Sensor device and method for electrical exploration of mineral deposits
FIELD: physics; geophysics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to geophysics and can be used for exploration of mineral deposits in a geologic environment. The invention relates to a sensor device and a method for geoelectric survey of a location, stratigraphic arrangement and range of mineral deposits and contiguous rocks delineating said deposits. The disclosed sensor device has a sensor head (51), an end surface which forms a sensor measurement surface (53) and at least one electrode. According to the invention, the sensor head (51) can be brought into contact with the surface of the geologic environment, and a centre electrode (54) and a plurality of external electrodes (55), arranged in a geometrically uniform manner around the centre electrode (54), are placed on the sensor measurement surface (53). The centre electrode (54) and external electrodes (55) are electroconductive and electrically insulated from each other.
EFFECT: high accuracy of survey data of a deposit directly in the development process thereof.
15 cl, 7 dwg
The invention relates to a touch device for geoelectric research location (stratigraphic) breakdown and stretch deposits of mineral raw materials and related rocks fringing the data deposits, in particular in continuous development of deposits of mineral raw materials, with a touch head, the end surface of which forms the touch of the measuring surface, and at least one electrode. The invention also relates to a method of geoelectric studies of deposits of mineral raw materials in the geological environment, in particular in continuous development of deposits of mineral raw materials, with the development of the field potential in the geological environment using a sensor unit containing a sensor head, the end surface of which forms the touch measurement surface, and which has at least one electrode.
In the field of applied Geophysics known studies of the earth's crust by measuring voltage and current. For example, for the purpose of exploration of deposits of mineral raw materials of the document DE 10 2007 029 782 A1 discloses geophysical measuring method, which combine various methods of geophysical prospecting, such as using the technology of seismic reflection, seismic refraction waves and geoelectric resistivity is tyuleniy, boreholes, fragments of pits and analytical approach for exploration of mineral deposits which are exposed to weathering. For intelligence purposes, using geoelectric resistance sharpened steel rods in the geological environment are used as electrodes through which current is transmitted into the ground from the voltage source for the development of fields of potential geological environment, which, for example, is measured with a voltmeter. Profile and attenuation field potential can be used to determine the contact resistance, which, as apparent conductivity or resistance, gives an idea of the sole working or the structure of the soles of the production and the materials and the structures within it. For technology option using geoelectric resistance is also necessary to consider the physical processes induced polarization (induced polarization effects), which, as a function of the present soles production, mainly lead to growth and attenuation of the field potential measurements which are carried out in comparison with applied fields of potential, emerging slowly in different ways.
The objective of the invention is to provide a sensor device and method of geoelectric studies of the geological environment, in particular geoelectric investigation of deposits of minerals is on raw materials, that provides exploration of stretch and structure of deposits of mineral raw materials, as well as outlining the stretch adjacent rocks in continuous development and therefore also indirectly control the excavation device used in the development of deposits of mineral raw materials.
This task is solved by applying the device made with the possibility of entering into contact sensor head with the surface of the geological environment and/or deposits of mineral raw materials, with the Central electrode and the many external electrodes, geometrically spaced uniformly around a Central electrode located on the sensor measuring surface, and a Central electrode and outer electrode, which is electrically conductive and electrically isolated from each other. Due to the fact that touch the head comes in contact with the surface of the geological environment, subject to investigation, without physical intrusion into the sole production, as in the case of the driving rod electrodes in the geological environment, the touch device of the invention can, for example, also be used on conveyors excavation machines. At the same time, the location of the electrodes with a geometrically uniform arrangement provides a preliminary study of the layers of the geological environment sideways and perpendicular on the relative surface geological environment, which establish the contact. It is obvious that the study can be performed in a downward direction, forward and up, providing, for example, making contact with the surface perpendicular or inclined front stope, or roof of an underground deposits of mineral raw materials. Individual electrodes on the sensor head can be used for the formation of pairs of sensors, by means of which an alternating voltage is applied to the geological environment, subject to investigation, and at the same time in the geological environment, you can measure the resulting current. All works supply voltage and perform measurements using electrodes of a sensor head, on which the electrodes are in the form of external electrodes and internal electrodes.
According to a preferred variant implementation of the Central electrode on the sensor measuring surface is an equilateral front surface, and the outer electrodes on the touch surface have a linear front surface, the outer electrodes, respectively, are parallel to one of the side uprights of the Central electrode. Sensor head can, however, be configured such that the Central electrode forms a triangle, a quadrangle or a polygon, and created a number of external electrodes corresponds to the number of corners.
the alternative embodiment, the Central electrode on the sensor measuring surface is designed as a point electrode. In particular, preferably, when the Central electrode on the sensor measuring surface is designed as a ring electrode. In both cases, the external electrodes on the sensor measuring surface can be correspondingly designed as point electrodes. However, it is preferable to touch the head in which the outer electrodes on the sensor measuring surface is designed as electrodes in the form of ring segments and placed on the ring around the Central electrode, most preferably being circular. When such detail is formed touch the head with the device electrodes in the form of a ring in the ring.
The main area of application of the sensor device the invention relates to the investigation of deposits of minerals that can be developed using plow systems or cutting systems. In a variant of such systems is the development of a sensor device may be installed in parts of mining machines for information during ongoing developments related to the thickness and structure of the deposits of mineral raw materials, as well as stretch contour layer between the raw material to be developed and adjacent rock. In a variant of underground deposits of mineral raw materials in to the ice coal, the sole generation is often called the lying, the roof of the call and overhanging front wall to be developed, referred to as the front or wall of the working parts. For the purpose of incorporation in a machine, in particular, preferably, when the touch device has a cylindrical casing, one end of which is touch the head. To establish a reliable contact even when underground surface is uneven, the electrodes in the form of ring segments forming external electrodes on the sensor measuring surface is designed as a lintel in the form of ring segments, passing through the front surface of the sensor head and the side surface of the sensor head. For this reason, the device is in the form of a ring in the ring is the best device in the form of a point in the ring fits satisfactorily the device in the form of a point in the ring is poorly suited for applications in the car, moving at design time. To prevent exposure to possible irregularities, in addition, preferably, when the outer electrodes in the form of an annular jumpers provided on the transition of the front surface to the side surface of the chamfer, preferably, at an angle of 45°.
