbine shaft between the position whereat it engages with first mid gear and that whereat it engages with second mid gear. Clutch drive displaces the clutch from one position to another when the sum of torques between turbine shaft and starter-generator shaft changes its sign. Another invention of the set relates to aircraft turbine incorporating aforesaid gear ratio variator.

EFFECT: higher reliability, decreased weight.

9 cl, 7 dwg

 

PRIOR art

The invention relates to the General field of gas turbines, and more specifically to the management of the starter-generator.

The scope of the invention are gas turbines for aircraft engines and helicopters, as well as for auxiliary power units (APUS).

In a gas turbine, a number of pieces of equipment or accessory is driven by the mechanical transmission of mechanical power extracted from the turbine shaft. This mechanical transmission is called gearbox units (KPA), contains a set of toothed wheels arranged in the housing and mechanically connected with the auxiliary units. These auxiliary units contain, in particular, a variety of pumps for the production of hydraulic energy, fuel supply, as well as provide lubrication, and in some applications one or more electric starter-generators (SG). By KPA speed IG, in particular, proportional to the operating speed of the engine, with the proportionality coefficient corresponds to the ratio of the line gears in KPA.

In the operating mode of the gas turbine is the only or one of several IG works as a generator and generates the voltage that powers one or more elektror is concerning switch power centers of the aircraft and its engine (engines).

When the gas turbine is stationary or rotates slowly, the SG can work as a starter, while it is powered from an external source of energy to bring the gas turbine is in operation, by rotating the turbine shaft is connected KPA.

Optimal mechanical conditions for SG contradictory depending on whether it is as a starter or generator.

When the IG works as a starter, for a given mechanical power, it is desirable to give priority to high-speed rotation in order to minimize the torque SG, while also providing sufficient torque to start the engine. In the absence of changes of gear ratio using a ratio that gives priority to high-speed mode starter, leads to a wide range of speed variations in generator mode, thereby increasing the frequency range of the SG in such a way that is detrimental to its integration in the electric system of the aircraft. In particular, unacceptable may be an upper limit (over 800 Hertz (Hz), which is generally acceptable in certain commercial aircraft).

Therefore, the gear ratio between the shaft of the turbine and CR are chosen so that to provide a useful compromise between the work of the SG as a starter and as a generator. In some of the which commercial airplanes, it is the mode of the generator determines the gear ratio to the detriment of the mode of the starter.

To solve the problem, the transmission is installed between the turbine shaft and CR, while the ratio mentioned transmission varies depending on the operation mode of the SG. However, this system has the disadvantage that it requires that you add a device to control a change gear ratio of the transmission.

The INVENTION

The main purpose of the present invention is, thus, reducing these disadvantages by offering a device for changing the gear ratio between the shaft of the turbine and the shaft of the starter-generator, without the need to have resources control devices of this kind.

This objective is achieved by a device for changing the gear ratio between the shaft of the turbine and the shaft of the starter-generator aircraft engine, where the device includes:

the first and second fixed gears mounted on the shaft of the starter-generator;

the first and second intermediate gears mounted on the turbine shaft and being in mesh respectively with the first and second fixed gears, in order to establish different gear ratios; and

- switching clutch inserted between the intermediate gears and mechanical soy is iannou with the shaft of the turbine, when the switching clutch movable in a translational movement on said turbine shaft between the two connecting positions: a position in which it engages with the first intermediate gear wheel, and the opposite position in which it engages with the second intermediate gear wheel;

moreover, the device is characterized in that it further comprises means causing the automatic movement within the shift change-over clutch from any one of its connecting positions to another position, when the sum of the torques between the shaft of the turbine and the shaft of the starter-generator changes the sign.

To make the switching clutch to move in a translational movement from one of its positions to another position, the invention provides a preferential use of operating points of the engine, in which the amount of torque between the turbine shaft and the shaft of the starter-generator changes the sign. These operating points correspond to the moments when the shaft of the starter-generator changes the mode from master to slave (with respect to the turbine shaft), and Vice versa, that is, during the switching between the two modes of operation of the starter-generator during starting or stopping of the engine. In addition, changes in transmission ratio device according izobretalnosti automatically i.e. no need for a special control unit (for example, electric or hydraulic actuator) for this operation (the point at which the gear ratio changes can be controlled by the level of torque starter-generator). This leads to the creation of a reliable device with low weight and low cost.

