Dispenser for nozzle irrigation

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: dispenser for nozzle irrigation in rectification and adsorption towers include the system of liquid delivery to the dispenser in the form channels with rectangular cross-section and openings in the lateral walls matched to groves shaped as triangle in standard cross-section for the purpose of liquid phase draining, in their lower part there are splitters for liquid jets as a bundle of dispersing elements matched in the lower part of the grooves with upper ends of the dispersing elements oriented downwards by the lower ends. The dispersing elements are placed at angle α in regard to each other and their length L is divided by the following formula: , where L is length of a dispersing element; a is a channel width, mm; b is a groove width, mm; N is a number of dispersing elements, pieces; α is the angle between dispersing elements, degrees.

EFFECT: invention allows increasing square area and uniformity of irrigation for the mass-exchanging nozzle.

3 cl, 5 dwg, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to the distribution device, which should provide an even distribution of liquid over the surface of the nozzle, and can be used in distillation and absorption columns in the petrochemical, oil and gas chemical and other industries.

Known distribution device for irrigation nozzles in the columns, including the supply of fluid in the dispenser in the form of a channel of rectangular cross-section with holes capillary type in the side walls (Leont'ev B. C. "Innovation in the development of high-intensity mass transfer devices for retrofit of distillation systems" (Electronic scientific journal "Oil and gas business", 2012, №1, S. 178-186)). The disadvantages of using capillary multipoint distribution of the liquid flow for columns of different diameters are:

- uneven distribution of the liquid phase on the surface of the nozzle in communication with the point of fluid flow through the system remote from each other capillaries;

- the possibility of driving capillary hole equipment corrosion products and resinous substances in irrigating fluid;

- large hydraulic resistance of the capillaries in connection with a small orifice, which dramatically reduces the flow of irrigating the liquids and through the capillary hole and requires an increase in pressure of the liquid channel of the distributor, which leads to the need to increase the liquid level in the channel and increase the height of the channel and, consequently, to increase the material dispenser;

- channels of the distributor take about 50% of the living section of the column and at the expiration of liquid through the capillary channels directly irrigated only 5-20% mirrors nozzles and only then is the alignment of the irrigation nozzles with fluid already in the deep layer of the nozzle, which reduces the efficiency of mass transfer in the upper layer of the nozzle is proportional to the area of its wettability by the liquid on the layer height of the nozzle columns of and, respectively, causes a decrease in efficiency of Packed layer at the site and all attachments in General. When applying this distributor have the height of the nozzles to perform more than on calculation, otherwise there will be achieved the required sharpness of separation.

Known distribution device for irrigation nozzles in the columns, including the supply of fluid in the dispenser in the form of a channel of rectangular cross-section with holes in the side walls between the channels are guides to the plane, made of metallic fabric or exhaust grid with small cells associated with a distribution chute (patent RU 2334551 C2, B01J 4/00, B01D 3/00, 27.09.2008). The shortcomings of the present invention are:

- complex structure of liquid phase distribution on the nozzle in the column, consisting of a large number of structural elements, which increases switchgear;

- multi-stage multi-move irrigation liquid from the supply channel to the liquid in the column before the expiration of irrigation on the mirror head, which consists of stages of fluid outflow through far spaced apart openings in the channel, stage discharge of the formed liquid jets along the guide plane, the stage of accumulation of fluid in the distribution chute and the stages of its expiration at the edge of the guide plane;

- uneven leakage of the fluid from the distribution device to the mirror layer of the nozzle, because the zones of leakage of the fluid along the edge of the guide plane for a system of interconnecting channels of rectangular cross-section spaced from each other in significant structural distance, which even when forming a drip of fluid outflow from the edges of the guide surfaces formed zone drip expiration irrigate only a slight mirror surface layer of the nozzle, and only then, is the alignment of the irrigation nozzles with fluid already in the deep layer of the nozzle, which reduces the efficiency of mass transfer in the upper layer of the nozzle is proportional to the area of its wettability by the liquid on the heights of the layer of the nozzle columns, and accordingly, causes a decrease in efficiency of Packed layer as a whole;

- the presence of the guide plate leads to the reduction of the free cross section in the column in the area of the distribution device and, consequently, to the increase of the hydraulic resistance during the passage of the vapor phase, which increases the pressure drop in the column and leads to additional energy consumption for the implementation of the mass transfer process in the column.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result to the proposed technical solution is the distribution system for irrigation nozzles in distillation and absorption columns, including the supply of fluid in the dispenser in the form of a channel of rectangular cross-section with holes in the side walls, paired with gutters to drain the liquid phase formed by a set of U-shaped and V-shaped plates, in which the liquid flows on the three surfaces of the grooves in the drip mode and then distributed over the surface of the nozzle (Patent US 4,909,967, B01F 3/04, 20.03.1990). The disadvantages of this invention are:

