Method for determining toxic effect of waste water on aqueous saline media
SUBSTANCE: method for determining the toxic effect of waste water on aqueous saline media refers to aquatic toxicology and aims at assessing the toxic effect of an aqueous medium containing waste water. The method consists in determining the unicellular algal culture growth rates in the tested water and involves growing the unicellular algal culture, performing a biotesting procedure consisting in water sampling, introducing a grown algal sub-culture into a reference and a test medium, and counting the algal cells. The test objects are presented by the unicellular microalgae Platymonas viridis Rouch. and Dunaliella salina Teod, on which a long-term (15-day) experiment is carried out. Microalgae Platymonas viridis Rouch are used to determine the toxic effect of waste water on the saline medium.
EFFECT: improving the method.
The alleged invention relates to aquatic toxicology and is intended to assess the level of toxicity of the marine environment containing waste water.
Currently, the problem of emergency and planned discharges of different origin in the waters of Ukraine is very important. In this regard, there is the problem of assessing the toxicity of wastewater, both for aquatic ecosystems and for human health, use of water resources. Wastewater settlements, represented by the runoff of house sewers and cattle yards, plums from the garden and horticultural farms, private hospital facilities and enterprises of light and heavy industry, in most cases, the chemical composition is fresh. Once in freshwater, such waste will certainly cause changes in the chemical composition of the water. To assess the toxicity of the environment containing waste water, used methods, based on the determination of the effects of acute (short-term) toxic concentrations of effluent to freshwater aquatic organisms. At the same time, methods for determining toxicity of effluents to aquatic organisms and aquatic organisms living in waters with high salinity is very limited. Therefore, staff treatment facilities and workers SES continue to follow what medicame, designed for freshwater biota, even if the discharge of wastewater from settlements are carried out in the sea or the great salt lake.
Known (see C. E. Dyatlov, A. G. Petrosyan Phaeodactylum tricomutum Boil. (Chrysophyta) as the test object. General provisions // Phycology.- 2001. - So 11, No. 1. -S. 145-154) method of assessing the toxicity of the marine environment, which was the basis of the normative document "Bestaande morco water that Stoney, Yak dadida in the sea. The methodology approved by the Ministry of ecological safety of Ukraine No. 46 from 30.05.1995, (KND, 1995). In a known method of biotesting of sea water is carried out with the use of marine unicellular Alga Phaeodactylum tricomutum. The method is based on determining the growth of the culture of the marine unicellular Alga Phaeodactylum tricomutum in the tested water. The criterion of toxicity is a significant change in the number of algae cells, exhibited in the test environment, compared to control, within 72 hours. The method comprises the cultivation of a culture of the marine unicellular Alga Phaeodactylum tricomutum, the procedure biotesting and processing results. Procedure biotesting consists of water sampling, depositing in the control and in the test environment inoculum cultivated algae, counting the number of cells of the Alga Phaeodactylum tricomutum at 24, 48 and 72 h exposure. The authors proposed a scale of toxicity testirovanie on growth rates of algae. The main result of these works is the determination of the minimum dilution ratio (min Cu) - relationship test water to control. In addition, the authors refer to the work of defining the minimum medienallee effective (lethal) concentrations.
There is a method of determining the toxicity of wastewater in laboratory culture algae Phaeodactylum tricomutum has a number of disadvantages:
is intermittent rapid test and does not allow to evaluate the different phases of culture growth, namely the periods of indifference, the initial disturbance of the functions of the cells, the period of normalization or even stimulate growth. It is chronic (long-term) experiment, the researcher can receive the full information about toxicity test environment;
- does not give complete and accurate information when assessing the risk of discharges of different origin for salinity waters.
