Reinforced concrete slab to erect non-submerged foundations

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: reinforced concrete board to erect non-submerged foundations is formed with a flat reinforced concrete structure. A flat reinforced concrete structure of a slab is made in the form of two beams crossing at the angle of 90, and in the place of connection of beams there are curvilinear side vertical surfaces with radius of curvature, equal to 1.5 of beam width. The length of the beam is four times more than its width, at the same time the width of the beam is determined in accordance with the area of the pillar base.

EFFECT: reduced contact stresses in a system of foundation slab-soil base, reduced material intensity and labour intensiveness.

2 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of construction, and more specifically to structures nezaposlenih foundations and structures precast slabs.

Currently, in terms of the existing dense built-up areas of cities, located on the banks of various reservoirs, new construction requires new technical solutions, in particular, otepka trenches for shallow foundations is not only time consuming but also is a threat for existing in the immediate vicinity of buildings and structures, because ground Foundation on such territories vodonayeva, and the groundwater level is high enough.

The installation of pile foundations under such conditions is very time consuming, in addition, the thickness of the layers is weak saturated soils is 10-20 metres, which leads to increased risk for existing buildings in the operations.

In connection with the above, there is a need to develop new technical solutions in the field of Foundation and, in particular, nezaposlenih foundations, as well as methods of their construction and the development of individual components and parts of such foundations.

Known base plate under columns and walls [1]. Base plate can be arranged under the column, under the walls or under the grid columns, and the columns with redbalcony.

These design base plates are applied to the device for foundations under a single column, and a grid of columns and walls.

Design of rectangular plates well developed, and their technology of concrete on construction sites can be mechanized.

Such plates are bending in two perpendicular directions.

However, rectangular plate causes an increased flow of concrete as zone plates in the corners along the diagonals of the rectangle are the stress concentration zones of the plate when working on the curve and the marginal status of such plate is characterized by the formation of linear plastic hinges in these areas [2] [3], moreover, the corners of the plates are areas of stress concentration in the soil Foundation.

Thus, a rectangular shape for the base plates is not rational and in addition solid rectangular base plate to grid columns are extremely uneconomical, as shall be calculated to significant bending moments arising in the plate due to the heterogeneity of the soil Foundation.

It should also be noted that a rectangular base plate, usually in concrete at the construction site, resulting plates are made of concrete and natural torden the I and during operation may experience not only elastic deformation, but the increased plastic deformation under load, which in combination with the plastic deformations of the soil Foundation can lead to uneven and trudnoprohodimi deformations of the building as a whole.

Also known construction prestressed shallow foundations [4], which can be attributed to nezaposljena foundations and which formed the base plate, ground base and the support plate, located under the Foundation slab and under ground base at the optimal depth, while on the base plate are jacks that are connected with rods and ground anchors embedded in the base plate and tense, with a total force equal to or slightly greater weight of the construction, and along the perimeter of the base plate on the depth to the base plate is arranged in a wall in the ground to prevent extrusion of the soil Foundation of the compressible volume.

This design of the Foundation can be built without atapci of the pit, and, in addition, due to the fact that when the Foundation slab subgrade pressed with a force equal to the weight of the building erected, any uneven settling of the Foundation in the process of building operation will not occur.

However, the proposed design the Foundation is a fairly complex structure, which will require large expenditures during the construction and in the production of works on creation of pre-tension in the system the subgrade - base plate".

In addition, the application of the foundations of this type in terms heaving of soil is hardly possible without additional enhancements constructive solutions.

The closest technical solution to the claimed invention is the construction of circular and annular base plates shallow [5].

The foundations of the specified design rational in its form, that ensures a uniform distribution of the contact stresses on the contour of the plate when it is loading, the technology of their devices are well designed and are currently widely used in construction practice, theory and calculation of stress-strain state in the "round base plate - the subgrade" is sufficiently well developed [6].

However, it should be noted that the disadvantage of the considered plate design is that it can be applied only for the perception of single concentrated loads (single columns, chimneys and exhaust pipes and so on), the connection plates of this design for the bearing under the column grid is not possible due to in the build-up of concentration of local stresses around the edge of the plate.

In addition, the production of all slabs impossible using hydrothermal heat treatment at elevated parameters that would cause significant not only elastic, but also plastic deformation of the plates during operation.

Thus, at the present time there is no satisfactory design of reinforced concrete slabs, providing savings of materials and allowing to arrange nezaposljena foundations for unit loads, and for a grid of columns, walls and endblock.

The main task, which is aimed invention is to save material, reduce the effort required for the production of plates, and when the device nezaposlenih foundations for unit loads, as well as for grids, columns, walls and endblock.

It is also necessary to expand the technological capabilities in the manufacture of plates, particularly plates can be manufactured at high parameters of heat treatment of concrete is minimized by plastic deformation.

In accordance with the task has developed a new design of flexible reinforced concrete Foundation slab.

This object is achieved with the help of the proposed concrete slab for the construction of nezaposlenih foundations, which, like the prototype, is formed flat W the concrete structure.