Because a relatively large overall length may be necessary to embed the sensor device, a preference for the equipment, when in this drill the outer electrode (electrodes) on the back of the jumper in the form of a segment of a ring provided with a contact insert, passing to the rear end of the housing. In addition, it is reasonable to provide the casing ledge, such that the shoulder ledge can form a support surface for working on the compression of the spring, through which a sensor device is constantly pressed into contact with the surface of the sole working or deposits of minerals, you want to scan. For this purpose, the casing can have the design of several parts and to have the rear part containing the shoulder ledge and the front part is equipped with a touch probe, with the possible connection of the parts of the casing together by bolts passing through the shoulder ledge to get perhaps a more simple design. In addition, the centering plug (pins) can be removable mounted on the casing with screws. Centering key (keys) may also be of a design, integral with the casing.
The radii of the rings and the width of the rings, among others, are crucial in the variant of the device electrodes in the form of a ring in the ring. The larger the radius of the outer ring, the greater the depth of research. The depth of the study is from one to two diameters of the outer ring. Touch is a device, essentially composed of two rings, the outer ring, containing many outer electrodes, at least for the formation of two adjacent outer electrodes in each case a pair of electrodes for the introduction of the field potential in the geological environment, subject to investigation. The ratio between the radius of the outer electrodes, constructed from the Central axis, and the radius of the inner electrode, constructed from the Central axis, preferably approximately 3/1. In addition, the external electrodes preferably form a ring with a diameter of at least 60 mm, an Outer ring electrodes may have a width in the radial direction, is equal to approximately 1/10 of the radius of the outer electrodes, and/or the spacing between the two outer electrodes filled with insulating material, is preferably at least 2 mm
Particularly preferred for use is a touchscreen device for moving the mining machine with external electrodes on the sensor measuring surface made of steel. In addition, the space between the outer electrode and the Central electrode on the touch surface should be filled preferably wear-resistant insulating material, such as modified plastics, in particular reinforced alocrom thermoplastic, so that no body, preventing contact of the touch surface with the geological environment, you want to scan, can't stand on the touch surface.
In a particularly preferred embodiment, detailing the touch device can be used on the element pan of underground mining machines, particularly underground coal mining machines. Here's a touch device can preferably be inserted into the open bottom of the cylindrical cutout on the element of the pan and in the prescribed position, it can move in the cut, if necessary, against the return force working on the spring compression. Alternatively, the sensor head can be mounted on the swivel lever fixed to the swivel joint on the bottom side of the pan.
As regards the method, the above-mentioned problem is solved by the fact that the sensor head can come into contact with the surface of the geological environment and has a touch of the measuring surface of the Central electrode and the many external electrodes located geometrically spaced uniformly around the Central electrode and the Central electrode and the outer electrodes are electrically conductive, electrically isolated from each other, and form a pair of electrodes, by means of which increase the OLE potential and measure the resulting current. A suitable measuring device can be used to connect all electrodes one after the other for the formation of pairs of electrodes and development consistently field capacity and measurements. The resistivity of the material in the sole production can be determined by application of voltage and/or current injection box between the electrodes of the pair of electrodes on the sole production as fields of potential and by measuring the voltage and the obtained current profiles. Measurements can be carried out as in the variant with fixed sensor head, and in the embodiment, a sensor head, which, for example, passively moves together with the mining machine. Measuring received power as a function of the geological environment, subject to investigation, preferably carried out by means of the electrodes of the pair of electrodes, which in this developing field capacity. However, the measurement can also be performed using electrodes of the pair of electrodes, which do not develop field capacity, or any other required pairs of electrodes of the same sensor head.
In addition, electrochemical processes create induced polarization or polarization effect due to, for example, on the one hand, the difference in the ionic conductivity of rock and electronic conductivity metal particles of stone and, with d the natives hand, spatial dependent mobility of ions, based on the change in the size of the pores in the stone. For the growth of polarization of the necessary electrical work. This may be measured when the voltage is switched on for the development of the field potential. If the voltage is turned off, this release work, preserved in the geological environment in the form of electrical energy that can be seen, in turn, in the voltage profile.
During displacement sensor head along the surface of the geological environment it is possible to measure changes in the contact resistance between the electrodes of one pair of electrodes. To this end it is also possible short-circuit individual electrodes for forming the common electrode or electrode and education measuring a pair of electrodes together with an additional closed-circuited electrode, if acceptable, as well as a large electrode of the same sensor head and a counter-electrode, to create the greatest possible surface contact with the geological environment of the measuring electrodes and the surface of the geological environment, you want to scan. Changes in the contact resistance can be the result of the movement of sensor heads on the surface of the geological environment, you want to scan. The amplitude and frequency of these fluctuations in weather resistance is tion is a function of the surface properties of the material. The method can be applied only in the case of dynamic processes.
Particularly preferred variant of the method of the invention is the case when the equivalent resistance between all pairs of electrodes of the sensor head is measured for the study of the resistivity of the material in the geological environment or in deposits of mineral raw materials before you touch the head in contact with the surface of the geological environment. Field capacity or the contact resistance is preferably determined without penetration of the sensor head in the geological environment. A sensor device, such as additionally described above, is used, in particular, to perform the method.
Additional advantages and details of the sensor device of the invention and method of exploration are given in the following description diagrams of examples of embodiments shown in the drawings, the structure of the touch device and the embedding of sensors in the pans excavation machine. In the drawings, is shown following.
In Fig.1 shows in isometric diagram of the touch sensor head arrangement of the electrodes in the form of dots and rings for research according to the first variant example of implementation.
In Fig.2 shows a detailed view of a sensor head sensor of Fig.1.