Mainly that each of the lateral sides of the switching clutch carries stops, each stop has:

the first flat surface for coupling with the planar surface transmission torque of the tooth on one of the intermediate gears when the clutch is in one of their connecting positions; and

the second flat surface opposite to the first surface and designed, when the sum of the torques between the shaft of the turbine and the shaft of the starter-generator changes sign, for sliding on the flat separating the tooth surface of one of the intermediate gears, the opposite surface transmission torque.

The second surface of the stop of the switching clutch can be essentially parallel to the axis of rotation of the switching clutch, while separating the surfaces of the teeth of the intermediate gear wheels can be tilted relative to the specified axis of rotation in the direction of rotation upon the other clutch.

Alternatively, the separating surfaces of the teeth of the intermediate gear wheels can be essentially parallel to the axis of rotation of the switching clutch, and the second surface of the stop of the switching clutch can be inclined relative to the axis of rotation in the direction of rotation of the said clutch.

In addition, in a particular embodiment, the first surface of the stop of the switching clutch and surface transmission torque of the teeth of the intermediate gear wheels, in essence, is inclined relative to the axis of rotation of the switching clutch in the direction of rotation of the said coupling. This angle improves the holding capacity of the coupling with the intermediate gears.

Mainly that the device additionally includes means for stabilizing the switching clutch in its connecting position.

The invention also provides an aircraft engine, comprising a turbine shaft, starter-generator, and a change gear ratio between the shaft of the turbine and the shaft of the starter-generator, as defined above.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Other characteristics and advantages of the present invention become clear from the following description with reference to the accompanying drawings showing embodiments of without the limiter is on character. On the figures:

- Fig.1 is a functional diagram of the device of the change gear ratio between the shaft of the turbine and the shaft of the starter-generator according to the invention,

- Fig.2A-2D are diagrams showing the operation principle of the change of gear ratio according to the invention,

- Fig.3 is a detail view in perspective of the device of the change gear ratio of the Fig.1, and

- Fig.4 is a schematic illustration of the device of the change of gear ratio in another embodiment of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION of embodiments

The invention applies to any type of gas turbine engine for aircraft, such as airplanes or helicopters.

In the example described here with reference to Fig.1, more specifically, attention is paid to gas turbine aircraft engine, which includes a box of actuator units (KPA), which is used to control auxiliaries turbine or additional equipment, such as various pumps for the production of hydraulic energy, fuel supply, provide lubrication, and so on, and, in particular, the actuation of the starter-generator 20 (or SG).

In a known manner, box drive units (KPA) 10 contains many gears (not shown), which are rotated the scarlet 11 power transmission, which is mechanically connected to a turbine shaft, thereby making it possible to run the turbine (typically, the shaft of a high pressure turbine of the engine).

Itself SG 20, how to give effect to and regulate known, and therefore it is not described here. For example, you can refer to the description in the publication FR 2897895.

Gas turbine engine also includes a device 30 according to the invention, makes possible the change of gear ratio between the turbine shaft and the shaft 22 SG 20.

This device contains, in particular, box 40 transmission having two shafts carrying gears: the shaft 22 of the SG, which carries the first and second fixed gears 23, 24, which are rigidly attached thereto, and the shaft 12 KPA, which carries the first and second intermediate gears 13, 14, which are intermediate and which engage with the first and second fixed gears, respectively.

The first gear wheel 13, 23 determine the gear ratio k1, which is different from the gear ratio k2 defined by the second toothed wheels 14, 24.

Switching clutch 50 is inserted between the intermediate gears 13, 14 and mechanically connected to the shaft 12 KPA. This change-over clutch made with the possibility of movement into reciprocating movement on the shaft 12 (e.g., through the m grooves, which is not shown in the figures) between the two coupling positions: a position in which it engages with the first intermediate gear 13 (Fig.2A), and the opposite position in which it engages with the second intermediate gear 14 (Fig.2D).

