Function generator

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: function generator comprises a comparator circuit, a multiplier, a first adder, first and second controlled integrators, an inverter, a relay element, first and second squaring devices, a second adder, a square-root computer and a triangular waveform generator.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities and maintaining high linearity of a triangular waveform with variation of the amplitude of quadrature harmonic signals in a wide range.

2 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to radio engineering and communication and can be used in communication equipment, measuring and computing techniques for quadrature harmonic signals of multiple frequencies and signals different forms of the same frequency.

It is known device [1], comprising a source of quadrature signals, the first and second computing module, the first and second Quad, adder, multiplier, amplifier and shaper bipolar signals of rectangular form, the output of which is connected with the third output of the function generator, a second output of which is connected to the input of the shaper bipolar signals of rectangular shape and with the output of the adder, the first, second, third and fourth inputs connected to the outputs, respectively, of the first transmitter module, the first Quad, the second transmitter module and the second Quad, while the first source output quadrature signals connected to the first input of the multiplier and the input of the first transmitter module and the first Quad to the second source output quadrature signals connected to the second input of the multiplier, and the second inputs of the transmitter module and the second Quad, and an amplifier connected between the output of the multiplier and the first output of the function generator.

The device is formed of si is Nala sinusoidal, triangular in shape, as well as bipolar rectangular signal. The formation of the triangular signal is only possible if a fixed (stable) value of the amplitude of the source quadrature signals.

The closest device to the claimed invention, the set of essential characteristics is adopted as the prototype of the function generator [2], which contains a comparison circuit, a multiplier, a first adder, the first and second driven integrators, inverter, relay element, the first and second Quad, the second integrator and calculator square root, included between the output of the second adder and the second input of the comparison circuit, the output of which is connected to the first input of the multiplier, the output of which is connected to the first input of the first adder, the output of which is connected to the first input of the first controlled integrator, the output of which is connected to the first input of the second controlled integrator, the input of the inverter, the input of the first Quad and the first output of the function generator, the second output of which is connected to a second input of the first adder, the output of the second integrator and managed the input of the second Quad, the output of which is connected to the second input of the second adder, a first input connected to the output of the first Quad, the inverter output is connected to the input of the unctuous element, the output of which is connected to the second input of the multiplier and the third output of the function generator, the first control bus which is connected to the second inputs of the first and second managed integrators and second control bus function generator connected to the first input of the comparison circuit.

The device generated signals are sinusoidal, triangular, and bipolar rectangular signal. The drawback of the device should include the inability to maintain high linearity of the synthesized signal of a triangular shape when changing (adjusting) the amplitude of the quadrature signals.

The problem to which the invention is directed, is to expand the functionality of the device and maintaining high linearity of the triangular signal when the change in the amplitude quadrature harmonic signals in a wide range.

This technical result in the implementation of the invention is achieved by the functional generator that contains a comparison circuit, a multiplier, a first adder, the first and second driven integrators, inverter, relay element, the first and second Quad, the second integrator and calculator square root, included between the output of the second adder and the second input of the comparison circuit, the output of which podklyucheniya the input of the multiplier, the output of which is connected to the first input of the first adder, the output of which is connected to the first input of the first controlled integrator, the output of which is connected to the first input of the second controlled integrator, the input of the inverter, the input of the first Quad and the first output of the function generator, the second output of which is connected to a second input of the first adder, the output of the second integrator and managed the input of the second Quad, the output of which is connected to the second input of the second adder, a first input connected to the output of the first Quad, the inverter output is connected to the input of the relay element, the output of which is connected to the second input of the multiplier and the third output of the function generator, the first control bus which is connected to the second inputs of the first and second managed integrators and second control bus function generator connected to the first input of the comparison circuit, inputs of the driver signal of a triangular shape, the first and second inputs of which are connected to the outputs, respectively, of the first and second managed integrators, third, and fourth outputs of the shaper signal of a triangular shape connected to the outputs, respectively, of the second and first Quad and to the output of the calculator square root is connected to the fifth input forms is routes Segal triangular shape, the first and second outputs which are connected, respectively, with the fourth and fifth outputs of the function generator.

When the driver signal of a triangular shape made of the first and second computing module, the first and second vychitala, the third adder and divider, the output of which is connected to a second input of the third adder and the second output driver signal of a triangular shape, the first output of which is connected to the output of the third adder, a first input of which is connected to the output of the first myCitadel, the output of the second vicites connected to the first input of the divider, the first transmitter module connected between the first input of the shaper signal is triangular in shape and the first input of the first myCitadel, while the third and fourth inputs of the driver signal of a triangular shape are connected, respectively, with the first and second inputs of the second myCitadel, and between the second input of the shaper signal of a triangular shape and the second input of the first vicites included a second transmitter module.