The basis for the invention "method for determining the toxicity of wastewater on water salty environment goal by conducting research on the impact of wastewater toxicity to the unicellular algae Platymonas viridis Rouch and Dunaliella salina Teod. in a long term experiment, to provide researchers a more complete and reliable information about the degree of toxicity of different concentrations of wastewater.p> This objective is achieved in that in the method by determining the growth culture of marine unicellular algae in the test water, including the cultivation of a culture of the marine unicellular algae, the procedure biotesting consisting of water sampling, depositing in the control and in the test environment inoculum cultivated algae, counting the number of algae cells, as test objects have a culture of unicellular marine algae Platymonas viridis Rouch and Dunaliella salina Teod and conduct long-term experiment. Cuts Platymonas viridis Rouch used to assess the toxicity of effluent on the marine environment. Cuts Dunaliella salina Teod. used to assess the severity of discharges of different origin for salinity waters.
The difference of the proposed method against known is that the author proposes to study the toxicity of wastewater on unicellular algae at long-term (15-day) experiment. In addition, the difference of the proposed method from the known, is used as test-objects of culture Platymonas viridis Rouch-to assess the toxicity of the effluent on the marine environment and Dunaliella salina Teod - to assess the risk of discharges of different origin for salinity reservoirs. These types of micro the algae were selected due to the following:
- easy to culture and maintain in laboratory conditions;
- the ability to quickly obtain biomass crops for a short time;
- high sensitivity to the action of toxicants;
- wide use as test objects in ecotoxicology;
the relative stability of P. viridis and D. salina to action of some toxicants, including waste waters of different origin;
- accessibility: the Alga P. viridis is widely distributed in marine waters, a D. salina is a typical representative of the water bodies with a high degree of salinity.
The method is implemented as follows. For biotesting use algological pure culture from the Museum of the cultures of algae, Institute of biology of the southern seas NAS of Ukraine, Sevastopol: Platymonas viridis (Rouch, 1970) - green Alga of the SEM. Chlamydomonadae (Chlorophyta, Volvociphyceae) and green unicellular flagellate halophilic Alga Dunaliella salina (Teod, 1905) from SEM. Chlamydomonadae, (Chlorophyta, Volvociphyceae). For periodic biotesting sea and salinity of water containing waste water, microalgae cultivated under laboratory conditions using a nutrient medium Goldberg (for algae Platymonas viridis and Dunalialla salina), environment Erd-Schreiber (Butcher, 1952) - for cultivation of Platymonas viridis and environment Artery No. 1, No. 2 (1916) and Milko (1962) - for cultivation Dunalialla salina. The cultivation conditionsCulture of algae grown in conical flasks of 500 ml at a temperature of 18 - 25°C and natural light. As the nutrient medium use medium Goldberg. Sea water is taken in a relatively clean area of the sea, filtered through a double filter paper No. 6. Sterilized sea water by triple heating in a water bath to a temperature of 80°C.
1. The experiment:
Consistently contribute to the marine environment, components of environment Goldberg,
different concentrations of wastewater, as well as an equal number of microalgae culture.
- Select the cell inoculum at the beginning of the experience, then on the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 15th day 15-day experiment and calculate the number of cells for each case. The number of cells counted in the entire volume of the chamber Goryaeva, the movement of microalgae fixed with Lugol solution with glycerin.
The experiments performed in triplicate. For each vessel, the number
cells are also determined in triplicate.
2. Statistical processing of the experimental results. The results of the experiments are treated statistically using t - student test when comparing parameter number at a significance level of p<0.05 (Lakin, 1973).
3. Determining the presence or absence of toxic effect of R is slichnih concentrations of wastewater to the culture of algae.
The main index, which evaluates the level of added toxicity in the environment of wastewater, is the number of algae cells. According to the results of the experiments are table cell population in all variants of the experiment in absolute units, as well as values of the number of algal cells, expressed in relative units (% relative to control). Additional indicators of the toxicity of the environment on microalgae, can serve as the percentage of inhibition of cell population, the ratio of the relative growth of crops, the average rate of growth, the percentage of reduction in the average growth rate, the growth rate and the percentage reduction in growth of the culture.