For this purpose each of the lateral sides of the switching clutch 50 includes many stops 502, evenly distributed around its axis of rotation X-X. Similarly, at their respective inner side surfaces of each of the intermediate wheels 13, 14 has many teeth 132, 142 to enter into engagement with the lugs 502 switching clutch when it is in its connecting position.

More precisely, each focusing 502 switching clutch 50 has first and second flat surfaces, which are opposite to each other.

The first flat surface 504 stops are designed to grip flat surfaces 134, 144 transmission torque corresponding teeth 132, 142 of the intermediate gear wheels 13, 14 when the switching clutch is in its connecting position.

The first surface 504 stops and the surface 134, 144 of the transmission torque of the teeth can be parallel to the axis of rotation x-X change-over coupling (as shown in Fig.1-3), or they can be significantly tilted with respect to the s to the axis (as shown in Fig.4). In this second configuration, the angle of inclination of the surfaces 504, 134, 144, as shown schematically by the angle α in Fig.4, is directed in the direction of rotation S of the switching clutch and may be about 5°. This angle is used to facilitate the holding capacity of the coupling with the intermediate gears.

As to the second flat surface 506 502 stops, braking coupled intermediate gears 13, 14 and promotion with regard to him switching clutch 50 referred to the second flat surface is made slidable on the flat separating surfaces 136, 146 of the respective teeth 132, 142 of the intermediate gear-wheels, and these dividing surfaces opposite to the surfaces 134, 144 transmission torque of teeth.

To get this slide, the second surface 506 stops switching clutch can be parallel to the axis of rotation x-X of the switching clutch, while separating surface 136, 146 of the teeth of the intermediate gear wheel is inclined relative to the axis. This angle, shown schematically by the angle β in Fig.2C, point in the direction of rotation S of the coupling and preferably lies approximately in the range from 45° to 60°.

Of course, the reverse arrangement could lead to the same results: in the shown embodiment, l is inaudio the surface of the teeth of the intermediate gear wheels, essentially parallel to the axis of rotation of the switching clutch, while the second surface of the stop of the switching clutch tilted relative to the specified axis of rotation in a direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the said clutch.

With reference to Fig.2A-2D, which shows a top view of the gearbox, followed by a description of the operation of the device according to the invention.

Before actuation commands to start the gas turbine engine, the switching clutch 50 is in its first connecting position, shown schematically in Fig.2A (in mesh with the first intermediate gear 13).

When the actuation command, the engine control unit (ECU) changes the mode of the pathogen so that he goes into start mode. Then the shaft 22 SG causes the shaft 12 KPA in rotation (through the switching clutch 50, geared with the first gear wheel 13) and, thus, drives the turbine shaft for the purpose of starting a gas turbine engine, this engagement takes place with gear ratio k1.

After starting the gas turbine engine turbine shaft (and thus the shaft KPA) is gaining momentum. At a certain stage, the sum of the torques between the shaft 12 KPA and the shaft 22 SG will change sign (Val KPA is leading with respect to the shaft IG). The result of this is changing the switching clutch 50 (connected to the shaft 12 KPA) will tend to rotate faster than the first intermediate gear 13 (United with the shaft 22 SG), which slows down. This leads to a relative angular displacement 502 stops the switching of the coupling relative to the teeth 132 of the first intermediate gear wheels 13, and the movement is in the direction of rotation S of the first intermediate gears. Then the second surface 506 502 stops the switching clutch encounter separating surface 136 of the teeth 132 of the first intermediate gears 13 and slide thereon, thereby automatically moving the clutch in the axial direction and the second intermediate gear wheel 14 (Fig.2B and 2C).

At the end of its axial stroke of the switching clutch will be in his second connecting position, shown schematically in Fig.2D (engages the second toothed wheel 14 and the switching clutch 50). More precisely, the first surface 504 502 stops the other side surface of the switching clutch rest against the surface 144 of the transmission torque of the respective teeth 142 of the second intermediate gear 14. Thus, the turbine shaft (and thus the shaft 12 KPA) will cause the shaft 22 SG in rotation with gear ratio k2.

Naturally, after an identical process, the switching clutch can return to his first connecting position, as pok is shown in Fig.2A, as soon as the amount of torque between the turbine shaft and the shaft of the SG again will change the sign. This happens, in particular, when the stop of the gas turbine engine, the shaft IG is leading with respect to the shaft KPA.

