Method of conducting collisional nuclear reactions based on channelling effect of nuclear particles and radiation in interstitial phases and endohedral structures

FIELD: physics, atomic power.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of conducting nuclear reactions. The disclosed method is characterised by that channelled nuclear particles, ions or radiation are focused at a certain point of a channel in the crystal lattice of an interstitial phase, nanotubes or beyond the boundaries thereof. In interstitial phases or selected endohedral structures, the interstitial atoms also occupy said regions as a result of adsorption processes at the channel output, diffusion on the channels or pre-implantation into channels. In case of pre-implantation into channels, the implanted nucleus must have a certain energy E1, sufficient for the nucleus, after stopping, to reach a point where the next nucleus with a higher energy passes based on the focusing conditions. The next nucleus, entering the same channel with energy E2, which is higher than the energy E1 by a value greater than the nuclear reaction threshold, must reach a point where the first nucleus stopped with energy which is equal to or greater than the nuclear reaction threshold. The target device for a neutron tube used in the method includes a cooled target mounted in a housing (1), having a layered structure, in which a lithium-6 deuteride layer (3) is placed on a cooled monocrystalline substrate (2) under a thin layer of monocrystalline palladium (4); the target is bombarded with tritium nuclei.

EFFECT: creating conditions for increasing efficiency of nuclear reactions.

2 tbl, 7 dwg

 

3.2.4.1. The technical field to which the invention relates.

The invention relates to accelerator technology, more particularly, to a neutron generators, but can be applied as a way of implementing any collisional nuclear reactions, and as one of the ways of realization of controlled thermonuclear fusion. It can be applied to all known devices: accelerators, nuclei and elementary particles, accelerator neutron tube in the composition of neutron generators, plasma installations, installation of the implant. An advantage of the invention is the possibility of obtaining polarized focused beam of neutrons or protons due to the effect of channeling. In the case of application of the invention in devices for energy by fusion or with the aim of obtaining isotopes of chemical elements possible application of the invention in a diagram similar to the magnetron sputtering in high vacuum discharge or direct-current discharge in a magnetron geometry using monocrystalline targets a large area.

Classes inventions:

G21K 1/00 Methods and devices for manipulating particles or ionizing radiation,

G21B 1/00 Reactors for nuclear fusion,

G21G 1/00 Conversion of chemical elements; sources of radioactivity,

NN 6/00 is iseni to conduct nuclear reactions.

3.2.4.2. The level of technology.

In the patent literature there are several patents on "Methods of implementation of thermonuclear reactions...". This RF patents that are listed in the two following tables.

Among the devices, in which, one way or another are ways of making nuclear reactions, closest to the invention prior art accelerator neutron tube {see, for example:

RF patent №2065671 (1991, Kiryanov, I.; Malinin Y. N.; Silnikov E. C.; Shiromuku S. C. Accelerator neutron tube);

RF patent №2054717 (1993, Kozlowski K. I., Parwich C. A., Pulsed neutron generator);

RF patent №2198441 (2000, all-Russian research Institute of automatics, Pleshakova R. P., Pulsed neutron tube);

RF patent №2372755 (2008, Federal state unitary enterprise "all-Russian research Institute of automatics named. N. L. Spirit", Bogolyubov E. P., Vasin B. C., Gas-filled neutron tube, the source of the penning)}.

The earliest sources on which the author can refer to:

1. P. O. Howkins, Rev. Sci. Instr., (1960), v.31, №3, 241;

2. Yoshiaki A., Yue-Chanc Z. Achievement of an intense cold fusion reaction. - Fusion Technology, (1990), v.l8, No. 1, pp.95-102.

3. Karabut, A. B. and other Nuclear reaction at the cathode in a gas discharge. Technical physics letters, 1990, I. 16, No. 12, S. 53-57}.

Also p is myshlennostj produced installation for coating by sputtering technique in high-voltage gas discharge with the application of DC or high-frequency voltage and the magnetic field of the accelerator neutron of the tube. In particular, Federal state unitary enterprise "Plant elektrohimpribor" serially produces pulsed neutron tube G-R, G-R, TIS-5.

These devices combines the manner in which the nuclear reaction: solid target containing the active nucleus is bombarded accelerated nuclei emitted from the gas discharge or from another solid target.

In part, on the intended nature of the proceeding in the target process, to the invention of the close of the invention relating to fusion using the proposed catalysis thermonuclear fusion reactions of hydrogen in heavy-fermion compounds {see table RF patent №2145122, (1997, Olendzki O. L., Therese A. Y. the Method of conducting the reaction of low-temperature nuclear fusion in systems with heavy fermions"}. Partial screening of the charges stalkivalsia nuclei by electrons matrix will undoubtedly contribute to the reduction in the threshold of the synthesis reaction.

As devices that can be implemented with the invention, as the method of implementation of the collisional nuclear reactions, can also be accelerators, plasma installation in the high-frequency sputtering or DC gas discharge, accelerator neutron tube. Obviously, the timing of the first ways of making collisional nuclear reactions about what is worn by the first half of the 20th century - the inception of the first cyclotrons [E. O. Lowrence, N. E. Edlefson, Science, 72, 376, 1930; E. O. Lawrence, D. Coxey, Advances in physical Sciences (8), 1932].

This is obvious and previously known method, the core-target was solid in limbo, and encountered him another kernel or elementary particle, moving also uncertain terms even sub-atomic scales trajectory. The proposed method of implementation of nuclear reactions is based on the certainty of the position of the target nucleus and certainty trajectory bombarding nuclei or particles.

The closest analogue 1.

The invention is defined by expertise, EN 2237297 C2, Tajibaeva N. W. "THE WAY OF REALIZATION OF THERMONUCLEAR FUSION REACTIONS". According to its abstract, this invention relates to the field of nuclear physics, namely the promotion of the processes of fusion and management, and can be used in experimental nuclear physics, solid state physics and crystals, in nuclear power. In the way of realization of thermonuclear fusion reactions, including the effect of nuclear tunneling of the particle through the Coulomb barrier, get colliding beams of accelerated nuclei or ions of the light atoms incident on the target, for example, beams of isotopes of hydrogen, helium or lithium. In doing so, the channeling of the colliding beams UIC is indigenous nuclei inside the target so to the collision of these cores was in the path of the channeling. As a target used a special medium, having an orderly internal structure and the focusing property, such as crystals. The technical result - the empowering realization of thermonuclear fusion reactions and the energy of nuclear fusion reactions of particles channeled in a crystal.

The disadvantage of this invention is the use of planar channeling, neglecting the motion of canaliculi nuclei in the channels for the passage of the colliding beams through the crystal, the lack of clear and precise criteria for the selection of the crystal, which is produced thermonuclear reaction, neglecting the fact that, in the geometry of the bulk of particles colliding beams passes the channels in turn. The invention eliminates all these disadvantages, increasing the effective density beams of more than a billion times by fixing the nucleus of the target relative to the channel and bombarding the nucleus.

The closest analogue 2.

Of these patents is closest to the claimed invention are shown in table 2 RF patent №2022373 (1991, Romodanov C. A.; Savin C. I.; Smertnik J. B.; Shaharin M. C. research Institute Scientific-production Association "Luch", the WAY of NUCLEAR FUSION REACTIONS occur IN T IS ENOM BODY).

In the description of the invention protected by the patent of Russian Federation №2022373, contains provisions that are fully relevant to the claimed invention, but differs from the method described in the aforementioned patent RF №2022373. In this patent it is noted that:

The invention relates to nuclear physics and solid state physics and can be used in nuclear and hydrogen energy, purification of gas mixtures from tritium, processing and accumulation of isotopes for analytical work and for medical purposes.

Generate neutrons when irradiated by deuterium ions solid targets reduces the ecological systems of nuclear fusion. Damage by neutrons of many structural materials can lead to the need for disposal of high-level radioactive materials on a dozen and hundreds of years.