On the basis of the obtained experimental results conclude minimum ratio of dilution of wastewater, sea water or water with high salinity, that is, establish such number of natural water, which will not be observed toxic effect of impurities. To detect toxicity at various concentrations of wastewater, the author also offers guided "Scale toxicity test environment for the growth of algae Phaeodactylum tricomutum Bohl" (woodpeckers, Petrosyan, 2001), which is the percentage of the number of cells in solution determines the degree of toxicity and the nature of istica environment, as well as the rate of dilution. Some researchers also determine the maximum allowable (inactive) concentration and lethal concentration (LC50, LC100), which are mainly used in the calibration of crops in relation to the standard action of a toxicant.
Examples of implementation of the method.
Example 1. Evaluated the toxicity level of urban domestic wastewater (HBSW) sea cuts Platymonas viridis Rouch. The results of the experiment are presented in table.1, and in Fig. 1 - Fig. 6.
Change in the number of cells Platymonas viridis Rouch. when exposed to various concentrations of domestic wastewater
Note. Numerator - the number of cells (X 10) per ml in the denominator is the same in relation to population control, taken as 100%. The asterisk indicates the value of the number of cells, significantly different from those values in the control cultures (p≤0,05).
On the basis of the obtained results we can conclude that in the long-term experiment HBSW in concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 ml/l did not cause toxicity in the marine flagellate Platymonas viridis Rouch. A significant reduction of more than 50% compared with the control population of cells 9 - 12 day under the influence of wastewater can explain the decrease is receiving an average growth rate of the culture (see Fig. 3), and the percentage reduction of the average rate of growth of microalgae above in step 1, and 100 ml/l of wastewater (see Fig.4). In absolute values, the number of cells of P. viridis were increased in all variants during the whole experiment. However, from table. 1, figs. 1 and Fig. 2 shows that this ratio was higher in the control than in the experiments. It should be noted that the percentage of inhibition abundance was higher at the lowest concentration, and the coefficient of relative growth, respectively, was lower in this case, and also under the influence of 100 ml/l of wastewater. Daily gains of culture of P. viridis was higher in the case of impact HBSW at a concentration of 1 ml/l (see Fig. 5). The decrease in growth was increased with increasing concentration of wastewater (see Fig. 6), which, of course, is consistent with the data table. 1 and shows that the greatest increase in the number of cells occurs when the increase in the content of nutrients present in the wastewater.
Example 1 shows that during the exponential growth period, the culture of P. viridis wastewater urban collector at concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 ml/l did not cause irreversible disturbances in the growth in the number of cells studied culture, though, almost during the whole experiment investigated the rate was lower than the control, which probably indicates excessive nutrient and that is, or toxic components of the effluent.
Example 2. Evaluated the toxicity level of urban domestic wastewater (HBSW) on halophilic cuts Dunaliella salina Teod. The results of the experiment are presented in table.2, and in Fig.7 - Fig. 12.
Change in the number of cells of Dunaliella salina Teod. when exposed to various concentrations of domestic wastewater
Note. Numerator - the number of cells (X 104in ml, the denominator is the same in relation to population control, taken as 100 %. The asterisk indicates the value of the number of cells, significantly different from those values in the control cultures (p≤0,05).
Based on the data of experiment to study the effect of sewage on cuts Dunaliella salina Teod (see tab. 2) we can conclude on the safety testing of wastewater in a concentration of 1, 10 and 100 ml/l, the Percentage of inhibition of the number of cells of D. salina was increased with increasing concentration of HBSW (Fig. 7). With 6-day coefficient of relative growth was greatest in step 1, and 10 ml/l of wastewater, while in the control, and, especially, the influence of the wastewater at a concentration of 100 ml/l this indicator was lower. The same results have shown the calculation of the average growth rate of the culture: when 1 and 10 ml/l the growth rate was maximum, and at the highest concentration the AI minimum (Fig. 9). Compared with the control, the percentage of reduction in the average growth rate in the number of cells of D. salina was lowest when exposed to 10 ml/l of wastewater (Fig. 10). Daily growth rate of the culture studied microalgae was higher, the lower the concentration tested HBSW (Fig. 11) and, accordingly, the percentage reduction in growth culture was the lower, the higher the dose of a toxicant (Fig. 12).