In Fig.3 shows a diagram of the equivalent circuit with equivalent the reference impedance and an electric voltage option for the location of the electrodes on the sensor head according to Fig.1 and 2.
In Fig.4 shows the sensor of Fig.1 in a disassembled form.
In Fig.5 shows a top view of a sensor head according to the second variant example of implementation with the arrangement of the electrodes in the form of a ring in the ring.
In Fig.6 shows a highly simplified schematic view of the cross section is embedded sensor devices in the tray pan according to the first alternative implementation.
In Fig.7 shows a highly simplified schematic view of the cross section is embedded sensor devices in the tray pan according to the second alternative implementation.
A sample of the touch screen device according to the first variant example of implementation, indicated generally by item 10, as shown in Fig. 1-3 very schematically and simplified, all that shows is a touchscreen device without voltage sources, cables and control computer. The touch device 10 or the sensor equipped with a sensor head 1 at one end of the cylindrical casing 2. Sensor head 1 has a touch of measuring surface 3, the center of which is the Central point of the electrode 4, around which are arranged with equal intervals of three identical outer electrode 5, respectively, consisting on the sensor measuring surface 3 of jumper 6 in the form of ring segments. Touch the cylinder 1, thus, the center has the capacity electrode 4 and three external electrode 5 in the form of a point in the ring. The touch device 10 together with the sensor head 1 is structurally designed with the ability to maintain constant contact with the surface of the geological environment (not shown) deposits of mineral raw materials. This can preferably be obtained by using a running compression spring (not shown) which can be supported on the shoulder 7 of the ledge 8 between the front part 9 and the rear part 11, essentially, of a cylindrical casing 2. Working on a compression spring (not shown) can then be used to prestress the sensor device 10 in the axial direction, to achieve the goal that, as described below, the sensor head 3 is continuously performed for surface excavation machine and constantly rested on the surface of the geological environment. Depending on the progress of development of deposits of mineral resources, geological environment can be a layer of the geological environment, yet containing mineral layer of the geological environment, consisting only of minerals, or boundary layer, consisting either of the adjacent rocks, not subject to additional development, or a layer of mineral resources, may be more accurate development.
As clearly shown, particularly in Fig.2, on which a cylindrical casing in front of the 9 excluded, for the use of touch is disorder 10 in parts of the structure excavation machines, jumper 6 in the form of ring segments of the outer electrodes 5 are on the sensor head 1, first, a front crosspiece 6' on the sensor measuring surface 3 and, secondly, also with a lateral crosspiece 6" on the side of the sensor head 1, indicated in General by the position 1'. End jumper 6' and side jumper 6" preferably integrally connected here with each other and between them is made oblique chamfer 12 at an angle, preferably constituting 45°, to move between the side shelf 6" and end shelf 6' jumper 6 in the form of a segment of a ring of each external electrode 5. Chamfer 12 is to ensure that the magnitude of the displacement parallel to the surface of the geological environment on which it rests, a sensor head 1 can automatically rise when hitting obstacles and can move with the counter returns to the force of a spring working in compression (not shown) without requiring further measures to lift the sensor device.
In Fig. 1 and 2 quite clearly shows that the three conductive outer electrode 5 and the conductive Central electrode 4 are electrically separated from each other electrically insulating intermediate material for education, depending on the measurement scheme, in each case two adjacent spaced outer electrodes 5 and/or the distance between the m variant pairs in the composition of the Central electrode 4 and one of the outer electrodes 5 pairs of electrodes, to which possible application fields of potential, such as a voltage, for example, using a power source (not shown) to determine the apparent resistivity r in the geological environment, such as, in particular, in the so-called sole production underground coal seam. In Fig.3 illustrates by a diagram of the equivalent circuit, as apparent resistivity r of the material in the geological environment or in deposits of mineral raw materials can be identified using internal and external electrodes 4, 5.
In Fig.3 diagram of the equivalent circuit shows the equivalent resistance and voltage for the placement of electrodes in the form of internal electrode 4 and the three outer electrodes 5 on the sensor head 1 according to Fig.1 and 2. To determine the apparent specific resistance r of the material in the geological environment or deposits of mineral raw materials, for example, in the sole production of coal seam, the equivalent resistance Remeasure between all pairs of electrodes that can be formed internal electrode 4 and the external electrodes 5. The equivalent resistance is created near the chain contact resistance Rcelectrodes relative to the soles of production, and the apparent specific resistance rsthe soles are generate:
12U23U13alternating voltage U is applied to the two electrodes from a voltage source (not shown). As shown in symbolic form, of the currents I12, I13, I23, I14, I42, I34depending on the electrical resistance get the current I and is measured by a measuring device (not shown). The equivalent resistance can be calculated using the formula Re= U/I. This measurement is carried out in each case for all pairs of electrodes. Due to the geometrically symmetrical arrangement of the electrodes 4, 5 can be assumed that:
Individual resistance can be determined, by solving the system of equations. The following methods of measurements can then be used to determine material type:
Specific resistance rsmaterial or the apparent resistivity of the mixture of materials, such as mineral and related rocks, determined by application of an alternating voltage U and injection box current I between the pairs of electrodes formed by the Central electrode 4 and the external electrodes 5, and the measurement of these quantities. The dimension p is boditi as in a stationary position sensor, and when travelling touch devices and the measurement can be performed, for example, through the Central electrode 4 or more measurement electrodes.
Contact resistance as a reference variable for the surface properties of the geological environment in contact with the sensor head, or type of material can also be output with the movements of the sensor device, for example with the movements of the working machine during development. Moving the sensor device or sensor head parallel to the surface layer of the geological environment leads to changes in the contact resistance. The amplitude and frequency of these fluctuations of the resistance is a function of the surface properties of the material, because they characterize specific properties of the surface and/or types of material.