- the possibility of twisting streams of liquid at the outlet of the chute triangular cross-section in the steam space and education due to this chaotic expiration of the liquid at the nozzle. The absence of any regulated is of the nature of the leakage of the fluid on the cut gutters can cause expiration in the form of one large jet or two or three considerably different flow rate from each other. This especially occurs when the flow rate is extremely small. As a result, the heterogeneity of the wetting nozzles;

- limited uniform distribution of liquid over the surface of the nozzle, in view of the possibility of creating a small number of irrigation at 100 points per 1 m2the nozzle, because the system is substantially remote from each other gutters to ensure the passage of vapor;

- the possibility of driving holes rectangular channel equipment corrosion products and resinous substances in irrigating fluid;

- execution of channels with side holes in the walls for flow of fluid and troughs formed by the set of U-shaped and V-shaped plates, complicates the possibility of leveling the whole structure of the distributor to achieve a uniform irrigation in substantially remote from each other parts of the nozzle. Also the design of the dispenser is complicated and cumbersome and takes a big enough height in the column;

- large hydraulic resistance due to the small orifice dramatically reduces the flow of irrigating fluid through the hole and requires an increase in pressure of the liquid channel of the distributor, which leads to the need to increase the liquid level in the channel and increase the height of the channel and, as a consequence the vié, the increase in material dispenser;

- channels of the distributor take about 40% of the living section of the column and at the expiration of fluid through the gutter directly irrigated only 5-20% mirrors nozzles and only then is the alignment of the irrigation nozzles with fluid already in the deep layer of the nozzle, which reduces the efficiency of mass transfer in the upper layer of the nozzle is proportional to the area of its nonwettability liquid on the layer height of the nozzle and, accordingly, causes a decrease in efficiency of Packed layer as a whole.

The technical problem of the invention is to create a distribution device for irrigation nozzles in distillation and absorption columns due to the dispersion of liquid streams flowing from the distribution device.

The problem is solved in that the distribution unit for irrigation nozzles in distillation and absorption columns, including the supply of fluid in the dispenser in the form of a channel of rectangular cross-section with holes in the side walls, paired with gutters to drain the liquid phase in the lower part of the chute is placed dividers liquid jets in the form of a bundle of dispersive elements having a pair in the bottom of the grooves of the upper ends of the dispersing elements and aimed at the from the lower ends.

Accommodation at the bottom of the trough dividers liquid jets in the form of a bundle of dispersive elements having a pair in the bottom of the grooves of the upper ends of the dispersing elements and aimed down bottom ends, provides crushing of the liquid film flowing down a chute to a separate local streams and drops, which leads to the irrigation nozzles in distillation and absorption columns beneath the chute area substantially larger area of a normal section of the trench that forms a large extent uniform irrigation nozzles.

The distance from the hole in the wall of the channel of rectangular cross-section to the opposite surface of the trench is less than the length of the departure streams of liquid from the hole in the wall of the channel, thus providing a pouring streams of liquid on the surface of the trench to form a thin film of liquid flowing across the surface of the chute under the influence of gravity, irrigating at least a section of the nozzle in distillation and absorption columns located under the chute area not less than the square of a normal section of the gutter, otherwise liquid jet misses on the wall of the trough and flows down an arbitrary stream, which leads to point irrigation beneath the spout of a small area of the nozzle in distillation and absorption number is nah. For example, when the side gutters 1.0 cm and the diameter of the hole in the wall of the channel 0.2 cm size of the irrigation nozzles in distillation and absorption columns when leakage of liquid from the hole arbitrary stream of 12.7 times less than in the bulk of the jet on the surface of the trench and further flows along the surface of the trench at the nozzle.

Dispersing elements of the switchgear are placed at an angle α relative to each other, while the value of the angle α depends on the magnitude of the coefficient of surface tension of the liquid, ensuring the formation of a thin arcuate concave liquid films flowing down the upper part of the beam dispersive elements, which, gradually refining expansion of the liquid film between two adjacent toothed elements, is divided into separate drops and microstroke, which partially slide over the surface of the dispersing element, and partly frustrated with them and fall down to the surface of the nozzle in distillation and absorption columns, forming a large area multi-point irrigation nozzles.

The length of the dispersive element is determined by the formula:

where L is the length of the dispersive element;

a - channel width, mm;

b - trough width, mm;

N is the number of dispersive elements, PCs;

α - the angle between the dispersive elements, hail,

this creates such a set of dispersive elements in the distributor that extreme dispersing elements of two adjacent grooves create points of contact of the liquid streams flowing from adjacent grooves, forming a flow of irrigating fluid across the surface mass transfer packing in distillation and absorption columns.

It is also the design of the trough in its bottom part to perform in the form of a drip. In a production environment there are situations when, in accordance with the technology of mass transfer columns with the nozzle it is necessary to reduce consumption, irrigation, and the level of fluid in a channel of rectangular cross-section will be reduced, resulting in reduction of the pressure of the fluid in the channel. Reducing the pressure of the liquid can lead to the fact that when flying a jet of liquid from the hole in the side wall of the channel it will not be able to reach the opposite acute angle triangular trough and begins to fall a point, quite arbitrarily, and will not get on the beam dispersing elements. The presence of the drip edge eliminates this disadvantage, directing arbitrarily flowing stream of liquid on the beam dispersing elements.