Thus, HBSW in concentrations of 1 and 10 ml/l caused on average a greater stimulation of growth in the number of cells of D. salina than 100 ml/L. Stimulation was also observed during the whole experiment, and the maximum, compared with the control, the increase in the number of cells accounted for 3 - 12 hours. At the same time, the study of the effect of wastewater at a concentration of 100 ml/l showed that the same period in culture took place from 3 to 9 days. In all cases the increase in the number of cells in absolute units occurred gradually during the whole experiment (table. 2).
From these examples it follows that the dilution of wastewater urban collector of sea water in the ratio 1:1000 (1 ml/l), 1:100 (10ml/l) and 1:10 (100 ml/l) does not cause irreversible changes in the number of cells of marine algae Platymonas viridis Rouch. and halophilic microalgae Dunaliella salina Teod.
The advantages of the proposed method in comparison with the known are as follows:
the first Avenue is to bring out a risk assessment of discharges of different origin for salinity ponds
- provides a complete and accurate assessment of the degree of toxicity of the investigated medium, because it allows one to evaluate the different phases of culture growth: periods of indifference and primary dysfunction of cells, the period of normalization or even stimulate growth, which is caused either by the creation of an environment favourable conditions, or adaptive abilities of microalgae in response to exposure to a toxicant;
thanks to making long-term experimentai you can identify the time of the most negative manifestations of the dirt.
1. The method of determining the toxicity of wastewater on water salty environment by determining the growth of the culture of the marine unicellular Alga Platymonas viridis Rouch or Dunaliella salina Teod, including the cultivation of algae in the control and in the test environment, the calculation of the number of algae cells, wherein the cultivation is carried out in 15 days, and the number of cells counted at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 15 days of cultivation and population change by 50% or more in the experiment compared to the control is judged on the modifying effect of sewage.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the cuts Platymonas viridis Rouch used to assess the toxicity of effluent on the marine environment.
3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that microbodies the ü Dunaliella salina Teod used to assess the toxicity of runoff on salinity reservoirs.
SUBSTANCE: method for biological assessment of the toxicity level of the marine environment refers to biological methods for assessing an environmental risk and analysing the marine environmental pollution, and can be used in marine culture, aquatic toxicology, and fish farming. As biological test objects, the method uses larval Black Sea silversides (Atherina hepsetus, Atherina mochon pontica), which are placed into the test environment and sterile seawater. The reference is the test environment and sterile seawater free from any toxic agents. That is followed by microcalorimetric measurements of larval head production, and the derived specific heat production, as well as its decrease in the test objects exposed to the action of toxic agent as related to the values of intact larvae, the toxicity level of the marine environment is stated. The method differs by high sensitivity and enables the reliable assessment of the marine environment at the low concentration of the toxic agents.
EFFECT: that enables performing the early diagnosis of the toxicity level of the water environment.
SUBSTANCE: carrier is arranged in a column of a test system in the form of a layer of immunoaffinity gel, which is fixed between two porous membranes and provided with grafted - covalently bound - molecules of a toxic agent; the carrier - the gel layer is treated with a blocking solution for closure on the carrier of the rest free places of nonspecific binding; test specimens containing a certain amount of pre-introduced antibodies specific to a toxicant are added; the carrier is treated with a conjugate-containing solution, and namely a conjugate solution of anti-species antibodies chemically bound to luminescent quantum dots or to liposomes containing luminescent quantum dots, and a level of toxicants is determined by illumination of the treated carrier with excitation radiation as to intensity of luminescence excited at quantum dots.