In this respect, the tritium as a product of the fusion reaction is much safer, can be used as raw materials for fusion reactors, neutron generators and for medical purposes. However, the widespread use of nuclear systems with time of the tritium production may exceed the natural needs that will lead to problems of increased use of energy of this type, and to the problems of recycling and disposal. Therefore, the search for the conditions under which nuclear fusion reactions with deuterium formed would be a great to the not only the number of neutrons but tritium is the actual problem, which greatly improve the environmental friendliness of the method.

A method of obtaining nuclear fusion reaction in the solid during electrolysis of heavy water with palladium cathode, which consists in pre-saturation of palladium with deuterium and intense thermal Cycling in the process of electrolysis of palladium cathode by changing electric power near the abrupt change in the limit of solubility. The temperature of the palladium was changed in the range from 350 to 390 K. Marked by intensive generation neutron flux reaching 108neutrons/sec. the Disadvantage of this method is to generate an intense neutron flux.

A method of obtaining a nuclear fusion reaction which involves the bombardment of atoms of Li, Be, accelerated to energies of several MeV isotopes of hydrogen and organization thus chain reactions with the restoration of active centers through several intermediate links of the chain. Reactions of this type, such as1H+IIB=34Not, can be environmentally clean enough (DJ. Mac-Nelly. Chain reaction synthesis.- In Proc. Ed. by A. A. Filkova. Problems in laser fusion. M: Atomizdat, 1976, S. 296).

The disadvantage of this method is the difficulty of creating and maintaining in the hot condition of high-temperature plasma large secondary reactions of nuclear synthesis with the formation of radioactive isotopes and neutrons.

Closest to the proposed, selected as a prototype, is a method which involves the bombardment of metals accelerated deuterium ions from a plasma glow discharge in the energy range (100-1000)·1.6 x 10-19J. at temperatures in the range 300-800 K.

A disadvantage of the known solutions is the increased generation of neutrons up to 107Nate"

Classifying some inaccuracies in the numbers of this description for typos, note that the notion of a lack of solutions is relative: what is the disadvantage in one case, may be a target in the other case. As in the case of application of the method for producing intense directional flow of neutrons.

Hereinafter in the description of the invention similar to the notes that:

"The essence of the invention lies in the fact that you are using low-energy bombardment of targets at low temperatures with rigid stabilization of the level and use the most high-energy low-energy range. At elevated temperatures increases the probability of reaction of nuclear synthesis2H+2H->>3H+1H, the reaction2H+2H->>3He+n at low energies almost what e is. Thus, at elevated temperatures in the low energy neutron generation is almost not noticeable, because this process is secondary, and accelerator mechanisms due to cracking of the surface at these temperatures is unlikely. However, the accumulation of tritium in low-energy high-temperature reactions of synthesis is not always desirable. Nuclear fusion reaction at low energies flow through the tunneling external neutron, the energy of which deuterons and tritons relatively small. Because of this weakly bound neutron can tunnelrat not only to another deuteron, but also to the core material of a solid target. Calculations show that at low energies possible exothermic reaction:

This reaction, resulting in the transfer of tritium in deuterium and deuterium - protium and energy is released. The material of the target is changing its isotopic composition may be formed and new elements due to radioactive decay. The appropriate selection of the target material, such as6Li and90Zr, we can have the non-radioactive products, even when used as raw materials of radioactive tritium. This consideration is true for the target material.

Vzaimodeistviiu with target nuclei in reactions of this type are much less efficient due to increased Coulomb potential of the nuclei, prevent their approaching at a distance, close enough for tunneling neutrons and undergo nuclear reactions. The calculations based on theory of runs of fast particles in solids of Lindhard, Scarf, Shiota (LSS) showed that the optimum for low-energy reactions of deuterons with elements of the target lies on one or two orders of magnitude higher compared to pure hydrogen reactions for lithium is about 200·1.6 x 10-19J. (200 eV). This energy is minimum for nuclear reactions of heavy isotopes of hydrogen with other elements of the periodic table, because the nuclear losses to electronic lowering energy drops sharply. This optimum for carbon is already 700·1.6 x 10-19J, and for deuterium-uranium 5000·1.6 x 10-19J or uranium-deuterium about 600,000 1.6 x 10-19J. I.e., the upper limit for uranium under the terms of the efficiency should be about 1.6 x 10-13J, however, the level energies are intensively are the usual high-energy reaction products which are amongst the neutrons and tritium. Therefore, the high-energy limit for the claimed low-energy reactions we choose the level 20000·1.6 x 10-19J, because at these energies the cross-section of high-energy reactions of deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium still almost two orders of magnitude the current maximum. This ratio is osenia provides in most cases, an acceptable level of sustainability of nuclear synthesis systems, although the effectiveness of reactions in the solid for elements of the periodic table heavier than Nickel is reduced to about half.

For reactions of the heavy isotope of hydrogen-atom matrix efficiency slightly depends on temperature, in contrast to the reactions of deuterium-deuterium. Since the reaction of the deuterium-deuterium effectively go at temperatures above 700 K, this temperature we choose as a maximum. At temperatures above 700 To be noticeable reaction deuterium-deuterium with the formation of tritium".

Information about low-energy Optima for the reactions of nuclei contained in the described invention, useful and gives an idea about the optimal ratio, energy cost, energy output and efficiency conditions for nuclear reactions, to understand the purpose and essence of the claimed invention. As you can see from the description of the invention similar to the optimum low-energy reactions of deuterons with light nuclei is of the order of 1 keV, while the energy yield of nuclear reactions in the order of 10 MeV. I.e. the difference is 4 order. This means that the reaction at the collision only one out of 10,000 bombarding nuclei will cover the costs of initiating the synthesis reaction. In fact, if we analyze the parameters, for example, accelerator neutron tube G-R, commercially available f is unitary enterprise "Plant elektrohimpribor" (accelerating voltage 85kV, ion current of 80 μa, frequency and duration of pulses, respectively, 10 kHz and XC, the neutron flux of 1.5·108neutrons/Sec) we have the average consumed electric power of 2 watts, while the energy yield of neutrons with energy of 14 MeV gives power only 3.4·10-4W. From which it follows that enters the reaction only one of the 107bombarding the target deuteron. Estimates show that by reducing the maximum sighting distance of the colliding nuclei with subatomic (~10-10m) to sub-nuclear (~10-13m) the effectiveness of collisions will increase by more than 106time and carrying out the synthesis reaction of the inventive method will become energetically favorable. Thus, the aim of the invention is to maximize the efficiency of nuclear collisions in the solid target and the decline in the real threshold nuclear reactions.

This object of the invention is achieved by applying a sufficiently well-known, the channeling effect of the nuclear particles and radiations in single crystals.