Unlike the prototype flat reinforced concrete slabs made in the form of two intersecting under an angle of 90 beams, and at the junction of the beams is made of a curved vertical side surface with a radius of curvature approximately 1.5 times the width of the beam, and the beam length four times its width, the width of the beam is determined in accordance with the area of the base of the column.

At the ends of beams, plates installed poluchenii to connect the plates in the base system formed of multiple plates.

The essence of the invention lies in the fact that due to the implementation of concrete slabs in the form of rational cruciform shape reduces contact stresses in the system base plate - the subgrade, and also can be reduced. In addition, the proposed base plate can be manufactured in the factory, which reduces the level of plastic strain in the concrete.

In addition, the implementation of flat concrete plate design in the form of two intersecting under an angle of 90 beams, and at the junction of the execution of beams with curved lateral vertical surfaces with radius of curvature equal to 1.5 the width of the beam made it possible to increase the moment of resistance of the beam in accordance with ibiosim moment, and thus, the beams are beams of equal resistance [7].

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 shows a reinforced concrete slab for the construction of nezaposlenih foundations in the plan, Fig.2 shows plate, side view.

Concrete slab for the construction of nezaposlenih foundations consists of beams 1 and 2, intersecting with each other at the ends of beams installed hinges 3.

Concrete slab has a length of beam L and the width of the Century At the junction of the beams is made of a curved vertical side surface with radius of curvature R equal to 1.5 the width of the beam C. In Fig.2 shows a side view of a plate with thickness t.

The value of L=4V, size, t is calculated in accordance with the loads from the installed structures. The radius R determines the configuration of the plate, which reduces the contact stresses in the system base plate - the subgrade". At the ends of beams installed poluchenii for connection of boards in a single system, which can form neselovskyi the Foundation for the grid columns.

The design of the plate beams cross at an angle of 90, the thickness of the beams t, and accordingly, the thickness of the plates are determined by the strength calculation, the width of the beams is determined in accordance with the dimensions of the supporting pad mounted on the plate of the building structure.

In C the order to reduce the contact stresses in the system base plate - the subgrade places of connection beams are in a plane with curvilinear lateral vertical surfaces with radius of curvature R equal to 1.5 the width of the beam Century

The work of the proposed concrete slab for the construction of nezaposlenih foundations as follows: for the bearing under the grid columns at the ends of beams installed poluchenii, a connecting plate in a single base system, with some unevenness of the soil Foundation system bearing will not cause additional bending moments and shear transfer only and shifting efforts.

With a substantial excess of the design load on the plate in the bearing system it is possible to produce a local gain at the expense of grading and compaction of the soil surface or through the use of piles to distribute gravel cushion arranged between the pile top and the bottom surface of the plate.

Due to the fact that the proposed concrete slab for the construction of nezaposlenih foundations can have a small size, as the system of support under the grid columns can be constructed from separate plates and is not required to concrete continuous slab, it is possible to produce plates of the proposed design in the factory using heat treatment value when the parameters or with the use of vibro-impact technologies in forming plate, which will greatly reduce the plastic deformation of the plate during operation under sustained loading.

Thus, the advantage of the proposed plate design is rational form, in the form of cross-beams of variable rigidity equal resistance, which reduces the contact stresses in the system base plate - the subgrade".

In addition, the plate can be used for single loads, and system support under the column grid by connecting the individual plates in a single system using polychroniou installed on the ends of the beams.

Due to the relatively small dimensions of the slab can be manufactured industrially using progressive technology that allows you to reduce plastic deformation of the plate under prolonged loading.

Sources of information

1. B. I. Dalmatov and other Bases and foundations, part 2, Moscow-St.-Petersburg, 2002, S. 62, Fig.3.1, Fig.3.2.

2. N. With. Karpukhin. Reinforced concrete structures, S. 339, GOS. Ed. on construction and architecture, M., 1957

3. Russian Federation patent No. 2464381, IPC: E02D 27/01, 20.10.2012,

4. L. A. Boxes, and other Flue and vent pipes as spatial structures, Moscow, 2006, SS.68, 69, 70, 155 C., the prototype.

5. K. E. Egorov. To calculate deformations of foundations, Proceedings from ATA, Institute of foundations and underground structures to them. N. M. Gurianova, Moscow, 2002

6. N. M. Belyaev. Strength of materials. M: State. Ed. technology.-theory. literature, 1951, SS.388-389.

1. Concrete slab for the construction of nezaposlenih foundations formed flat reinforced concrete structure, characterized in that the flat reinforced concrete slabs made in the form of two intersecting under an angle of 90 beams, and at the junction of the beams is made of a curved vertical side surface with a radius of curvature approximately 1.5 times the width of the beam, and the beam length four times its width, the width of the beam is determined in accordance with the area of the base of the column.

2. Concrete slab for the construction of nezaposlenih foundations under item 1, characterized in that the ends of beams slabs installed hinges for connecting the plates to the Foundation system formed of multiple plates.



 

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