Finally, you can also use the induced polarization as in the variants of the movements of the sensor device, and a fixed sensor devices. The polarization effect is electrochemical in nature. It is the result, on the one hand, the difference in the ionic conductivity of rock and electronic conductivity metal particles of stone and, on the other hand, spatial dependent ion mobility due to changes in the size of the pores in the stone. Electrical work is thus required on the I enable the development of polarization. Such work can be measured by attaching a voltage U between the pair of external electrodes 5 and/or a pair of outer and inner electrodes 5, 4. If the voltage is off, the work collected in the geological environment, is released in the form of electrical energy, and it can be seen, in turn, on the profile of the measured voltage.
In Fig.4 again shows now disassembled, the sample preferred variant implementation of the sensor device 10 to be installed in the pans of the conveyor in the excavation machine. Supply voltage or connect electronic measuring system with external electrodes 5 and the Central electrode 4 of the Central electrode 4 includes an electrode rod 14 mounted on the Central axis M and having a thickness in the electrode head 15, and the individual external electrodes 5 form elongated membrane in the form of segments, in this embodiment, each jumper 6 in the form of a segment of a ring back in each case integrally connected elongated contact insert 16, which, if acceptable, having an additional step to install over the stage, goes to the rear end of the casing formed by the front part 9 and the rear part 11.
The contact between the inner electrode 4 and the external electrodes 5 can then be executed with the rear end of the casing 2, that is, to protect the breeding area. Installation of external electrodes 5, which here take the form of shells in the form of segments made using retaining pins 17, which can be installed contact inserts 16. In General, the touch device 10 includes an inner housing 18, preferably made of insulating plastic material, such in particular as a thermoplastic, which may be reinforced with plastic fibers. The front part 9 of the casing 2 is coming on top of the contact insert 16 so that in assembled condition, as shown in Fig.1 as an example, only the front speakers to the side of the ring jumper 6 external electrodes 5 are exposed to the influence on the sensor measuring surface 3. The space between the annular ridges 6 connecting external electrodes 5 are filled here radial ridges, preferably constructed integrally on the inner housing 18, in particular on the section of the inner casing 18 forming the measuring surface 3.
In the example shown a variant implementation of the front part 9 and the rear part 11 are connected together by means of bolts, not shown. Centering pins 20 can be mounted simultaneously on the casing 2 of the touch device 10 by means of screws. Centering pins 20 can not only be accurately set the cue for the location of the touch device 10 mounts on the mining machine, but can also form a stop limit, which can move sensor head operating at a compression spring bearing part of the excavation machine.
In Fig.5 shows a very simplified diagram of the measuring surface of the sensor head 53 51 touch device 50 according to the second variant example of implementation. As in the first variant example of implementation, the external electrodes 55 there is also implemented in the form of jumpers 56 in the form of ring segments, which preferably pass through the side of the sensor head 51 and the touch measurement surface 53, and in this embodiment, in turn, made the chamfer, as additionally described above, between the touch measuring surface 53 and the side surface. Unlike the previous variant example of implementation, however, here the inner electrode 54 on the sensor measuring surface 53 is a ring. Therefore, the device electrodes 54, 55 in the form of a ring in the ring implemented in a variant of the sensor device 5. Jumper 56 in the form of ring segments of the outer electrodes 55 form a ring with a diameter of R around the Central axis M, and the inner electrode 54 forms a ring of diameter r. Such a device in the form of a ring in the ring forms a particularly preferred geometric arrangement of the inner construction of the x and outer electrodes 54, 56 for the study of the geological environment in which only the sensor measuring surface 53 a sensor head 51 comes in contact with the surface of the geological environment. In particular, the depth of investigation can be determined approximately using the touch probe head 51 through the radius R of the outer electrodes 56, since the depth of investigation is approximately one or two in diameter with an outer radius R, i.e. about 2R-4R.
The optimal ratio of the radii r to R, i.e., the radius r of the inner ring to the radius R of the outer ring, is approximately 1/3. The wall thickness of the individual rings should be approximately 1/10 of the diameter of the ring formed by the outer electrodes 55, that is about R/5, in particular, preferably, when the diameter 2R of the ring formed by the outer electrodes 55, no less than about 60 mm, an Individual jumper ring 56 of the outer electrodes 55 there must be separation, of at least 2 mm and, in turn, as additionally described above, to be filled with insulating material such as thermoplastic. Voltage can be applied between the individual electrodes 54, 55, due to the presence of insulating material. Obviously, with this purpose, the individual electrodes 54, 55 must be conductive, however, campisano advanced higher they are suitable for supply voltage from the rear side of the touch device and/or can be used as measuring electrodes. Plastic used for electrical insulation on the measuring surface 53 should preferably have a resistance to wear. This can be obtained, for example, using fiber in conjunction with the appropriate modified thermoplastic.
Depth study using touch devices 10 or 50 has a ratio of 1/1-1/2 the diameter of the electrode. You may receive the maximum depth research about 120 mm in the embodiment, the touch device with external electrodes, forming a sensor head with a diameter of 60 mm sensor Resolution is a function of the depth studies. The ratio is about 1/10. In depth study of 120 mm therefore, it is possible detection profiles of the layers in the mineral Deposit with a precision of 12 mm. Currents and voltage measurements supplied in the sensor device of the invention, it is possible to maintain low; the power required for the development of the external field potential may preferably remain well below 2 watts and also to meet the requirements for explosion.
In Fig.6 as an example, very simplistically shows a diagram of a trough 190, such that you can use, such as transporting the pan with built-in the military track 160 for the machine by the chain conveyor underground plane. Mining machine, such as coal plow, may be based on a track 160 of the machine. In the example shown variant implementation is made in a pan 190 as close as possible for the track 160 of the machine, i.e. relatively close to the front, neckline 165, which may be a touch-screen device 10 described above and shown in Fig. 1-3. In Fig.6 position 170 shows the surface of the geological environment, subject to investigation, such as, in particular, the surface deposits of mineral raw materials, which is shown here with a strong folding. Even in the variant of the folded profile is possible using the touch device 10 to enter in contact with the surface 170 of the geological environment, as the measuring surface 3 of the sensor on the sensor head 1 is, accordingly, far beyond the bottom of the track 160 for the machine. In Fig.6 again shows the bevel 12 on the sensor head 1, passing along its circumference. As an additional measure of protection, is it possible for the device here under the track 160 for the machine, at least in the direction And movement of the mining machine, scraper edges 180, protecting the sensor head 1 from damage ledges or edges in the layer of the geological environment by using their cut, if applicable.