The channeling effect of the nuclear particles and radiations are well known, there are a large number of theoretical and experimental research papers(Tulikov A. F. Influence of crystal lattice on some atomic and nuclear processes. "The success of the physical Sciences, 1965, I. 87, V. 4, S. 585; Lindhard And. In ianie of the crystal lattice on motion of fast charged particles, ibid., 1969, T. 99, century 2, S. 249; Thompson M Channeling of particles in crystals, ibid., 1969, T. 99, century 2, S. 297; Kagan Y. M., connec Y. C. Theory of the channeling effect, "Journal of experimental and theoretical physics", 1970, I. 58, B. 1, S. 226). However, the channeling effect, as Rutherford back scattering, is used exclusively for the study of the structures of solids, the position of the impurity atoms in their crystal lattice, the study of the perfection of the crystalline structure of the grown films. In detail theory of the channeling effect of the nuclear particles and radiations are described in the book N.P. Kalashnikov "Coherent interaction of charged particles in crystals" M: Atomizdat, 1981 In the book, in particular, have chapters: 2 - Diffractive scattering of charged particles in a crystal of finite thickness, Chapter 3 - the Interaction of positively charged particles in crystals, 6 - Radiation of charged particles in the crystal. From the material of the book it seems clear that those born in the channels of the neutrons in the moving reflections along the canals form a narrow rays, unlike neutrons born in the atomic planes and the lattice. This indicates the importance of the implementation of nuclear reactions on the basis of the natural phases of implementation. Similarly discusses canalino the Institute of accelerated particles in article C. E. Matyukhin and S. Y. Grishina "Kinetics oriented interaction of accelerated particles-organization of the achiral nanotubes," published in the Journal of technical physics" 2005, T. 31, No. 8, pp. 12-18 (see also Ph.D. thesis Grishina S. C. "Theory of channeling positive ions in carbon nanotubes"). The article notes that kanalirovanie particles under certain conditions will be stuck inside the nanotubes, forming an endohedral structure. At the same time, with increasing energy kanalirovanie particles pass through nanotubes without stopping. However, at the output of such particles form the beams, the divergence does not depend on the energy and divergence of the primary beam, and depends only on the transverse temperature of the nanotubes, short nanotubes will be the focus of the beam. The question of increasing the probability of collision stuck in nanotubes ions with flying, especially on passing inside nanotubes nuclear reactions in these sources are not mentioned.

The inventor was unable to find any mention of the channeling effect in order to increase the efficiency of the receiving streams nuclear radiation or energy. For example, in the work of C. M. Shershneva, N. A. Steed, P. A. Shvetsova "LOCALIZATION of CARBON ATOMS IN the CRYSTAL LATTICE of NICKEL, published in the journal Ha is Kuskovo University, 2004, No. 628, page 115, "With resonant nuclear reactions13C(p, γ)14N (Via=1,7476 MeV, Gγ=70 eV), which is excited by protons, kannelirovannymi along the close-Packed atoms of Nickel axis <110>,<100> and <111> plane (100) was determined by the location of the carbon in the single crystal solution Ni-0.18 at.%With enriched isotope13C. In a narrow range of angles (±0,4°), as the alignment direction of the proton beam and the selected crystallographic directions, showed a strong change of the output of γ-rays from the reaction. It is shown that the carbon atoms in the Nickel at a concentration of 0.18 at.% room temperature and occupy the octahedral voids. In the review of N. A. Steed, C. M. Shershneva "Application of nuclear physics methods and accelerators NSC KIPT to study the composition, structure and properties of solids ", published in the journal "problems of atomic science and technology", 2003, pages 3-15, outlines the application of nuclear physics methods and accelerators for solving scientific and technological problems in the field of physics of metals, alloys, semiconductors, metal oxide and magnetic materials. Are the results of experiments to determine the concentration and distribution of elements is performed using a beam of ions of hydrogen and helium, accelerated in an electrostatic accelerator to an energy of 0,5...4,0 MeV. For and what entifically elements and isotopes were used resonant nuclear reaction, Coulomb and nuclear resonance scattering and excited by accelerated particles characteristic x-ray radiation. Results and possible applications of channeled particles and orientation effects to study the localization, structure, orientation, education, decay and annihilation of simple defects, determine the concentration and distribution of defects in the radiation broken crystals.

Thus, despite the presentation of the results and possible applications of channeling (quite energetic) particles and orientation effects for research the authors nor the word does not stipulate the possibility and method of application of the channeling effect to obtain streams of atomic particles, selection (breeding) alternative channels of nuclear reactions, to study the structure of nuclei and elementary particles, energy production.

In particular, the review is written: "When you log in Kant small fraction of the particles (≈3...5%) is dissipated at the "ends" of the atomic planes is deflected for a corner, more critical, and then moves in the crystal, both as an amorphous (or polycrystalline) environment. Bulk of the particles (≈95...97%) of the focused beam experiences a "soft" scattering on atomic planes and not close to the center of the planes at a distance of ≈0,1...0,2 Å, which depends on the radius type SHLD is of the Thomas-Fermi the amplitude of thermal vibrations of the lattice atoms and other factors.

The beam is seemingly divided into kanilirovannoy and nekanalizovannye components. When ψ>ψkr- no channeling. Thus, for a focused beam in the crystal are permitted and prohibited areas. In this regard, the physical processes for which it is necessary rapprochement with the atoms of the chains at distances smaller 0,1...0,2 Å (this elastic resonance scattering particles, nuclear reactions, including with foreign atoms placed within planes or chains, characteristic x-rays), is strongly suppressed, which inevitably leads to a significant decrease (by almost two orders of magnitude) of the output radiation as compared to the case of undirected beam is in the first place.

Secondly, the flux density of channeled particles in motion experiences a strong redistribution in the transverse plane of the channel. In the center of the channel, as shown in Fig.7, the flow can be much greater than the planes. Therefore, the output radiation from atoms, which are outside of the planes or chains depends on the location that they occupy in the channel. The flow can with good accuracy be calculated, which allows to determine the location of the atoms on which the reaction occurs or rasayani the accuracy ≈0,1 Å".

Please review figure 7 (see Fig.1 description of the invention) clearly demonstrates the actual focus of possible trajectories of the protons at the center of the channel. With decreasing energy of bombarding nuclei further increases the density of their possible trajectories near the axis of the channel. However, an important issue is the depth to which they penetrate into the crystal nitroaniline kanalirovanie particles. The answer to this question can be found in another work of the same group of authors: N. A. The Roller, C. M. Shershnev, N. A. Shlyakhov, Computer simulation of proton channeling in crystals, "journal of Kharkiv University", 628, 123 (2004) UDC 539.736.14...669.849 (see Fig.2 description of the invention).

Thickness less than 1000 Å, which penetrate kanalirovanie kernel is more suitable for obtaining targets using a technique of growing epitaxial thin active layers than to obtain targets using single-crystal membranes. However, the use of membranes seems to be more promising, and then assumes the use of membranes with the use of support elements. It is possible that the material for such solid supports an active membrane element design could be graphene. From figure 2 of the above article (see Fig.2 description of the invention) also clearly shows that there is not the several areas of focus proton fluxes in channels. I.e., there are several discrete values of the optimal thicknesses of the membranes, the depth of implantation of the nuclei of the target, the lengths of the nanotubes with endohedral structures. At the same time, we note that in this article the Roller N. N. with co-authors also not is a question of the application of this effect in nuclear fusion for energy production and intense flows of nuclear particles. This is evidenced here Fig.1 of this article (see Fig.3 of the description).

It is obvious that at low energies on the depth of penetration of channeled nuclear particles should be affected by the more mobile electrons properties of the upper layers of the crystal, due to the motion which the screening of the excess charge canaliculi nuclear particles. In this case, the degree of shielding of the charge can influence the effective mass of electrons. Partial degradation kanalirovanii particle due to its interaction with the moving electrons should make it easier to promote nuclear particles on the channel and more stable binding of its trajectory to the axis of the channel. (In an ideal representation of the possible existence of an inertial effect "superconductivity" when the charge is included in the channel core is fully shielded and the core, as a neutral particle inertia passes through the channel at a long distance without loss of energy). Especially uh what about the refers to ionic conductors, in which, for example, as the migrating ion is involved in nuclear reactions the core of D, T,6Li,11C. In case of an effective shielding of the charges of the colliding nuclei conduction electrons with a large effective mass in the heavy-fermion compounds there may be a strong lowering of the threshold reactions of nuclear synthesis and dynamic formation of conglomerates nuclei. In this case, perhaps the collision of nuclei trapped on defects channels in the crystal lattice and moving under the action applied to the crystal strain.