EFFECT: group of inventions allows effective and reliable determination of a level of toxicants in water, food products or physiological liquids.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology, environment protection and methods and means of monitoring the environment and can be used to monitor pollution of water reservoirs with polychlorinated biphenyls. The method comprises sampling of water, bottom sediments and phytomass of macrophytes, their processing and evaluation, and the phytomass of macrophytes is used as vegetative organs of plants Carex riparia Curt. (coastal sedge) and Typha angustifolia L. (narrow-leaved cattail), sampling is carried out at the beginning and end of the growing season of plants, biological absorption coefficients of contaminant are evaluated as the ratio of content of PCBs in dry mass of macrophytes to their total content in the bottom sediments and in the water, and at the coefficient greater than 2.5±0.43 for coastal sedge and 10.2±1.03 for narrow-leafed cattail, the river pollution is estimated. Developing a simple and objective method of detection of areas of technogenic pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls of water reservoirs of industrialised urban areas enables to take into account the processes of migration and secondary distribution of PCBs in the aquatic environment.
EFFECT: method is intended for use in open water reservoirs, with hydrological studies of the river and its tributaries on storage reservoirs, in the work of environmental organisations, sewage treatment plants and can be implemented in the environmental monitoring of the river system pollution and river water quality.
3 ex, 2 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied for bioindication and biotesting of polluted waters and separate pollutants and can be applied as an additional method to biotests of obligatory application in determination of water quality, in which (representative) dominant species is sponge (Spongia). A method includes placement of a sponge cell suspension into a tested solution, standing for a day with the following calculation of bubble-shaped cells under a microscope, a conclusion about toxicity is made by reliable increase of the bubble-shaped cells in the tested solution in comparison with the control one.
EFFECT: considerable increase of sensitivity of the method with the minimal terms of the experiment performance.
2 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: filler used is chromogenic ion-exchange dispersed silica with covalently grafted hydrazones or formazans.
EFFECT: high sensitivity and selectivity of detecting metals.
3 tbl, 4 dwg, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises placing the fluorescent test-objects in the control and analyzed samples, irradiation with the excitation light, definition of fluorescence characteristics, by which change the toxicity of the controlled environment is assessed. Microalgae of species Scenedesmus apiculatus are used as test-objects, which are previously isolated from environmentally safe areas of the test water reservoirs.
EFFECT: use of the claimed method enables to assess quickly and accurately the toxicity of water and bottom sediments of the Azov and Black Seas.
6 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of ecology. The method of assessment of environmental safety of coastal marine benthic ecosystems is to study morphological and functional characteristics of the mass mussels, while as a parameter of safety the morphofunctional characteristics of Hamels are used: the ATP content in hemocytes is measured, as well as the hemocyte concentration in the hemolymph, the level of histopathology defined as the percentage of animals with histopathology, and the level of pollution is judged by the change in these parameters in comparison with the same parameters in Hamels living in optimal living environment, at that, the smaller the concentration of ATP and hemocytes and the greater the level of histopathology is, the less favourable situation is observed in the marine benthic ecosystem.
EFFECT: invention provides an extension of range of technical means for assessment of the environmental safety of coastal benthic ecosystems, using morphological and functional characteristics of Hamels.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to determination of toxicity and can be used extensively in analysis when determining toxicity of different liquid media without using expensive and laborious analysis methods. More specifically, the group of inventions relates to aqueous toxicology and determination of toxicity of aqueous media and samples. Disclosed is a kit for determining toxicity of a liquid medium in the absence of a biological object test function units of at least one biological effect, comprising: a set of cross-sensitive sensors for obtaining signals proportional to physico-chemical parameters of said liquid medium, wherein at least one sensor from said plurality has a polymer membrane containing as an active component a compound selected from a group comprising tetradodecylammonium bromide (TDAB), trioctylmethylammonium (TOMA) chloride, oleic acid, 1-hexadecanol, gallic acid, phosphoric ester, dipicolinic acid diamide (2,6-pyridine carboxylic), phosphine oxide, metalloporphyrin, calixarene; and a calibration model which establishes a relationship between values said signals in the absence of a biological object and toxicity, obtained on samples of the liquid medium using the biological object. Also described is a multi-sensor, a method of calibrating the multi-sensor and a method for qualitative and quantitative determination of toxicity of liquid samples.