Conducted by the applicant's analysis of the prior art, including searching by the patent and scientific and technical information sources, has allowed to establish that the applicant had not discovered similar, characterized by signs, identical with all the essential features of the claimed invention. Therefore, the claimed the second invention meets the condition of "novelty."

Introduction in the proposed functional generator shaper signal is triangular in shape, made of two solvers module, two vychitala, adder and divider, as well as the organization of new connections between the functional elements allowed us to extend the functionality of the device and to maintain a high linearity of the triangular signal when the change in the amplitude quadrature harmonic signals in a wide range.

The invention is illustrated the block diagram of the functional generator (Fig.1) and graphs (Fig.2 - Fig.4) explaining the principle of the function generator.

Function generator contains a comparison circuit 1, multiplier 2, the first adder 3, the first 4 and second 5 managed integrators, the inverter 6, the relay element 7, the first 8 and second 9 Quad, the second adder 10, the calculator square root 11 and the driver signal of a triangular shape 14 made of the first 15 and second 16 solvers module, the first 17 and second 18 vychitala, the third adder 19 and divider 20, and the calculator square root 11 included between the output of the second adder 10 and the second input of the comparison circuit 1, the output of which is connected to the first input of the multiplier 2, the output of which is connected to the first input of the first adder 3, the output of which is connected to the first input of the first is about the controlled integrator 4, the output of which is connected to the first input of the second controlled integrator 5, the input of the inverter 6, the input of the first Quad 8, the first input of the shaper signal of the triangular form 14 and the first output of the function generator, the second output of which is connected to a second input of the first adder 3, the output of the second controlled integrator 5, the second input of the shaper signal of the triangular form 14 and the input of the second Quad 9, the output of which is connected to the third input of the shaper signal of the triangular form 14 and the second input of the second adder 10, the first input connected to the output of the first Quad 8 and the fourth input of the shaper signal of a triangular shape 14, the first and second outputs which are connected, respectively, with the fourth and fifth outputs of the function generator, the third output of which is connected to the second input of the multiplier 2 and the output relay element 7, the inlet of which is connected to the output of the inverter 6, while the second inputs of the first 4 and second 5 managed integrators connected to the first control bus 12 function generator, the second control bus which is connected to the first input of the comparison circuit 1, and to the output of the calculator square root 11 connected to the fifth input of the shaper signal of the triangular form 14, the first and second inputs of which are connected with inputs, rela is estwenno, the first 15 and second 16 calculators modules, third and fourth inputs of the driver signal of the triangular form 14 are connected, respectively, with first and second inputs of the second vicites 18, the output of which is connected to the first input of the divider 20, the output of which is connected to a second input of the third adder 19 and the second output driver signal of a triangular shape 14, to the first output of which is connected to the output of the third adder 19, the first input connected to the output of the first vicites module 17, the first and second inputs of which are connected to the outputs, respectively, of the first 15 and second 16 calculators modules.

Functional generator works as follows.

Connected in series and enclosed in the ring of the first 4 and second 5 managed integrators, and the first adder 3 form an oscillatory system (CS) with two outputs (Fig.1). The first 8 and second 9 Quad, the second adder 10 and the transmitter of the square root of 11 form a voltage sensor (NAM). Oscillatory system, voltage sensor, relay element 7 with the inverter 6, the comparison circuit 1 and multiplier 2 form a double-loop automatic control system (ATS).

When applying control voltages Efand E0to corresponding inputs 12 and 13 of the SAR at the outputs of the first 4 and second 5 managed integrators, that is, the second is m, and the third outputs of the function generator, after transients are installed (Fig.2) harmonic oscillations N1(t) and N2(f) shifted relative to each other by 90 El. degrees

N1(t)=Asin(ω0t),N2(t)=Acos(ω0t),(1)

where A is the amplitude, ω0- circular frequency signals N1(t) and N2(t) associated with a cyclic frequency f0known value for ω0=2πf0.

Frequency f0is determined by the voltage value of Effed to the input 12, and the amplitude value A - value of the reference voltage E0submitted to the second input 13 of the functional generator.

Output relay element 7 of the inverted signal of N1(t) a signal is generated N3(t), which is supplied to the first output of the function generator.

Voltage sensor works as follows.