In Fig.7 schematically shows an alternative variant example of implementation, the value of the touch device 210, which is, in General, flat and located on the bottom of the pan 290, again only specified with path 260 to the machine. The touch device 210 can be mounted on the swivel hinge from the bottom of the track 260 for the machine on the pivot arm 285 and rotating hinge with the ability, as a rule, to rely at any time on the surface 270, deposits of mineral raw materials under the action of gravity. Since the speakers of the sensory part is missing, there is no risk of cutting a sensor head.
The above description gives the specialist in the art the possibility for a number of modifications related to the scope of protection of the dependent claims. The sensors and/or sensor device for installation in machine parts, in particular trough, mainly for underground mining of coal seams as mineral deposits are shown in all the examples of embodiments. The shape of the casing, therefore, mostly made with the possibility of installation of sensors in cylindrical foster nests. In other embodiments, the application for the exploration of the geological environment hull shape can vary significantly and can be square, rectangular, round, flat, etc. by design. In examples of embodiments, respectively, shown round touch the head. This form can also be modified and set the mode of operation for a device with two square or triangular electrodes, or square, or triangular inner electrode and the linear outer electrodes. Characteristics of the separation/resistance should remain constant and should just move. In addition, in the examples of embodiments shown exclusively a sensor head with electrodes placed uniformly and/or symmetrically, as in the variant of the uniform geometrical arrangement of electrodes corresponding uniformly spaced pairs of electrodes result in a significant simplification of a complex schema definitions and clarification of apparent resistivity. However, it is also possible in a non-uniform arrangement of the electrodes, in this case you must consider the different spacings between the pairs of electrodes.
1. A sensor device for geoelectric studies of deposits of mineral raw materials, in particular, with the continuous development of deposits of mineral raw materials containing a sensor head (1; 51), the end surface of which forms the touch of the measuring surface (3; 53), while the sensor head (1; 51) is made with the possibility of coming into contact with the surface of the geological environment; the Central electrode (4; 54), on th the th on the sensor measuring surface (3; 53), and many of the outer electrodes (5; 55) located geometrically uniformly around the Central electrode (4; 54) on the sensor measuring surface (3; 53), while the outer electrodes (5; 55) is designed as electrodes in the form of ring segments and placed on the ring around the Central electrode (4; 54), in which the Central electrode (4; 54) and the outer electrodes (5; 55) are electrically conductive, electrically isolated from each other and form a pair of electrodes(4, 5; 5, 5; 54, 55; 55, 55), to help develop the field capacity.
2. Touch the device under item 1, in which the Central electrode (4) on the sensor measuring surface (3) is designed as a point electrode.
3. Touch the device under item 1, in which the Central electrode (54) on the sensor measuring surface (53) is designed as a ring electrode.
4. Touch the device under item 1, which comprises a cylindrical casing (2) with the ends of the cylinder, with sensor head (1), located at one end of the cylinder, in this case, preferably, the casing (2) provided with a ledge (7), and shoulder ledge, preferably, forms a bearing surface for working on the spring compression.
5. Touch the device under item 1, in which the electrodes are in the form of ring segments on the sensor measuring surface (3) design is actively performed as a bridge (6) in the form of ring segments, passing through the front surface of the sensor head (1) and the side surface of the sensor head, and in which, preferably, the outer electrodes (5) are provided at the transition of the front surface to the side surface of the chamfer (12) preferably at a 45°angle.
6. The touch device according to p. 4, in which the outer electrode (5) on the rear side of the bulkhead (6) in the form of a segment of a ring provided with a contact insert (16), passing to the rear end of the housing.
7. The touch device according to p. 4, in which the casing (2) is structurally made of several parts and has a rear part (9) that contains a shoulder ledge and the front part (8) with sensor head (1), the connection parts (8, 9) of the casing to each other by bolts passing through the shoulder ledge, and in which the centering pins (20) can be removable attached to the casing (2) with screws.
8. Touch the device under item 1, in which the ratio (r/R) between the radius (r), constructed from the internal electrodes (54) to the Central axis (M) and radius (R), is constructed from the outer electrodes (56) to the Central axis, is approximately 1/3.
9. Touch the device under item 1, in which the outer electrodes form a ring with a diameter of at least 60 mm, and/or the outer ring electrodes have a width in the radial direction, which is approximately 1/10R, the/or the spacing between the two outer electrodes, filled with insulating material, is at least 2 mm
10. Touch the device under item 1, which can be used on the element (190; 290) pan underground mining machines, particularly underground coal mining machine, in this case, preferably, the touch device may be inserted into the open bottom of the cylindrical cutout (195) on the element (190) pan and/or touch the cylinder (210) is installed on the rotary lever (285), mounted on a swivel hinge bottom element (290) pan.
11. The method of geoelectric studies of deposits of mineral raw materials in the geological environment, in particular, with the continuous development of deposits of mineral raw materials, including the development of the field potential in the geological environment using a sensor unit (10) containing a sensor head (1; 51), the end surface of which forms the touch of the measuring surface (3; 53), while the sensor head (1; 51) is made with the possibility of coming into contact with the surface of the geological environment; the Central electrode (4; 54) located on the sensor measuring surface (3; 53); and many of the outer electrodes (5; 55) located geometrically uniformly around the Central electrode (4; 54) on the sensor measuring surface (3; 53), while the outer electrodes (5; 55) is designed as electrode in the form of ring segments and placed on the ring around the Central electrode (4; 54), in which the Central electrode (4; 54) and the outer electrodes (5; 55) are electrically conductive, electrically isolated from each other and form pairs(4, 5; 5, 5; 54, 55; 55, 55) electrodes through which developing field capacity; and measuring the resulting current.