In Fig. 1 shows a distribution device for irrigation nozzles in distillation and absorption the s columns of the prototype.

In Fig. 2 shows the distribution of local jets on the surface of the nozzle in distillation and absorption columns of the prototype.

In Fig. 3 shows a distribution device for irrigation nozzles in distillation and absorption columns with a beam dispersing elements.

In Fig. 4 shows the distribution of local jets on the surface of the nozzle in distillation and absorption columns by the present invention.

In Fig. 5 shows a device for testing the switchgear on the prototype and the claimed invention.

In Fig. 1-5 shows the distribution device, consisting of the following elements:

1 - channel of rectangular cross-section,

2 - groove of triangular cross-section,

3 - beam dispersive elements,

4 - the surface of the nozzle.

The distribution device according to the present invention is as follows: the liquid fills the channel of rectangular cross-section 1, which has openings in the side walls located at a certain distance from each other, the stream of liquid coming out of these holes and into the groove of triangular cross-section 2, where the dissection of the jet and the formation of a film of fluid flow. Next, for uniform distribution of fluid flow in the lower part of the trench has a beam dispersing elements 3, the Hanks are provided with the fragmentation of the liquid film, flowing down the chute on a separate local streams and drops, which leads to the maximum surface irrigation nozzles 4.

As can be seen from Fig.1 liquid droplets resulting from the V-shaped channel and enters the upper part of the nozzle in distillation and absorption columns of the prototype, do not provide uniform distribution of fluid flow over the surface of the nozzle due to the twisting streams of liquid at the outlet of the chute triangular cross-section. This leads to the nonwettability significant part of the surface mass transfer nozzle. In Fig.3 according to the present invention uses an additional dispersive element, which achieved full irrigation surface of the upper part of the nozzle in distillation and absorption columns. Depending on the surface tension of the liquid, the angle α from the dispersion element will be different.

In Fig. 2 and 4 options for the distribution of fluid flow on mass transfer nozzle in distillation and absorption columns of the prototype and the claimed invention, with part of the layer height of the nozzle H1the prototype does not provide a uniform distribution of the liquid in layer mass transfer nozzle (Fig. 2), and the claimed invention required uniform distribution of liquid over the surface mass transfer nozzles in rectifi is sure and absorption columns is provided, the height of the layer of the nozzle H2(Fig. 4), which may cause a slight uneven distribution of fluid flow in the upper part of the nozzle, substantially less than, respectively, the layer height of the nozzle H1the prototype (Fig. 2), which should lead to increased efficiency of mass transfer packing in distillation and absorption columns when using the dispenser of fluid flow by the present invention in comparison with the prototype by 3-5%.

Example 1. In Fig.5 (left panel) presents the test bench switchgear on the prototype, including the channel of rectangular cross section 1 and the groove of triangular cross-section 2. As can be seen from Fig.5, the diameter of the jet dispersion (D1is negligible and approximately 4,0 mm Therefore, the area of point dispersion is 12,56 mm2.

Example 2. In Fig.5 (right side) stand for testing of the switchgear according to the present invention, including a channel of rectangular cross section 1, the groove of triangular cross-section 2 and the beam dispersion element 3. As can be seen from Fig.5, the diameter of the jet dispersion (D2much higher than in experiments with a prototype, and approximately 30,0 mm Therefore, the area of point dispersion is 706,5 mm2.

From the who's examples, the irrigated area of mass transfer packing in distillation and absorption columns with a beam dispersing elements 56 times higher than the irrigated area of mass exchange nozzles without their use.

Thus, the claimed invention provides greater uniformity of the wetting liquid nozzle irrigation.

1. Switchgear for irrigation nozzles in distillation and absorption columns, including the supply of fluid in the dispenser in the form of a channel of rectangular cross-section with holes in the side walls, paired with gutters, normal cross-section having the shape of a triangle, for flow of the liquid phase, characterized in that the lower part of the chute is placed dividers liquid jets in the form of a bundle of dispersive elements having a pair in the bottom of the grooves of the upper ends of the dispersing elements and aimed down bottom ends, the distance from the hole in the wall of the channel of rectangular cross-section to the opposite surface of the trench is less than the length of the departure streams of liquid from the hole in the wall of the channel, dispersing elements are positioned at an angle α relative to each other, and the length of the dispersive element L is determined by the formula:
.
where L is the length of the dispersive element;
a - channel width, mm;
b - trough width, m is;
N is the number of dispersive elements, pieces;
α is the angle between the dispersive elements, hail.

2. Switchgear for irrigation nozzles in distillation and absorption columns under item 1, characterized in that the angle α depends on the surface tension of the liquid.

3. Switchgear for irrigation nozzles in distillation and absorption columns under item 1, characterized in that the design of the trough in its bottom part may be made in the form of drip edge.



 

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