The implementation phase and endohedral structure. Of the most well-known phases of implementation should be called system palladium hydrogen, titanium hydrogen in which the hydrogen has a very high solubility and mobility. It is well known that up to a certain critical concentration of hydrogen in the crystal lattice of the metal-matrix is practically unchanged and the hydrogen is located in its interstices. I.e. it obviously fills the channels in the lattice. As for the endohedral structures, their the classic example is the fullerenes inside molecules which are embedded metal atoms or hydrogen. In the literature quite extensively discussed endohedral structure type "pod peas", which is supposed to be used for hydrogen storage. In sawse the second invention is similar to the design and implementation phase it is proposed to use for fixing the position of the nucleus of the target. The invention allows to reduce the uncertainty in the position of the core-target and bombarding the nucleus up to a scale comparable with the size of the kernel. The difference of the proposed method from all previous ones is that the position and the core-target and bombarding particles is determined by the channel in the crystal lattice of the single crystal matrix or endohedral structure. As is clear from the statement of the channeling effect, this effect reduces the uncertainty of the trajectory of the bombardment of the nucleus relative to the target nucleus to the sub-nuclear scale. Another important point is the fixation of the target nucleus in a certain position in the crystal lattice of the connection matrix. This is achieved by using as the crystal matrix compounds forming with the core target of the implementation phase. I.e., when the kernel-target is placed in the crystal lattice of the matrix are the least distorting, or hard enough, the position of the target nucleus is fixed in endohedral structure (based fullerenes, nanotubes and the like, including carbon nanotubes and endohedral structures). Typically, these phases have high diffusion coefficients of embedded atoms (nuclei) in the matrix. As already mentioned, a good example of such compounds are solid-state ionic conductors, the system metal-hydrogen (for example the EP, known systems Pd-D, Ti D, Ti-T). The most appropriate at the moment is a system of SiO2-3No. (You should also not lose sight of other similar systems, for example, GeO2-3Not).

In the work of E. C. Kalashnikov and B. Z. Pevzner, FTT, 2002, T. 44, No. 2, page 283 "Motion of the helium atom in the channel of a comparable diameter in the model of Frenkel - Kontorova". Investigate the motion of the helium atom to the channel, the diameter of which is comparable with the "diameter" of the atom. These channels are observed in crystalline materials of quartz group. (SiO2, GeO2...) Structural units in these materials are tetrahedra SiO4located so that they form long channels in section 2.4-2.6 Å. The size of the helium atom according to various sources is 1.8-2.4 Å (see Fig.4.). The local momentum conservation law the interaction of the helium atom with the atoms that make up the wall of the channel, reduces the problem to one-dimensional motion similar to the motion of dislocations in the framework of the model of Frenkel - Kontorova. In this model, the calculated activation energy complex "helium atom + offset atoms walls of the channel. The received energy is expressed through the shear modulus of the material forming the channel, and the polarizability of the helium atom, which depends on its state.

Complicate the implementation of the invention, the effects associated with th is new oscillation atom, and, especially, the so-called "zero-point. However, these difficulties can be avoided by synchronizing thermal fluctuations of the sound wave with the motion of bombarding nuclei. Also increases the effective threshold of the reaction, a high value of factor Debye-Valera crystal-matrix, contributing to the increase in the share of collision processes without the cost of energy bombarding the nuclei return (Mossbauer effect). This threshold is in any case lower than the collision-free cores (see Fig.4 description of the invention).

In the above-mentioned work of C. E. Matyukhin and S. Y. Grishina abeceda fact: output (nanotubes), such particles form the beams, the divergence does not depend on the energy and divergence of the primary beam, and depends only on the transverse temperature of the nanotubes, short nanotubes will be the focus of the beam. F. F. Komarov, A. C. Camisano, A. E. Lagutina in the experimental study of the passage of protons through the dielectric capillaries [Mechanisms of passage of protons with an energy of 240 Kev through a dielectric capillaries, F. F. Komarov, A. S. Kamyshan, A. E. Lagutin, the HIGHER Institute of applied physical problems named. A. N. Sevcenko the Belarusian state University in Minsk, Belarus] says:

"In Sri PFI BSU on the accelerator the ESA-2 conducted a series of experiments on research of mutual the effects of accelerated protons with the surface of the dielectric capillaries to study the characteristics of the particle motion in this interaction. Measured angular distributions of protons with an energy of 240 Kev, passed through glass (borosilicate) capillaries with a diameter of 0.5 mm, length 65, 178 mm and a diameter of 0.2 mm, length 250 mm current range of the proton beam from 10P-R to 5-10P-R AND at angles of incidence of the protons relative to the axis of the capillary from -0,20° to +0,20°. The angular distribution of the protons that have passed through the capillaries in the opposite relative to the zero angles of incidence, have a kind of mirror reflection from each other and their width is the same. The shape of the angular distributions of the protons that have passed through a glass capillary with a length of 65 mm, is determined largely by single scattering of charged particles in the inner surface of the capillary. Increasing the length of the capillary to 178 mm leads to a change in the shape of angular distributions, indicating that the distribution of the protons that have passed through such a capillary is determined by multiple scattering of charged particles in the inner surface of the capillary. Mode extended slide along the surface gets a proton beam that passes through the capillary length 250 mm references: 1. Lagutin, A. E., Boyko E. C., Kamyshan A. S., Komarov F. F. //XXth Russian Conference on Charged Particle Accelerators: Novosibirsk, Russia. - 2006. - hiip://rupac2006.inp.nsk.su."

I.e. capillaries, as nanotubes, there is a transverse thermalization of protons. It can be expected that in the future will be found material in the channels to the that will effectively be absorbed transverse momentum kanalirovanii particles, consequently will increase the critical angle for channeling and focusing performance of flow of the nuclear particles on the axis of the channels, in a place which place the kernel-target, through ionic conductivity, neutral diffusion of these nuclei implantation or placement in endohedral structures.

Examples and applications of the invention.

Along with the detail described in the invention analogous to and part of the essence of the invention is the use of the invention for the implementation of fusion, there are many possibilities of its application for other purposes, including for the implementation of complex chemical reactions hollow molecules by precision implantation in a cavity of various ions. Below outlines a number of other applications.

Stimulated mössbauer fluorescence. Grown epitaxial layer of phase with embedded Mossbauer nuclei or in the process of growth, or implanted in the subsequent in the direction across the layer. Well as synchrotron radiation, or kanalirovaniem radiation of accelerated electrons across a layer of the resonant excited mössbauer levels embedded Mossbauer nuclei. When reaching a certain threshold concentration of excited nuclei is venued the TES stimulated emission along certain channels parallel to the surface of epitaxial layer phase of implementation.

The slowing down of neutrons. Selected crystal matrix embedded in her light nuclei target, which is, for example, offset from the axis of the channel, tetrahedral positions, so that the oblique collision of a neutron moving in the channel, the core-target has received a return towards other system of parallel channels, and the reflected neutron is changed into the third channel system parallel channels, where similarly experienced with other lightweight kernel, and so on, all the time remaining in the mode of channeling. Recoil, slowing down in the channel, again held the position suitable for the reflection of a neutron in a different channel. In principle, the immediate necessity of channeling recoil no, but their braking mode decanolactone will lead to the destruction of the crystalline structure of the matrix. A useful result from the implementation of the method implementation in this case the receive beams of thermal neutrons with intensity comparable with the original beam of fast neutrons produced by the claimed method in the implementation of thermonuclear fusion reactions with neutron yield.

Generating a beam of mesons and resonant gamma rays. The application of "Method" in this area is similar to the implementation of the method for the implementation of thermonuclear fusion reactions, in which as bombarding cha is TIC apply energetic protons. Energetic protons can also get the same by the claimed method, but without initiating neutron thermonuclear fusion reactions. After that, they additionally accelerated to energies required to obtain mesons. It is expected that due to the uniformity produced in the reaction channels and the known influence of spin-orbit interaction will be generated directed particle beams, instead of scattered radiation.