12. The method according to p. 11, in which the equivalent resistance between all pairs of(4, 5; 5, 5; 54, 55; 55, 55) the electrodes of the sensor head (1; 51) is measured for the study of the resistivity of the material in the geological environment before you touch the head (1; 51), which is in contact with the surface of the geological environment.
13. The method according to p. 11, in which to define the surface of the measured change in the contact resistance between the electrodes in the pair(4, 5; 5, 5; 54, 55; 55, 55) electrodes during displacement sensor head (1; 51) along the surface.
14. The method according to PP. 11, 12 or 13, in which the fields of the potential or the contact resistance determined without penetration sensor head (1; 51) in the geological environment.
15. The method according to p. 11, in which at least two electrodes shorts for the formation of a large electrode and/or use a touch device (10) according to one of paragraphs. 1-10.
SUBSTANCE: hand-held detector for detecting and determining the position of concealed objects (44, 84) in an inspected facility (14), having a housing (12), a guiding means (28) mounted on the housing (12) to provide directed movement of the detector along the inspected facility (14) in at least one direction (42) of movement, a measuring device (50) for measuring at least one motion parameter (54) during movement of the housing (12), a control device (26) and an output device (20) for outputting information to the operator, wherein the output device (20) lies on the front side (18) of the housing (12) and is in form of a digital display, and the control device (26), along with the output device (20), is adapted to output at least one dimensional value (88) of distance defined in the direction (42) of movement, in form of an electronically generated digital symbol, and adapted to update the output distance value (88), carried out, at least basically, synchronously with change in the motion parameter (54), wherein the hand-held detector additionally includes an input device (22) and has an input mode with possibility of setting, through the input device (22), a starting point (90) relative which the distance value (88) is determined, wherein setting the starting point (90) is possible without interrupting the process of detecting and determining the position of concealed objects.
EFFECT: easier control of the device, higher rate and easier marking of an inspected facility with simultaneous detection of concealed objects therein and determining location thereof.
7 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: geomagnetic field variation is measured simultaneously with two or more magnetometric transducers mounted on mobile carriers placed along the direction of motion. An additional magnetometric transducer is placed 100-200 m from the sea surface on the vertical, said transducer being able to move along as well as across the direction of motion of the first transducer. The speed of the additional magnetometric transducer is at least an order higher than that of the first transducer. A second additional magnetometric transducer lying deep in the sea environment on a carrier is also used to measure geomagnetic field variations. The carrier of this transducer is a self-propelled control device fitted with navigation and hydroacoustic measurement and communication apparatus. The second additional magnetometric transducer can move along as well as across the direction of motion of the first transducer. During survey, inclination of the magnetic field vector is also measured, from which the ratio of gravitational field components Vzz and Vzx are determined.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining static geomagnetic field.
SUBSTANCE: method is realised using an electromagnetic field source (1113) which transmits current pulses (81, 82) with sharp edges to an immersed vertical transmitting antenna. The electromagnetic field generated by pulses (81, 82) is measured using at least one receiver (1109) fitted with a vertical receiving antenna (1111) immersed in water during a period of time in which there is no transmission of pulses to a transmitting antenna (1108) by the electromagnetic field source (1113). Distance between the electromagnetic field source (1113) and at least one receiver (1109) is less than the depth of the target object.
EFFECT: high accuracy.
12 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to marine geoelectrical exploration using controlled artificial sources of electromagnetic field. Using a dipole source, an electromagnetic field is generated inside the analysed medium by sending rectangular electric pulses with intervals in between into the medium. Geometrical probing is done along the profile during the current pulse, and probing on transient processes is done during the interval. Measurements are taken using measuring apparatus mounted on the seafloor, consisting of five electrodes: a central electrode with four others around it on corners of a square, two opposite sides of which are parallel to the axis of the profile. During the current flow period and intervals between current pulses, the second electric potential difference between external electrodes and the central electrode, as well as the first electric potential differences between three pairs of external electrodes is measured. When the dipole source passes through different points, there is provision for equipotentiality of a closed line passing through four external electrodes of the measuring apparatus thereby eliminating the horizontal component of current density in each probing point inside this line. Values of the measured electric potential differences are used to calculate three sets of standard interpreted electrical parametres which are not subject to lateral effect of three-dimensional geological non-uniformities located outside the probing point. Using the derived parametres, the model of the medium is found and time sections of this model is constructed on electroconductivity of elements of the medium, induced polarisation coefficient and decay time constant of induced polarisation potential differences.
EFFECT: elimination of distorting lateral effect on probing results, which allows for deep sea delineation of hydrocarbon accumulation with high contrast.
4 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions refers to geophysics, in particular to equipment systems for geoelctric exploration by induced polarisation method and is intended for predicting hydrocarbon accumulations in transit shelf zone at depths up to 10 m. Essence: the system includes a set of sea-bed stations and vessel with generator and exciting field formation unit connected with submerged horizontal towed dipole with energising electrodes; non-radiative ballast device; equipment for reading and writing data from sea-bed stations, recording position and time of current pulses generation and sea-bed stations initialisation. Sea-bed stations are equipped with "braids" positioned along and across exiting line. Each of the "braids" contains at least 3 measuring electrodes located at distance of 50-500 metres from each other. Time series of the first and the second electric potential differences of electric field between electrodes are recorded both during passage of current and during pause between pulses. When interpreting, data on field both during current passage and during pause between pulses is used in wide space-time domain. Resistance of medium and its polarisation characteristics are determined.
EFFECT: providing higher-grade prediction of possible hydrocarbon material sources within studied zone at shallow depths.
3 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: measuring techniques; underwater exploration.
SUBSTANCE: measurement of magnetic field components is done from a point located at a certain distance from the central structure of the electromagnetic measuring system. The point is chosen in such a way that the magnetic field, arising from electrical current in the central structure substantially does not have effect on measurements of the magnetometer. The device, which allows for the given method, consists of central structure, several beams which have a first and second end. The second end is hinged to the central structure, while the first end is free. At least one of the electrodes and magnetometer is joined to each beam.