EFFECT: faster, easier and cheaper analysis.
24 cl, 4 ex, 7 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of ecology and hydrobiology and is designed to assess the trophic status of ecosystems of mineralised lakes. In assessing the trophic status of the lake ecosystem with water mineralisation over 3 g/dm3 according to the level of development of aquatic communities the negative effect of mineralisation level is taken into account by calculating the amount of lost biomass using the obtained empirical dependence and its approximation in the form of a power function of the form:
where B' is the estimated biomass, X is water mineralisation, and k1 and k2 are empirical coefficients.
where Bp is potentially lost biomass with increasing mineralisation, B'' is estimated biomass with mineralisation of 3 g/dm3. From equations (1) and (2) the potential biomass is determined that would be in the absence of inhibitory effect of mineralisation as follows:
where Bm is potential biomass in the absence of inhibitory effect of mineralisation, Bav is average biomass in the foreshore of the water reservoir.
EFFECT: invention enables to estimate the real trophic status of lake ecosystems under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors and to predict the biomass of aquatic communities when change in the water mineralisation of lakes.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for continuous measurement of biochemical oxygen consumption (BOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and speed of biochemical oxygen consumption in water medium (k1). Essentially a new method is proposed, as well as a device making it possible to continuously measure at the same time BOC, BOD and k1 both in running water (river, waste water header, etc.), and in a water reservoir. The method for continuous measurement of specified indices is characterised by the fact that a continuous flow of water taken for analysis is organised from a water object into a pipeline, besides, the speed of water flow in the pipeline is selected so that within the required period of time T (where T - duration of biochemical consumption) water passes the distance between two adjacent transits of the pipeline, where sensors are installed for continuous measurement of concentration of dissolved oxygen in running water. The device for realisation of this method consists in a water-intake module and a pipeline with non-transparent walls, on which in transits there are sensors of continuous measurement of concentration of dissolved oxygen, making it possible to keep monitoring of simultaneously three specified indices of water quality.
EFFECT: device improvement.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of biotechnology, in particular to equipment, intended for water purification from ammonium nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate by the biological method and supporting pH at the level of 6.5-7.2, and can be used for the purification of natural and after-purification of sewage waters. A bioreactor contains a case, filled with a filtering charge, pipelines for the supply of initial water and discharge of purified water. Water intake, connected to the pipeline for the discharge of purified water is installed in the upper part of the case. Inside the case placed is a cone, the apex of which is connected to the pipeline supplying initial water, with the cone being installed in such a way that the distance between the case bottom and the lower side of the cone constitutes not more than 10 mm. A cavity between the case and the cone is filled with the filtering charge, representing quartz sand with a fraction from 0.1 to 1.2 mm, and including a possibility of development of a biofilm on it. Water intake is additionally provided with a source of ultraviolet radiation. The source of ultraviolet radiation can be made in the water intake immediately before the pipeline of discharge of purified water.
EFFECT: invention provides an increased efficiency and quality of preliminary water purification with simultaneous simplification of the installation maintenance and reduction of exploitation costs.
6 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: claimed is a method of aerobic biological purification of sewage waters. The method includes settling sewage water in a primary settler and separation of a raw sediment from it, aerobic biological purification of sewage water by active sludge in an aerotank, settling the mixture of sewage water and the active sludge in a secondary settler, output of the precipitated active sludge from the secondary settler, supply of the return active sludge into the aerotank for participation in the biological process of oxidation, output of the excessive active sludge from the secondary settler and discharge of purified water from the purification installation. Excessive sludge is subjected to a hydromechanical impact with an intensity of 500-3000 J/kg of the microbial mass × s, 70-80% of the processed active sludge are mixed with initial sewage water before supplying it to the primary settler, and 20-30% - with the mixture of sewage water and the active sludge, discharged from the aerotank, before supplying it into the secondary settler. Processes of mixing the said suspensions are carried out for 10-20 min with an intensity, corresponding to the dimensionless Reynolds number Re=2000-4000.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase the quality of purified sewage water, reduce the output of the excessive active sludge from the purification installations.