Catalytic fusion in the conglomerates of light nuclei. In this application, "Method" mu-mesons are sent on channels monocrystalline matrix (or nano-channel membrane) to the conglomerates of light nuclei and in contact with produce catalytic fusion in these conglomerates. The reaction products thus leaving the cavity and implanted new kernel. Examples of such conglomerates may be conglomerates of atoms of helium in tungsten (mentioned in the review N.A. Steed and C. M. Shershneva), the helium atoms in the channels of the silica and Germany, endohedral structure filled with, for example, lithium deuteride targets. Obviously, in the case of conglomerates helium has a chance to hit it several mesons and education meso-matter. This application channeling nuclear radiation does not quite meet the name of the method implementation, since when is ojdenie in the conglomerate meson must repay almost all their kinetic energy and collision in the above sense of the law of conservation of momentum does not occur.

3.2.4.3. The essence of the invention.

Reactions of nuclear synthesis, and reactions involving elementary particles, are produced by the convergence of the reacting nuclei necessary for the reaction distance. In the case of thermonuclear fusion reactions this distance is significantly less than the interatomic distances (of the order of 10-10m) and significantly larger than the cores (~10-15m) is of the order of 10-12M. the Convergence of these distances is achieved by the collision of energetic nuclei with sufficient velocity to overcome the Coulomb barrier (hot fusion), or through the effective shielding of the electric charge, confining and reducing the Coulomb barrier (nuclear catalysis using muons or heavy fermions in a solid). In a frontal collision for reaction of the fusion of two deuterons (D-D reaction) enough energy on the order of 3 kV, however, in neutron tubes for carrying out the same reactions use the energy of the nuclei is of the order of 150kV. This is due to the low efficiency of the nuclei to undergo reaction - a small fraction of the "head-on" collisions and a high proportion of tangents. The offset ratio windshields and tangential collisions of nuclei will facilitate initiating a fusion reaction and reduce energy costs for its maintenance. This can be achieved by the Eisenia scatter trajectories bombarding nuclei. In physics it is well known, the channeling effect of the nuclear particles in a crystalline solid.

The method of implementation of the collisional nuclear reactions is based on the fact that canaliculi charged particles and nuclei at channeling move toward the axis of the channel in areas of lowest electron density. In the phases of implementation of embedded atoms also occupy the same area. The essence of the method in a simplified presentation is the following. The core of a certain energy E1enough to stop the pass needed to offset the center of the channel length, enters the channel in the crystal lattice of the connection-matrix and eventually stops at some distance from its beginning. The following kernel included in the same channel with energy E2excess energy E1by an amount greater than the threshold of the reaction, must reach the point where it stopped the first core with the remaining energy equal to or greater than a threshold nuclear reactions. Thus, the inventive method may be variations in the method by which installed the kernel-target in the crystal matrix. This are three options. 1. Diffusion of atoms with nuclei of the target in the reaction zone of the reservoir (for example, diffusion of deuterons from the melt LiD in a single crystal of palladium membrane or diffusion3Not through monocrat Lucescu SiO 2(GeO2) membrane channels). 2. Preliminary "gasket" of the single crystal-matrix low-energy cores to the desired depth (~0.1-1 μm), and then re-bombing of the more energetic nuclei. These two variants are characterized by the stochastic distribution of nuclei along the channels. Option three involves precision implementation of both nuclei in the case of use as a source of bombarding nuclei of the crystal ionic conductor. Find the perfect crystal matrix, and the crystal source cores are two disconnected parts of the same single crystal. Option assumes that due to the auto ion emission at a certain applied voltage and temperature bombarding kernel will jump from one crystal to another according to a strictly repetitive trajectories. In this case, when using the atomic force microscope are possible manipulation of isolated nuclei

The essential feature of the devices using the inventive method the implementation of nuclear reactions is the presence of structural elements, allowing you to align the crystal relative to the bombarding beam strict orientation. It is expected, for example, when applying this method of implementation of the D-T fusion reaction, used in neutron tubes, will be possible only through the use of nanocrystallites the second target, optimal energy and pulse nuclei of tritium and deuterium two order to increase the neutron yield with the same ion current. This will allow you to make the neutron diffraction instrument in respect of such available as x-ray diffraction. Increasing the efficiency of collisions up to 10% of the number of bombarding nuclei practically solve the problem of controlled thermonuclear fusion. (In the above article N. N. Steed says about 95-97% bombarding nuclei within the mode of channeling the energy of the protons 429 keV, see page 8 of the description). Similarly, the problem is solved in relation to the generation of muons for the purposes of catalysis of nuclear fusion. Increase the efficiency of proton-proton collisions at channeling of protons with an energy of 300 MeV to 10%, will get a positive energy output using muon catalysis is already achieved when the values of the coefficient of the number of reactions.

Nuclear reactions initiated in the channels of the crystalline bodies or endohedral structures in the collision of moving through these channels particles with nuclei of impurity atoms, are used to study the behavior of impurities in various compounds. The invention proposes to use this phenomenon to obtain intensive directed flows of nuclear particles and solutions of the problems which we controlled thermonuclear fusion, and as a tool for manipulation of the engines.

The characteristics used to characterize the method.

The method of implementation of the collisional nuclear reactions based on the channeling effect of the nuclear particles and radiations in the phases of implementation and endohedral structures is as follows:

1. The collision between reacting nuclei or nuclear particles produced in the channels of the crystalline bodies or endohedral structures in the channeling mode of nuclear particles or bombarding nuclei.

2. Various methods (such as: the diffusion of a gas, liquid or solid state tank, a preliminary low-energy bombardment ("padding", implantation)) are filled with the reacting nuclei of all or a substantial portion of the used channels.

3. In channels injections mode channeling nuclei or nuclear particles so that the flow canaliculi nuclei or particles are focused at the location of the nuclei of target channels or in endohedral structures.

4. Terms of focus are adjusted by changing the length of the channels (the thickness of the single crystal matrix, the depth to which implanted nucleus of the target when "stuffing"), channel (for example, through the use of layered epitaxial structures with the required sequence of dimensions of the channels, and nanotubes) and energy canaliculi nuclei or particles, and is also by selection of the matrix material, efficient quenching of the transverse momentum canaliculi nuclei or particles.

3.2.4.4. List of figures, drawings and other materials.

10.7.4.4. Brief description of drawings

Figure 1.

Figure 7 labeled "Computer simulation of the trajectories of protons in a planar channel (111) crystal of Nickel. (•) - octahedral voids" mentioned in the text of the review Steed N. A. and other "Application of nuclear physics methods and accelerators NSC KIPT to study the composition, structure and properties of solids", published in the journal "problems of atomic science and technology", 2003, pp. 3-15. The figure shows a strong focus on the trajectories of the protons on the axis of the channel when channeling in single crystal Nickel.

Figure 2.

Figure 2 labeled "Oscillations of the trajectories of protons with the energy of the 429 Kev in a planar channel (111) crystal Ni-0.18 at.%C; & Phi;I=0.0°. In the middle of the channel in the plane of the internodes shows the atoms of the isotope C13(•)" mentioned in the article N.A. Steed and others, "Computer simulation of proton channeling in crystals", "journal of Kharkiv University", 628, 123 (2004), indicating that multiple focusing of a stream of protons in the cross section of the channel at channeling beams of protons.

Figure 3.

Figure 1 labeled "the Principle of measurement of the output resonant nuclear reaction from the energy of the incident beam and the new: a) oscillations of particle trajectories in a planar channel, φI=0.0°; b) output γ - ray resonant nuclear reactions on nuclei impurities located in the centre of the channel mentioned in the text H.A. Steed and others, "Computer simulation of proton channeling in crystals", "journal of Kharkiv University", 628, 123 (2004), as evidence of a lack of guidance on the application of the channeling effect in nuclear fusion for energy production and intense flows of nuclear particles.