Upon receipt of the signal N1(t) to the input of the first Quad 8 and the signal of the N2(t) at the input of the second Quad 9 at the output of the second adder 10 formiruet the Xia signal

E1=k1m1A2sin2(ω0t)+m2k2A2cos2(ω0t),(2)

where k1and k2- transfer coefficients of the second adder 10, respectively, the first and the second input; m1and m2- transfer coefficients, respectively, of the first 8 and second 9 Quad.

When k1m1=k2m2=1 the expression (2) is simplified

E1=A2[sin2(ω0t)+cos2(ω0t)]=A2.(3)

At the output of the solver square root of 11, i.e. at the output of NAM, formed a constant signal E2, the amplitude of which is equal to amplit is A de quadrature signals N 1(t) and N2(t), that is, E3=A.

The output of the comparison circuit 1, a signal is generated mismatch

Ue(t)=k3E0-k4E2=k3E0-k4A,(4)

where k3and k4the transmission ratios of the comparison circuit 1, respectively, with the first and second entry.

When k3=k4=1 the error signal Ue(t) will be equal to the difference between the reference signal E0and signal E2sensor voltage, that is, Ue(t)=E0-A.

With increasing (decreasing) the amplitude of A quadrature signal N1(t) and N2(t) will increase (decrease) of the error signal Ue(t).

The presence of negative feedback will restore the previous values of the amplitude values of the quadrature signals, which will be different from the reference (setpoint) values of E0the magnitude of the error control. The presence of the integrating (static) links in a closed SAR reduces the regulatory failure (the error signal) to almost zero.

R is smotrim principle of formation of quasi-linear signal triangular N 4(t).

The output of the first transmitter module 15 is formed a signalS1=|N1(t)|that comes on the first (non-inverting) input of the first vicites 17, and the output of the second transmitter module 16 - signalS2=|N2(t)|that goes to the second (inverting) input of the first vicites 17 (Fig.3).

The resulting sum signals S1and S2the output of the first vicites 17 is formed quasilinear signal

M1(t)=k5|N1(t)|-k6|N2(t)|=[k5|Asin(ω0t)|-k6|Acos(ω0t)| ],(5)

where k5and k6- transfer coefficients of the first vicites 17 by the first and second inputs, respectively.

When k5=k6=1 the amplitude signal M1(t) will be equal to the amplitude value of A signal of N1(t) and N2(t).

In Fig.3 graphs illustrating the principle of the formation of the synthesized signal M1(t), for the normalized amplitude value A*=1. The value of the current angle x=ω0t is expressed in radians.

The period T0the main harmonics of the signal M1(t) is determined by the frequency ω0

T0=1/f0=2π/ω0,

therefore, the frequency of the fundamental wave ω1the synthesized signal is triangular M1(t) equal to twice the frequency value ω0quadrature signals N1(t) and N2(t)

ω1=2ω0(or f1=2f0).

In the sections "forward stroke" (from zero to π/2) and "reverse" (from π/2 to π) signal M1(t) is S-shaped characteristics, i.e. it is a "quasi-linear".

Linearization of the signal M1(t) as follows.

The output of the second vicites 18 is formed corrective signal

M2(t)=k m2A2cos2(ω0t)-k8m1A2sin2(ω0t).(6)

where k7and k8- transfer coefficients of the second vicites 18, respectively, the first and second entry.

When k7m2=k8m1=1 the expression (6) is simplified

M2(t)=A2[cos2(ω0t)-sin2(ω0t)]=A2cos(2ω0t)=A2cos(ω1t),(7)

where ω1=2ω0- frequency harmonic signal M2(t), is equal to twice the frequency value ω0quadrature signals N1(t) and N 2(t).

From (7) it follows that between the amplitude signal M2(t) and the amplitude of A quadrature signal N1(t) and N2(t) there is a nonlinear (quadratic) dependence. While at the first input of the third adder 19 is supplied to the synthesized signal M1(t), the amplitude of which is exactly equal to the amplitude value of A quadrature signal N1(t) and N2(t).

When signal M2(t) cosine form directly to the second input of the third adder 19 at its output will be generated "virtual" signal "V(t), i.e. the signal obtained in the absence of the divider 20

"V(t)"=k9M1(t)+k10M2(t).(8)

For the normalized amplitude value A*=1 quadrature signals N1(t) and N2(t) the optimal value of the gain of the adder 19 to the first input is equal to 1.25. The gain of the adder 19 to the second input in this case is selected

K9A*-k 10A*2=1.(9)

For normalized (stable) amplitude value A*=1 quadrature signals N1(t) and N2(t) the relation is valid:

k11-k12=1.(10)

In that case, if the amplitude of A quadrature signal N1(t) and N2(t) will change (increase or decrease), then the expression (10) will not be correct and the calculation of the coefficients k9and k10should be carried out according to the formula (9).