EFFECT: easement of operation and stability of carrying out measurements.
14 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: technology for finding concealed objects, for example, underground pipelines.
SUBSTANCE: system includes sensor device, having at least two sensors of magnetic field strength vector, positioned in parallel to each other for detecting only distorted magnetic field; device for transformation of direction and value of distorted magnetic field, detected by sensor device, into values for recording and then displaying values in form of letters, digits or graphic symbols; and magnetic marker, formed of magnetic material and attached to cylindrical pipeline. Magnetic marker has upper part and lower part. Lower part has curved structure, such, that center of magnetic material is perpendicular to ground. Polarity of magnetic field is indicated on upper part of magnetic marker.
EFFECT: error-free detection of position, fast attachment of marker to a pipeline, simple measurement of magnetic field.
7 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a bottom station for marine geophysical survey, having a housing which accommodates a unit of buoys, a signal recorder, movable bars with non-polarisable electrodes, sensors, including induction sensors, an opening switch, an antenna, a power supply unit and an anchor. The bottom station further includes a three-component ferroprobe. At least two devices from a group which includes a sensor, a recorder, a power supply unit and an acoustic system, are placed in separate sealed housings, lying at a distance of 2-5 m from the station and connected to the housing by cantilevers. Induction sensors lying inside the housing of the station are arranged such that the centres of induction coils are maximally close to each other.
EFFECT: high accuracy of exploration data.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a dielectric body of streamlined shape with installed metering electrodes, a metering unit comprising amplifiers, to inputs of which electrodes are connected, a summator, inputs of which are connected with outputs of amplifiers, and also an additional electrode, at the same time metering electrodes are made in the form of wires with insulated side surface, assembled into a cord or bundle with a polished end, the minimum distance between which and the additional electrode exceeds the size of the turbulence zone, the number of amplifiers is equal to the number of metering electrodes, every of which is connected to the input of the appropriate amplifier, and the additional electrode is connected with the common bus of the metering unit. The additional electrode is made in the form of a hollow metal cylinder installed on the dielectric body, the surface area of which is ten times and more exceeds the total area of the end surface of metering electrodes, at the same time the cord of wires, in the form of which metering electrodes are arranged, is installed inside the second electrode so that its end protrudes beyond the edge of the additional electrode.
EFFECT: increased resolving capacity and increased accuracy of measurement of small-scale fluctuations of flow speed.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a system for monitoring local surface earthquake precursors on a secure territory, having two supply earth terminals connected to a probe current pulse generator, and a system of receiving earth terminals connected to a receiver which is connected to a signal processing unit. The system of receiving earth terminals is formed by N buried electrodes, N-1 of which are arranged uniformly on a circle of diameter D=0.5-0.6 km, and one central electrode placed at the centre of said circle. Radial conductors are connected each of the N-1 electrodes of the system of receiving earth terminals. Electrodes of the supply earth terminals are spaced apart by a distance L=(15-20)D. The system of receiving earth terminals is directed in the plan randomly relative electrodes of the supply earth terminals and lies from the latter at a distance X=(1.5-1.6)L. The probe current pulse generator generates current pulse bursts with frequency of 0.02-0.2 Hz, burst duration of 10-30 s and current in the pulse of 1-10 KA at least twice a day at the same time of the day.
EFFECT: high reliability of information on the hypocentre of an imminent surface earthquake and its parameters, particularly the event time and amplitude estimate.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: complex instrument includes loaded drilling pipe that consists of the first and the second part separated by isolated gap, and distant-measuring cartridge containing distant measuring scheme that includes power source generating voltage drop at isolated gap, and axle current at drilling column that is returned through geologic bed, it also includes isolated measuring electrode connected to the first part and scheme for specific resistance measuring connected in the course of operation to measuring electrode and distant-measuring scheme.
EFFECT: integration of possibilities to measure specific resistance into electro-magnetic distant-measuring instrument and obtaining the data of specific resistance as well as distant measuring.
58 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: at an observation line, two three-electrode electrical soundings are performed using an apparatus comprising four earthing contacts lying on one line symmetrically about the observation point. The fifth earthing contact relates to virtual "infinity" and is connected to one terminal of an electric current source. Central earthing contacts are connected to a voltage measuring device. When taking measurements, outermost power earthing contacts are successively connected to the other terminal of the electric current source. Potential drop Δ UAMN and ΔUA'MN between receiving earthing contacts is measured. The operations are repeated for all given positions of power earthing contacts. Potential drop for vertical electrical sounding and potential drop for unipolar sounding is calculated from the measured potential drop at each observation point for given differences. The distribution of apparent electrical resistance in sections for two three-electrode and vertical sounding and distribution in section of potential drop for unipolar sounding is determined from the measured and calculated potential drops. The results determine the presence and location in the section of geological irregularities.
EFFECT: high efficiency of detecting geological irregularities in the geological environment.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: potentially dangerous area is selected on territory to be analysed. At least three measuring modules are arranged on said area. Every said module consists of radiating electrode, main electrode pair with its one electrode making zero electrode, and at least one additional electrode pair. Said electrode pairs of measuring electrode are arranged at 180°/n to each other where n stands for number of electrode pair. All electrodes are located on one equipotentional line of radiating electrode. Electrodes of one pair are arranged on one line with radiating electrode. Directional diagrams of electrode pairs are plotted. Potential difference is measured between zero electrode and main electrode pair, and other electrodes of appropriate measuring module. Abnormal potential difference and direction diagram are used to determine direction for each measuring module to zone of rocks irregularities. Zone location is defined at intersection of said directions.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and validity.