Figure 4.

The figure mentioned in the text E. C. Kalashnikov B. Z. Pevzner, FTT, 2002, T. 44, No. 2, page 283, "Motion of an atom of helium through the channel of a comparable diameter in the model of Frenkel - Kontorova", illustrating the presence of channels in a single crystal of quartz with dimensions almost identical to the size of the helium atom.

Figure 5.

(A) an example of a device LiD(T)-Pd targets for neutron tube. In case (1) is assigned to a cooled target. The target is a layered structure in which a cooled single-crystal substrate (2) under a thin layer of single crystal palladium (4) orientation of the axis [100] perpendicular to the plane of the target (i.e., channels that are located strictly in the direction of the projectile), there is a layer of lithium deuteride targets - six -(3). The target is bombarded with tritium nuclei.

B) Example of device D(T)-Pd target with the single-crystal membrane. M is mbrane (4) is located on the support structure (grid), preventing deformation of the membrane due to the pressure difference between the gas side and which provides access and diffusion of gaseous deuterium to her side. The target is bombarded nuclei of tritium or helium-3.

Figure 6.

An example of the structure of T(D)-Pd targets for neutron tube. The target is a hollow design with tritium or deuterium, the volume of which is separated from the vacuum volume (plasma low pressure) with a thin monocrystalline membrane of palladium or titanium. The thickness of the membrane is chosen such that the flux bombarding the nuclei of tritium, deuterium or helium-3 focused on the output channels in a place where adsorbed on this side of tritium (deuterium) into the channels.

Figure 7.

Example devices3He-SiO2(3He-GeO2) targets. The target is a hollow design with helium-3, the volume of which is separated from the vacuum volume (plasma low pressure) with a thin membrane monocrystalline quartz or oxide Germany. The thickness of the membrane is chosen such that the flux bombarding the nuclei of tritium, deuterium or helium-3 focused on the output channels, where adsorbed on this side helium-3 penetrates into the channels. In principle, the membrane may be sufficiently thick and use the effect of multiple focus bombarding nuclei on the axis of the channel.

3.2.4.5. The information is of, confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention.

Some devices that use the method of production of nuclei and nuclear particles (protons, neutrons) by bombarding the nuclei of the target, placed in a solid polycrystalline matrices produced by the industry (referred to neutron tube) or exist in research centers (accelerators, plasma installation).

There are also devices and installations using nuclear reactions initiated in the channels of the crystal bodies for the purposes of the study of the properties of the phone there are Also numerous studies investigating the effect of channeling of charged particles in the channels of carbon nanotubes in thin capillaries.

Well-known and long-studied phase of implementation in metals, endohedral structures in nanotubes and fullerenes, the motion of neutral atoms in the channels of graphite, zeolite compounds with the structure of quartz. In quartz the size of the channels is almost equal to the size of the helium atom. This ensures the fixation of a helium nucleus along the axis of the channel. Similarly for fixing a separate cores or groups of cores in large channels (e.g., zeolites), it is possible to do this using endohedral structures in nootropic and fullerene.

From the above it follows that there is no fundamental obstacles to the implementation of izobreteny is.

Consider the implementation of the method of performing collision of nuclear reactions in devices such as accelerator neutron tubes or using the sputtering targets in high-voltage high-frequency gas discharge in low-pressure magnetron sputtering). In the latter case, the task consists in reducing the dispersion of single-crystal target-matrix. The scheme with the prior "gasket" matrix reacting nuclei, as is obvious, will not be considered. In this scheme it is obvious that "stuffing" a massive target-matrix reacting nuclei produced at low accelerating voltages, while the reaction itself is carried out at higher accelerating voltages, so that at the moment of collision at bombarding nuclei was sufficient energy to overcome the reaction threshold and effective focus on the axis of the channel. Note also that device in any case involves the alignment of the crystal-matrix so that the direction of movement of bombarding nuclei coincided with the direction of the channels. Consider the operation of the device in which the source is bombarding nuclei and as a target-matrix is used monocrystalline thin plate in contact with a reservoir cores-targets - crystalline membrane. In principle there are no hard conditions (except parasi the Noah diffusion along grain boundaries) on the mosaic of this membrane. The main condition is the parallel channels in the crystallites constituting the membrane. As a material of the crystalline membranes for hydrogen reactions we can take palladium. The required thickness of the membrane is measured, see Fig.2 (Nickel, similar in structure to a palladium) based on the channel length, which is the focus kanalirovanii nuclear particles on the axis of the channel is ~0.5 µm. (When targets large polewali will need the support structure). This membrane separates the volume of the vacuum chamber from the volume with deuterium or tritium, which under the appropriate conditions are adsorbed by the surface of the membrane and diffuse through the channels in the side of the vacuum volume. Either the membrane rests on a layer of lithium deuteride targets-six6LiD is unstable at high temperatures, the fusible connection. It is obvious that the components of this compound will fill the outputs (inputs) of the channels and will diffuse in the direction of make vacuum light volume. For the latter reason, the same design can be used as source and bombarding nuclei or ions with a corresponding impact on the surface of the membranes. When a large area and the strict parallelism of the membranes and the small distance between them is more or less fulfilled the terms of the direction of the accelerating electric field and the normal to the membrane is wound and the direction of the channels in them. Additionally, to ensure conditions of parallelism speeds bombarding nuclei and the axes of the channels in the crystalline membrane, as well as the stability of the gas discharge, should facilitate parallel to the mentioned directions of the magnetic field. As this is done in preferences magnetron sputtering. When the application of the optimum accelerating voltage (10-20 kV) of the nucleus of deuterium, tritium, or lithium permeate the membrane, focusing at the exit of the channels on their axes and face spread into the channel cores of adsorbed atoms of deuterium, tritium, or lithium. Depending on the goals of the reaction the resulting flow of nuclear particles and with them released energy. Obviously, when conducting the reaction in the thickness of the membrane, as observed in experiments, viz., the direction of departure of the nuclear particles is strictly fixed crystallographic directions. Is possible with use of special measures (the polarization of the target and bombarding nuclei, the selection of the angles of the entrance canaliculi particles) to focus the entire flow of the generated particles in a limited number of directions. For performing reactions involving helium nuclei as a membrane it is possible to use single-crystal membrane SiO2, GeO2such connections. To ensure electroneutrality of the membrane in stroytehresurs application of high-frequency alternating electric field. Diffusion of helium atoms in the channels of such compounds is fairly intense, and may occur in the channels of numerous chains of atoms of helium. When sufficient energy projectile core compression is possible in the chain and the course of multiple acts of nuclear fusion reaction.