In this case, for a given optimal values of the transfer coefficient k9adder 19, the optimal value of the gear ratio

k10=(k9A-1)/A2.(11)

From (11) there is a need in the nonlinear correction coefficient k10when you change the amp is itudy A quadrature signal N 1(t) and N2(t), that will significantly complicate the practical implementation of such corrective devices.

The divider 20 can significantly simplify the implementation of a corrective device.

To the second input of the divider 20 from the output of the transmitter to the square root of 11 is supplied a constant voltage E2, the amplitude of which is exactly equal to the amplitude of A quadrature signal N1(t) and N2(t).

At the output of divider 20 is formed (Fig.2) signal cosine form

Sk(t)=M2(t)/Em=A2cos(ω1t)/A=Acos(ω1t),(12)

which goes to the fifth output of the function generator and to the second input of the third adder 19, with N5(t)=Sk(t).

The resulting sum signal M1(t) and Sk(t) at the output of the adder 19 is formed (Fig.4) signal

N4(t)=k9M1(t) +k10Sk(t),(13)

which goes to the fourth output of the function generator (Fig.1).

Since the amplitude of the correction signal Sk(t) now becomes equal to the value of A, then there are no problems with the synthesized correction signal M1(t), and if any changes the amplitude of A quadrature signal N1(t) and N2(t), that is, when the adjustment will remain high linearity signal triangular N4(t).

Introduction corrective signal Sk(t) cosine shape to the second input of the adder 19 and the choice of the optimal values of the coefficients k9and k10adder 19 helped to improve significantly (more than 20 times) the linearity of the signal at the fourth output of the function generator (Fig.4).

The use of the present invention will allow to extend the functionality of the device and ensure its efficiency when changing the amplitude quadrature signals in a wide range.

Sources of information

1. RF patent 101291, IPC7H03B 27/00. Functional generator / Dubrovin B. C., Zyuzin, A. M.; applicant and patentee Negosudarstvennon the e scientific-educational institution "Saransk House science and technology of the Russian Union of scientific and engineering public organizations" (now "Saransk House of science and technology, RCNYO"). No. 2010137125/09; Appl. 06.09.2010; publ. 10.01.11, bull. No. 1. - 8 S.: 5 Il.

2. Dubrovin C. C. multi-circuit stabilization system operated generator / C. S. Dubrovin, B. C. Nikulin // Vestnik of Astrakhan state technical University. Series: Control, computing and Informatics. - 2013. No. 1. - S. 74-82.

1. Functional generator that contains a comparison circuit, a multiplier, a first adder, the first and second driven integrators, inverter, relay element, the first and second Quad, the second integrator and calculator square root, included between the output of the second adder and the second input of the comparison circuit, the output of which is connected to the first input of the multiplier, the output of which is connected to the first input of the first adder, the output of which is connected to the first input of the first controlled integrator, the output of which is connected to the first input of the second controlled integrator, the input of the inverter, the input of the first Quad and the first output of the function generator, the second output of which is connected to a second input of the first adder, the output of the second integrator and managed the input of the second Quad, the output of which is connected to the second input of the second adder, a first input connected to the output of the first Quad, the inverter output is connected to the input of the relay element, the output of which is on connected to a second input of the multiplier and the third output of the function generator, the first control bus which is connected to the second inputs of the first and second managed integrators and second control bus function generator connected to the first input of the comparison circuit, characterized in that it introduced the shaper signal of a triangular shape, the first and second inputs of which are connected to the outputs, respectively, of the first and second managed integrators, third, and fourth outputs of the shaper signal of a triangular shape connected to the outputs, respectively, of the second and first Quad and to the output of the calculator square root connected to the fifth input of the shaper signal of a triangular shape, the first and second outputs which are connected, respectively, with the fourth and fifth outputs of the function generator.

2. Functional generator under item 1, wherein the driver signal of a triangular shape made of the first and second computing module, the first and second vychitala, the third adder and divider, the output of which is connected to a second input of the third adder and the second output driver signal of a triangular shape, the first output of which is connected to the output of the third adder, a first input of which is connected to the output of the first myCitadel, the output of the second vicites connected to the first input of the divider, the first computer module among the at the first input of the shaper signal is triangular in shape and the first input of the first myCitadel, thus the third and fourth inputs of the driver signal of a triangular shape are connected, respectively, with first and second inputs of the second myCitadel, and between the second input of the shaper signal of a triangular shape and the second input of the first vicites included a second transmitter module.



 

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