SUBSTANCE: at the profile points the current is supplied through a pair of feeding electrodes to the earth. Current value and potential difference between pair of receiving electrodes is measured. Feeding electrodes are moved with pitch equal to 1 m symmetrically relative to the centre to limit distance between feeding electrodes, which is determined by the specified investigation depth. As per measurement results the apparent specific resistance is calculated. As per data of apparent specific resistance the graph of its behaviour is built depending on half-spacings of feeding electrodes. Specific resistances of frozen beds are calculated as per apparent specific resistance graph. Percentage of clay in unit volume of rock is calculated as per data of specific resistances of frozen beds by the following formula: where ρclay - specific clay resistance, which in permafrost zone section is characterised as constant value which on average is equal to 100 ohm m, ρfb -specific resistance of frozen bed. Lithologic composition of sand-clay complex of frozen rocks is determined as per clay content.
EFFECT: reducing the cost of operations and improving informativity owing to determining lithologic composition of frozen rocks without any drilling data and using common data on geologic structure of investigation region.
1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: current is cutoff to soil through two point sources. The first source is placed close by vertical interface, and the second is taken to infinity. Position of one equipotential line of electric field is detected. Measuring electrodes is mounted by tangent to equipotential line symmetrically to tangency point of ray lined from auxiliary point presenting mirror reflection of point source relative to interface with specified equipotential. Besides, measuring electrodes can be placed by line, perpendicular to interface symmetrically to power supply provided close by interface. Near to interface there is compensatory point source with current value fixed by parity where I0, Ik are currents from the first and compensatory sources, ΔΨ1MN is differential of the space function that determinates position of measuring electrodes relative to the first source, ΔΨ2MN is differential of space function that determinates position of measuring electrodes relative to compensatory source. Measuring electrodes voltage indicates time variations of resistivity.
EFFECT: simplified positioning of electrical survey unit and improved measurement accuracy.
FIELD: geoelectrical prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to geoelectrical prospecting by the electrical resistance method. The method uses two fixed supplying grounding circuits, the first of them being located in practical infinity, the other one along with two fixed reception grounding circuits being arranged nearby the observation profile, two additional movable grounding circuits located at equal distance from the second supplying grounding circuit. In measurements, in every position of the movable grounding circuits, the latter are connected in turns to a power source or an instrument. On connecting them to the power source, a voltage drop between the fixed reception grounding circuits is measured. On connecting them to instrument and measuring the voltage drop between them, the fixed supplying grounding circuits are connected to electric power source. The aforesaid operations are effected for all preset positions of the movable grounding circuits. Proceeding the measurement results, sections of apparent electrical resistance and voltage drop are plotted to estimate the availability of geoelectrical irregularities in the section.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of revealing geoelectrical irregularities and lower ambiguity in experimental data interpretation.
FIELD: physics; geophysics.
SUBSTANCE: current pulse is excited in the medium under investigation, and parameters of its induced polarisation are defined. Geoelectric section is generated to make a conclusion about the presence of hydrocarbon fields on the basis of abnormal manifestations of induced polarisation parameters. At that, electromagnetic and seismic waves are excited simultaneously or with a time shift. To excite the said waves unipolar rectangular impulses of direct current are generated, their absolute and relative duration depending on parameters of medium under investigation. In the beginning of timing pulse electric field is measured simultaneously at measuring probe groups of two detector lines towed at different depth. Besides, detector line depth and hydroacoustic pressure of seismic source are measured. Also a device is offered, which includes pulse generator, capacitor charging unit, power generator, bank of capacitors, switchboard, seismic emitter, transmitter/receiver line, receiver line, multi-channel gauge, echo-sounder, GPS satellite navigation receiver, signal processor.
EFFECT: higher reliability of research results.
18 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in order to enlarge the range of simultaneous processing and versions of control of a cutting force in the processing zone, formation of destruction zones is performed considering strength characteristics of rock as to width of the processed surface at variation of functional and technological parameters and their rational combination under conditions of selective development of deposits with complex structures. Strength characteristics of rock are fixed by mine rock strength recording sensors connected through a system block to a control system of operation of hydraulic cylinders, and drum balance is provided by distributed offset of hydraulic cylinders. Pressure of working liquid in piston cavities of the hydraulic cylinders is designed for a force required for rotation of turning levers.
EFFECT: increasing productivity, improving reliability and enlarging technological efficiency of destruction of rocks of different strength and coherence degree by controlling a cutting force in a zone of processing and formation in a surface layer of the processed massif of destruction zones considering strength characteristics of rock at selective development of deposits with complex structures by means of open-pit surface miners.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to form a trajectory of excavator bucket motion is carried out with the help of an operation of putting a handle with the bucket into backward motion in the vertical plane in a system of coordinates connected to a boom. At the same time the axis of handle rocking in the specified system of coordinates is fixed. The operation of trajectory curvature control is carried out by change of the distance between the bucket and the axis of handle rocking. At the same time the handle rocking axis fixed in the system of coordinates connected to the boom is moved in the system of coordinates connected with the handle along the circumference arc, the centre of which is at the end of the handle. The proposed method is realised by working equipment comprising a boom, a handle with a bucket rigidly installed on it, a rope mechanism of bucket lift and a discharge mechanism. Besides, the discharge mechanism comprises a yoke, which forms rotating couples with the boom and the handle, and a hydraulic cylinder, the stem and body of which are connected hingedly with the yoke and handle accordingly.
EFFECT: simplified design of a discharge mechanism, at the same time possibility is provided to adjust bucket movement trajectory.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system includes bottom-hole, dumped and intermediate running fixed platforms connected by means of two running lines, two-sided bucket with V-bottom connected to each mast by means of hoisting-hauling line enveloping the corresponding sheave arranged between running lines with possibility of movement relative to each other together with running lines. Intermediate running fixed platform is equipped with two supporting sheaves of running lines and one supporting sheave of hoisting-hauling lines. Rotation axis of hoisting-hauling line sheave has the possibility of being moved along guide curves of running lines.
EFFECT: improving efficiency, reducing the wear of lines and improving environmental conditions owing to equipping the mast of intermediate running fixed platform with the most effective equipment.