SUBSTANCE: device consists of a vertical sealed housing. In the housing there is a cavity with an anaerobic zone provided with means of gas-dynamic stirring, and a cavity with an aerobic zone provided with gas means of gas-dynamic stirring and aeration, one above the other separated by a horizontal partition. The workspace of the zones is filled with the immobilising and is equipped with pipes for input and output of liquid and discharge of gaseous products with the ability to recycle them. The immobilising cap is made in the form of a combination of hollow vertical rods filled with low-boiling liquid. The outer surface of each of the rods at least in the anaerobic zone is provided with finning.
EFFECT: increasing cleaning efficiency with the possibility of adjusting the degree of removal of contaminants in the anaerobic and aerobic zones depending on the type of liquid, energy security of manufacturing and requirements to depth of cleaning.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: portable water treatment system comprises at least one subsystem including flocculation system, chlorination system and bio-sand filtering system. Proposed system can comprise multiple water treatment intercommunicated subsystems. Filter system can comprise bio-sand mini-filter or compacted block filter. Flocculation system can include tank bottom section to settle the particles in settler and bucket for removal of settles particles. Water treatment system can incorporate a manual pump or bellow.
EFFECT: invention provides a water treatment system with simplified design and does not require electricity or other energy sources may be used in conjunction with the existing water treatment device or separately and is easy to maintain.
20 cl, 49 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of effluents. Initial effluent flows via pipe 1 into primary settler 2 to be clarified. From said settler 2, water is fed to aeration tank 3 composed by intermediate settler with activated sludge for deep purification of water from contaminants. Then, effluent flows through thin-bed bio-filter 4 with biofilm arranged at its walls to add to filtration of effluent. From bio-filter 4, it flows into secondary settler 5 to settle activated sludge and suspended particles. This sediment is fed back into aeration tank 3 via pipe 10. Note here that this sediment is subjected to treatment by constant electric field of intensity of 2 kV/m. Moreover, it is treated by plates 11 supplied by constant voltage source 12. From settler 5, effluent flows to filter 6 for final removal of suspended particles. Cleaned and decontaminated effluent in discharge pipe 7 is subjected to treatment by constant electric field of intensity of 2 kV/m. Moreover, it is treated by plates 8 supplied by constant voltage source 9. Excess activated sludge from secondary settler 5 and primary settler 2 sediment are removed from the plant via pipe 13.
EFFECT: high-intensity treatment, lower power input, decreased area of treatment plants.
7 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water engineering, particularly, to water treatment systems. Tricking filter comprises casing, waste water feed system, sprayer and bed. Said casing is composed of rectangular unit with dual bottom. upper bottom composed by fire grate and lower solid bottom with reinforced concrete walls and cover. Besides it comprises waste water dispensing tanks, waste being fed thereto via waste water feed system intake branch pipe. Note here that the height of bottom-to-bottom space should be at least 0.6 m. Trickling filter drainage should be made up of reinforced concrete plates to be laid on concrete supports. Note also that total area of opening for water flows into drainage system should make at least 5÷8% of trickling filter surface area. Water velocity therein should make at least 0.6 m/s. Note that waste water feed system comprises branched system of pipelines with sprayers equally spaced apart above filter bed. Note that lower bottom inclination to collection chutes makes at least 0.01 while lengthwise inclination of said chutes equals 0.005. Filter walls are made of prefabricated reinforced concrete and tower above bed surface for 0.5 m to decrease wind influence on water distribution over filter surface. Filter bed represents crushed stone and gravel.
EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: in equilising tank of purifying device sewage is supplied and then pumped into activation reservoir. From activation reservoir waters after purification are supplied into secondary sedimentation tank, and from it, after sedimentation of remaining silt, into output hole. If the level of sewage waters in equilising tank decreases lower than established minimal level process of activation is automatically stopped, and excess of slit is pumped from activation reservoir. As a result of the following increase of the level of sewage waters in equilising tank above the established level, pumping of slit is stopped, and process of activation is resumed.
EFFECT: possibility of exploitation in case of uneven inflow of sewage waters with preservation of high purification ability.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied in devices of portioned biochemical purification of sewages in house of year-round residence. In order to realise the method active sludge is subjected to aeration with supply into it of nutrient solution, which contains source of nitrogen, source of phosphorus and source of organic substance. Concentration of organic substance is, at least, in fact, equivalent to load of organic substance, required for active sludge of purification device, i.e. biological oxygen requirement of sewages, supplied into claimed device. Ratio of biological oxygen requirement for seven days - BRO7 to content of phosphorus and nitrogen by weight in nutrient solution constitutes about 20-40:0.5-2:5-20, in preferable variant - about 30-35:0.8-1.5:8-10. Nutrient solution is supplied one time every 1-168 h. Nutrient solution is concentrated with respect to nitrogen and phosphorus in such a way, that concentration of said nutrient substances, per unit of volume, is approximately 10-500 ones higher, and with respect to content of organic substance approximately 500-2000 times higher, than in sewages, subjected to purification.
EFFECT: method ensures support of activated condition of sludge during durative non-working periods of device for domestic sewage purification.
11 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of treating waste water, formed when processing biomass to liquid biofuel, where the process of processing biomass to liquid biofuel involves obtaining synthesis gas from biomass, and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to convert said synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbons, wherein a cobalt catalyst is used, wherein waste water containing alcohol-contaminated waste water, formed when processing biomass to liquid biofuel, is purified in a common waste water treatment process, involving a biological treatment process together with waste water formed when producing cellulose and/or paper, with which is integrated the process of processing biomass to liquid biofuel, wherein the alcohol-contaminated wastes are diluted with waste water from said process of producing cellulose and/or paper before the biological treatment process. The invention also relates to an integrated apparatus and a method of integrating the process of processing biomass into liquid biofuel with a process of producing cellulose and/or paper.
EFFECT: high degree of waste water treatment.
24 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biological treatment of domestic sewage effluents. Effluents are fed from collector 1 into anaerobic digester 2. Contaminated biogas is fed from methane fermentation chamber 6 into inlet branch pipe 38 and is forced by pump 11 in discharge branch pipe 39. Contaminants are fed into appropriate collector 45. Processed biogas is fed into chlorella generator 12. Pure methane is collected in collector 12. Chlorella and thiobacteria are forced via branch pipe 16 into dynamic disintegrator 15. Mix of heavy and standard water is fed via hydraulic gate 19 into rectifier 20 to produce heavy and standard water. Heavy water is directed from heat exchanger 28 into circulation circuit 31 of reactor 32. Portion of the mix of standard and tritiated water is directed into extra rectifier 35. Tritiated water is separated from standard water and directed into collector.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of treatment.
FIELD: municipal economy; industrial enterprises; sewage purification.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the methods of biological purification of sewage in bioreactors and may be used in the water drain systems of municipal economies and the industrial enterprises at purification of sewage. The sewage is treated in a bioreactor with membranous separation of water and an active sludge. Conduct a periodic regeneration of the separator. The membrane contains oxidation catalysts in the form of a combination of metals with variable valence, for example - manganese or cobalt oxides. The technical effect is intensification of processes of a biological purification of sewage, an increase of duration of a filtration service life of the membranous separator and reliability of its operation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures intensification of processes of the biological purification of sewage, increased duration of a filtration service life of the membranous separator and reliability of its operation.
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