The method of implementation of the collisional nuclear reactions based on the channeling effect of the nuclear particles and radiations in the phases of implementation and endohedral structures
namely, that:
the collision of particles of nuclear radiation directed through the channel of the single crystal, channeling the molecular structure or artificial micro-channel is performed by the kernel-target, located in the channel or in the immediate vicinity;
characterized in that:
the position of each core target consistently is fixed relative to the position of the channel chemical, physical or geometric constraints, resulting in the kernel-target must be part of an atom that forms the implementation phase with the material of the single crystal;
kernel-target in the composition of the atom or molecule in advance is placed in calculated based on the intent of the reaction space channel thin or massive crystal, endohedral structures microchannel membrane;
kernel-target embedded in required channel matrix through natural % is Sov diffusion in the channels of the crystalline phases of implementation; through the processes of filling endohedral structures; through the processes of adsorption and deposition or the materials themselves, with the actual core, responsive to radiation, or endo-fullerenes; by implantation necessary for the intent of the reactions of nuclei in the channels of the crystalline bodies, channels endohedral structures or adsorbed on the ends of the channels of fullerene molecules;
monocrystalline matrix with the atomic channels is chosen in such a way as to ensure the maximum concentration of the flow of nuclear particles or radiation either on the axis of the channel, or to place the most likely location of the nuclei of target channels.
the size, shape and density of the walls of the channels monocrystalline matrix is selected or generated artificially in such a way as to ensure the maximum concentration of the flow of nuclear particles or radiation to the axis of the channel, or in place of the most probable location of the nuclei of the target inside the channels or outside them;
the conical shape of the channels is formed by the effects of internal stresses arising from the difference of the lattice constants, for epitaxial growing of layered single crystal heterostructures, defects and inhomogeneities inside the channels is performed by annealing and flashing matrix layer with the focusing channel is mi heavy ions;
characterized in that as casalinuovo radiation can be applied gamma radiation, neutron radiation, beams meson and muon ions, beams of light nuclei, the proton;
depending on the properties used in the design of the reaction nuclear radiation is applied to the source of this radiation, which produces spatially modulated radiation, such that it is configured the same as the configuration of the input Windows of the channels; a spatial modulation of the radiation is carried out, as due to the properties of the emitter, and by interference effects and ion-optical systems;
the method includes the stage of preparation of the radiation source, the preparation of the space between the radiation source and the device, where the reaction is carried out, the preparation of membranes or single crystal to receive nuclear targets and irradiation, preparation of nuclei targets for irradiation in the preparation of the space behind the membrane.
includes a step of preparing a radiation source, which contains, depending on the type used according to the idea of radiation reaction, the steps of: a) start-up of equipment that produces radiation of the desired properties, with the right energy, polarization, with the right direction and divergence; b) synchronizing the radiation source with equipment that produces the preparation of the nuclei of target;
includes a step to prepare the CI space between the radiation source and the device, where is the response, which contains the steps:
a) the removal of residual atmosphere, preventing the spread of radiation, b) shielding from electric and magnetic fields that interfere with the alignment of the spatial structure of the radiation with the location of channels) aligning device that performs spatial modulation of radiation;
includes the stage of preparation of the membrane or of the single crystal to receive nuclear targets and irradiation, which comprises the steps: a) remove foreign contaminants from the surface, covering the entrances to the channels, through measures ensuring the desorption of these contaminants; b) accurate alignment of the membrane or of the single crystal with the channels relative to the direction of radiation at him; C) the elimination of impurities and defects in the channels to a maximum depth by punching their energetic ions; d) introduction of nuclear targets in the channels of the membrane by adsorption with subsequent diffusion through the channel directly elementary substances containing the kernel-target on the opposite exposed side of the side of the membrane or coating on this side of the endo-fullerenes, whose molecules rigidly fixed chemical bonds kernel-target; or implantation of nuclei of the target to the desired depth in the right according to the plan of the reaction position; or implantation of nuclei of the target in a massive single crystal with the exposed the emnd hand on depth, appropriate plan of response and the type of radiation, need to plan a response position in the crystal lattice of the matrix; or implantation of nuclei of target adsorbed on the outputs of the channels of the fullerene molecule;
includes a step of preparing the nuclei of target to interact with radiation, which comprises the steps: (a) placement of the nuclei of the target relative to the channels in places where will be the reaction, b) alignment of their position relative to the channels using piezoeffect, magnetostriction effects, polarization, thermal expansion, direct blending of electric and magnetic fields, the phasing of the oscillations in the lattice of the matrix, for example, under the action of resonant infrared radiation; C) the orientation of the nuclei relative to the beam of incident particles by pulsed NMR and NQR effects;
membrane configuration method can be directly applied for performing chemical reactions by the method of ion implantation in the molecule, for example, to retrieve endo-fullerenes and other endohedral structures.
as a nuclear-channel membranes, depending on the intent of the reaction, instead of the single crystals can be applied nanoanalysis membranes with ordered rows of nanotubes grown on structured substrates or built by the separation and strong orientation in elektricheskij and magnetic fields of a mixture of nanotubes; or build a microchannel membrane obtained by known methods bombardment by heavy ions or electron nanolithography;
at the modern level of development of the nanotechnics the method can be implemented in respect of certain core-target and single particle nuclear radiation, through a combination of microchannel catching and directing nuclear particles structural elements; the ion-optical systems traditional design of the hollow elements, such as carbon nanotubes and other nanoobrazovaniya, with imposed electric and magnetic fields; by managing moved to the position which produces the reaction, the nucleus, by placing it in a molecule endo-fullerene and more complex endohedral structure.



 

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9 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for generating radioiotopes to be used in nuclear medicine for producing pharmaceutical preparations administered into the patients. The declared method involves exposing a target to a deceleration radiation beam and extracting the generated radionuclides from the target by radiochemical approaches. The declared method is implemented by using the target and nuclear reactions in the above reactions in the target and causing generating the chemical nuclei different from the target chemicals. The deceleration radiation is generated by an electron beam at energy 40-60 MeV and average beam current 40 mcA in a radiator having a thickness of tenth to one radiation length of a radiator material. The target exposure duration makes one half-life period of the generated isotope T1/2.

EFFECT: declared invention provides higher specific activity of radionuclides for nuclear medicine.

2 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment, and may be used in hadron radiation therapy of malignant tumours. The method comprises performing the pre-radiation preparation that is patient's body fixation, determination of the malignancy topographometry, development of a conformal irradiation schedule. A conformal irradiation session involves controlling a dose taken by a malignancy, admissible values of the radiation source, radioactivity, temperature of various segments of the radiation source and magneto-optic chains of beam delivery to the malignant tumour. During the pre-radiation preparation and conformal irradiation session, the patient is fixed in an identical adjusted position, the topographometry of the malignant tumours are evaluated, and a hadron beam is delivered to the patient' malignant tumour during an identical respiratory pause in the absence of a cardiac beat pulse wave peak with a constant size of a thorax.

EFFECT: use of the invention allows more precise irradiation of the pancreatic malignancies during respiration not injuring the healthy pancreatic tissues, as well as adjacent tissues and organs.

2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of producing carrier-free indium-111 radioisotope involves use of cadmium metal rich in cadmium-113 isotope as the target substance which is bombarded with accelerated protons. The target substance is separated through sublimation of the target in a hydrogen atmosphere. Cadmium is trapped in the deposition zone and non-volatile products are collected on a quartz surface. The obtained radioactive sample is placed in the start zone of a quartz thermo-chromatographic column, subjected to high-temperature chemical treatment in the presence of a reagent with transportation of the formed volatile compounds and subsequent deposition thereof on the walls of the thermo-chromatographic column at defined temperatures. The reagent used is tellurium vapour.

EFFECT: invention increases radiochemical purity of the indium-111 radioisotope, and also enables recycling of enriched cadmium.

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method to produce a radionuclide 99Mo, including radiation of a start material with neutrons and subsequent release of activation isotopes, differing by the fact that the start material is represented by refractory radiation and heat resistant compounds of molybdenum with particle size of (5÷100)×10-9 m, the start material is radiated with neutrons with flow density of more than 1014 cm-2s-1 for 7÷5 efficient days, and activation isotopes are extracted from the surface layer of the start material by dissolution of this layer in acid or alkali, or a mixture of acids, or a mixture of alkalis.

EFFECT: production of isotopes 99Mo of high specific activity with multiple usage of the start material, without generation of highly active wastes, which will make it possible to organise economically efficient large-scale production of isotope 99Mo.