From the above it is easy to understand that switching the clutch from any of its connecting position to another, the connecting position is in automatic mode. The special geometry of the surfaces of the teeth of the intermediate gear wheels and stops the switching clutch allow the clutch to move to one or the other of the intermediate toothed wheel whenever the sum of the torques between the turbine shaft and the shaft IG changes sign.

In accordance with a preferred feature of the invention the device of the change gear ratio additionally includes a means 60 stabilize the switching clutch 50 in each of its connecting position.

As shown in Fig.1, these means 60 can be in the form of ball bushings 61, is arranged to slide inside the fixed structure 62 and having a head 63, rests on the Cam 64, formed on the periphery of the switching clutch 50. Ball sleeve is also attached to the end of the return spring 65, the other end of which is attached to the structure. The recoil spring is pre-tensioned thus, h is usually used constantly to press the head 63 ball bushings to the fist 64.

In addition, a Cam formed on the periphery of the switching clutch is two slope 66, each of which is inclined to the corresponding intermediate wheel 13, 14. Thus, only two equilibrium position of the ball head of the sleeve is defined by the two connecting positions of the switching clutch. As a result, the presence of a ball bushing serves to stabilize the switching clutch in the connection position. Ball sleeve also facilitates movement of the coupling in the directional movement in order to facilitate the switching of any of its connecting position to the other.

1. The device for changing the gear ratio between the shaft of the turbine and the shaft of the starter-generator aircraft engine, where the device includes:
the first and second fixed gears mounted on the shaft of the starter-generator;
the first and second intermediate gears mounted on the turbine shaft and being in mesh respectively with the first and second fixed gears, in order to determine the different gear ratios; and
- switching clutch inserted between the intermediate gears and mechanically connected to a turbine shaft, while the switching clutch movable in a translational movement on said shaft turbines is between the two connecting positions: position, in which it engages with the first intermediate gear wheel, and the opposite position in which it engages with the second intermediate gear wheel;
the device further comprises means causing the automatic movement in the forward movement switching clutch from any one of its connecting positions to another position, when the sum of the torques between the shaft of the turbine and the shaft of the starter-generator changes the sign.

2. The device under item 1, in which each of the lateral sides of the switching clutch carries stops, each stop has:
the first flat surface for coupling with the planar surface transmission torque of the tooth that is installed on one of the intermediate gears when the clutch is in one of its connective provisions, and
the second flat surface opposite to the first surface and designed, when the sum of the torques between the shaft of the turbine and the shaft of the starter-generator changes sign, for sliding on the flat separating the tooth surface of one of the intermediate gears, the opposite surface transmission torque.

3. The device according to p. 2, in which the second surface of the stop of the switching clutch essentially parallel to the axis of rotation of the switch m is fty, while separating the surfaces of the teeth of the intermediate gear wheels are tilted relative to the specified axis of rotation in the direction of rotation of the said clutch.

4. The device according to p. 3, in which the separating surface of the teeth of the intermediate gear wheels form an angle with the axis of rotation of the switching clutch, this angle is in the range from 45° to 60°.

5. The device according to p. 2, in which the separating surface of the teeth of the intermediate gear wheels, essentially parallel to the axis of rotation of the switching clutch, while the second surface of the stop of the switching clutch tilted relative to the specified axis of rotation in the direction of rotation of the said clutch.

6. The device according to p. 2, in which the first surface of the stop of the switching clutch and surface transmission torque of the teeth of the intermediate gear wheels, in essence, is inclined relative to the axis of rotation of the switching clutch in the direction of rotation of the said clutch.

7. The device according to p. 6, in which the first surface of the stop of the switching clutch and surface transmission torque of the teeth of the intermediate gear wheels form an angle with the axis of rotation of the switching clutch, this angle is about 5°.

8. The device according to p. 2, further comprising means for stabilizing the switching clutch in its connector what's provisions.

9. Aircraft engine comprising a turbine shaft, the starter-generator and the device change gear ratio between the shaft of the turbine and the shaft of the starter-generator according to p. 1.



 

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