5 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment, and can be used in hadron radiation therapy of malignant tumours. The method involves the pre-radiation preparation consisting in fixing a patient, evaluating the topographometric parameters of the malignant tumours, developing a conformal irradiation session. Conducting the conformal irradiation session is combined with regulating a radiation dose received by the malignant tumour, adjusting the acceptable values of irradiation source parameters, a radiation background, temperature values of various places of the irradiation source and magnetooptical chain of beam delivery of the malignant tumour. During the pre-radiation preparation and conformal irradiation session, the patient is fixed in an identical adjusted position, the topographometric parameters of the malignant tumours are evaluated, and a hadron beam is delivered to the malignant tumour of the patient in the form of an enable pulse of beam delivery to the gastric tumour during a respiratory pause of the patient in the absence of cardiac beat pulse wave peak with a constant size of a thorax. A complex comprises a charged particle generator connected through a multichannel magnetic radiation transporter to a multichannel radiation therapeutic apparatus supplied with radiating heads, a cryogenic station, a gas refrigerator unit, a control and alarm equipment, and also a digital control means subsystem. The charged particle generator is supplied with accelerating and deflecting magnets, while the multichannel magnetic radiation transporter comprises transporting and deflecting magnets, and the irradiating heads of the radiation therapeutic apparatuses have scanning and focusing magnets. All magnetic windings are superconducting and have the cooling channels connected by a gas-vapour mixture of the cooling agent with the cryogenic station, and by a gas cooling agent - with the gas refrigerators. In addition, the complex accommodates physiological feedback means comprising time respiratory evaluators in the form of heat-sensitive sensors or optical electronic sensors reacting on the thorax size variation in respiration, and cardiac beat pulse wave in real time located on the patient's body.

EFFECT: use of the invention allows more precise irradiation of the gastric tumour during respiration not injuring the adjacent healthy tissues and organs.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment, and can be used in hadron radiation therapy of malignant tumours. The method involves the pre-radiation preparation consisting in fixing a patient, evaluating the topographometric parameters of the malignant tumours, developing a conformal irradiation session. Conducting the conformal irradiation session is combined with regulating a radiation dose received by the malignant tumour, adjusting the acceptable values of irradiation source parameters, a radiation background, temperature values of various places of the irradiation source and magnetooptical chain of beam delivery of the malignant tumour. During the pre-radiation preparation and conformal irradiation session, the patient is fixed in an identical adjusted position, the topographometric parameters of the malignant tumours are evaluated, and a hadron beam is delivered to the malignant tumour of the patient in the form of an enable pulse of beam delivery to the oesophageal carcinoma during a respiratory pause of the patient in the absence of cardiac beat pulse wave peak with a constant size of a thorax. A complex comprises a charged particle generator connected through a multichannel magnetic radiation transporter to a multichannel radiation therapeutic apparatus supplied with radiating heads, a cryogenic station, a gas refrigerator unit, a control and alarm equipment, and also a digital control means subsystem. The charged particle generator is supplied with accelerating and deflecting magnets, while the multichannel magnetic radiation transporter comprises transporting and deflecting magnets, and the irradiating heads of the radiation therapeutic apparatuses have scanning and focusing magnets. All magnetic windings are superconducting and have the cooling channels connected by a gas-vapour mixture of the cooling agent with the cryogenic station, and by a gas cooling agent - with the gas refrigerators. In addition, the complex accommodates physiological feedback means comprising time respiratory evaluators in the form of heat-sensitive sensors or optical electronic sensors reacting on the thorax size variation in respiration, and cardiac beat pulse wave in real time located on the patient's body.

EFFECT: use of the invention allows more precise irradiation of the oesophageal carcinoma during respiration not injuring the adjacent healthy tissues and organs.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment, and is used in hadron radiation therapy of malignant tumours, more specifically in breast cancer treatment by carbon proton and ion beams. The method involves the pre-radiation preparation consisting in fixing a patient, evaluating the topographometric parameters of the malignant tumours, developing a conformal irradiation session with considering the topographometric parameters of the malignant tumours, radiation-critical adjacent tissues and bodies, conducting the conformal irradiation session with regulating a radiation dose received by the malignant tumour, adjusting the acceptable values of irradiation source parametres, a radiation background, temperature values of various places of the irradiation source and magnetooptical chain of beam delivery of the malignant tumour. During the pre-radiation preparation and conformal irradiation session, the patient is fixed in an identical adjusted position, the topographometric parameters of the malignant tumours are evaluated, and a hadron beam is delivered to the malignant tumour in the form of an enable pulse of beam delivery to the breast cancer during a respiratory pause of the patient in the absence of a cardiac beat pulse wave peak with a constant size of a thorax. A therapeutic proton-ionic complex comprises a charged particle generator connected through a multichannel magnetic radiation transporter to a multichannel radiation therapeutic apparatus supplied with radiating heads, a cryogenic station, a gas refrigerator unit, a control and alarm equipment, and also a digital control means subsystem with its driving output connected to an beam delivery enable input of the charged particle generator. The charged particle generator is supplied with accelerating and deflecting magnets, while the multichannel magnetic radiation transporter comprises transporting and deflecting magnets, and the irradiating heads of the beam therapeutic apparatuses have scanning and focusing magnets. All magnetic windings are superconducting and have the cooling channels connected by a gas-vapour mixture of the cooling agent with the cryogenic station, and by a gas cooling agent - with the gas refrigerators. In addition, the complex accommodates physiological feedback means comprising time respiratory evaluators in the form of heat-sensitive sensors reacting to cold air in inhalation and on hot air in exhalation or optical electronic sensors reacting on the thorax size variation in respiration, and cardiac beat pulse wave in real time located on the patient's body.

EFFECT: use of the invention allows more precise irradiation of the breast cancers during respiration not injuring the adjacent healthy tissues and organs.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment, and can be used in hadron radiation therapy of malignant tumours. The method involves the pre-radiation preparation consisting in fixing a patient, evaluating the topographometric parameters of the malignant tumours, developing a conformal irradiation session. Conducting the conformal irradiation session is combined with regulating a radiation dose received by the malignant tumour, adjusting the acceptable values of irradiation source parameters, a radiation background, temperature values of various places of the irradiation source and magnetooptical chain of beam delivery of the malignant tumour. During the pre-radiation preparation and conformal irradiation session, the patient is fixed in an identical adjusted position, the topographometric parameters of the malignant tumours are evaluated, and a hadron beam is delivered to the malignant tumour of the patient in the form of an enable pulse of beam delivery to the tracheal tumour during a respiratory pause of the patient in the absence of cardiac beat pulse wave peak with a constant size of a thorax. A complex comprises a charged particle generator connected through a multichannel magnetic radiation transporter to a multichannel radiation therapeutic apparatus supplied with radiating heads, a cryogenic station, a gas refrigerator unit, a control and alarm equipment, and also a digital control means subsystem. The charged particle generator is supplied with accelerating and deflecting magnets, while the multichannel magnetic radiation transporter comprises transporting and deflecting magnets, and the irradiating heads of the radiation therapeutic apparatuses have scanning and focusing magnets. All magnetic windings are superconducting and have the cooling channels connected by a gas-vapour mixture of the cooling agent with the cryogenic station, and by a gas cooling agent - with the gas refrigerators. In addition, the complex accommodates physiological feedback means comprising time respiratory evaluators in the form of heat-sensitive sensors or optical electronic sensors reacting on the thorax size variation in respiration, and cardiac beat pulse wave in real time located on the patient's body.

EFFECT: use of the invention allows more precise irradiation of the tracheal tumour during respiration not injuring the adjacent healthy tissues and organs.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics, atomic power.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering, particularly to thermonuclear explosive devices. A thermonuclear explosive device (2), made of metal, includes a capsule (1) inside it made of deuterium or a mixture of deuterium and tritium and any other thermonuclear fuel. The common structure of the thermonuclear explosive device has a straight channel (3) passing through the capsule, into which pre-accelerated deuterium and tritium nuclei, interaction of which is provided further in the capsule, are directed through channels (4) and (5). The straight channel may not pass end to end through the capsule, having at its centre a partition wall made of the material of the capsule itself.

EFFECT: optimising dimensions of the explosive device.

2 cl, 2 dwg

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