Method for completion of open pit with two closely located ore bodies
SUBSTANCE: method involves construction of annular transport ramps of opposite direction with single-lane traffic of dump trucks docking in turning platforms, reloading points, construction of open pit sides with triple projections at an inclination angle of 60÷75°, which are separated with safety berms of required width, formation in some part of the open pit field of one of ore bodies of transport ramp (TR) with width providing for two-lane traffic of dump trucks and adjacent to turning platforms, production of ore for both ore bodies by means of a drill-and-fire method so that pillars are left in the open pit sides; delivery of ore to a factory; stripping - to external dumps, construction of underground mine workings and a water drain system; the modification stage involves reconstruction of the eastern side of the open pit (VRT) with partial processing of its pillars and transshipment of dead rocks into an internal dump, change of some part of single-lane transport ramp along the eastern side for a steeply inclined one, transportation of ore from lower horizons of the open pit with articulated dump trucks (ADT) to the transhipment area, transhipment into large dump trucks for delivery to the factory, and creation of a rock cushion at the open pit bottom. Besides, first, from the lower turning platform in the worked-out area of the western side of the open pit (ZRT) there dumped is the main ramp, thus providing transport communication throughout the depth of the open pit; at the open pit side reconstruction stage, a two-lane ramp is in-series formed with projections with a vertical slope and berms of minimum width and rebuilt into a ramp with an increased inclination in opposite direction; a new dump ramp is formed from the turning platform in the south-western part of the open pit; water drainage is relocated to an inter-pipe zone; TR of opposite direction with single-lane traffic along the western side is put out; TR with an increased slope is constructed from the upper turning platform in the north-western part of the open pit; ZRT pillars are mined out; the new dump ramp is enlarged, and loading and transportation of some part of ore is performed from it at mining-out of ZRT pillars by equipment with remote control (RC) to a transhipment point; another part of the ore is transported to VRT bottom, thus creating an ore cushion, and after ZRT pillars are additionally mined out to technologically practical depth, VRT pillars are broken out onto the ore cushion, thus putting out the transport ramp.
EFFECT: improving efficiency and completeness of development of a mineral deposit by an open-pit mining method.
9 cl, 4 dwg
The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used to Refine the open method of mineral deposits with a vertical drop limited in terms of ore bodies, in particular kimberlite pipes, prepare the bottom of the quarry for the transition to underground mining.
The known method of reconstruction career with two adjacent ore bodies, including at the intermediate stage of the spacing boards General career with the new offset flanges formed internal ledges with parameters that are valid on their sustainability separated safety berms, formation of transport conventions and topping sites, reworks accommodation transport communication part of the career fields in one of the ore bodies, the revision to the design depth, leaving the ore pillars, the phased development of tsepnogo Congress in the developed space before joining the Congress to limit the pit and Refine the ore pillars. In the interim triple ledges rebuild convex-polygonal profile, from turning the site form a ring transport conventions opposite direction. Revision ore pillars are in layers due to the repayment of transport congresses, built by ore body, the stages of development areas to Otago the fall of the ore body Board build a career high ledges. And the ring transport conventions form with a one-sheet movement. When forming tsepnogo transport exit direction of the filling is carried out from two sides towards each other. For the formation of the convex-polygonal profile of a slope built-in ledge produce contouring of the top of the wells at an angle of 75°, drilled to a dual height of the ledge, and for contouring the bottom of the wells at a 90° angle, drilled with the soles of the first horizon at the height of the double ledge (RF Patent No. 2230192, E21C 41/26, publ. 10.01.2008,).
The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of removal in the first stage, the total volume of overburden from the quarry, that requires significant resources and time in the first stage, GR, and second during the formation of tsepnogo Congress. And the application for final development stage career ledges convex-polygonal profile leads to an increase in Stripping operations. In addition, technology plays the lower part of the ledge in the limiting position with the soles of the first horizon at the height of the double ledge leads to a higher cost of drilling and blasting works by increasing the amount of drilling work. Also not provided the required configuration of the bottom of the quarry for the transition to underground mining. All this reduces the efficiency of mining operations, affects economic performance.
The known method of opencast, including the refinement of the upper portion of the pit for temporary transport communications using indoramin trucks to the intermediate circuit are determined by the conditions for effective application of the latter, and the subsequent finalization career with the transition to the use of articulated dump trucks and a steeply transport berms. In this case the formation of the boundary contours of the career carried out on the conditions of its opening to the full design depth steeply transport berms with the movement of the rock mass directly in external dumps and warehouses (RF Patent No. 2464422, E21C 41/26, publ. 20.10.2012,).
The disadvantage of this method is its low efficiency. With this approach to mining, there is a large gap in the ore. To avoid interruption of the concentrator (OFF) ore for the period of reconstruction schemes of opening career you need to make the accumulation of ore supplies warehouse in quantities sufficient to supply the mill with the ore in a given period. This leads to a great imbalance of mining operations and an increase in demand for mining equipment, and when the reduction processing of the ore to the reduction of commercial products. Economic feasibility of application of W is Mirna dump trucks limited so CSS without reloading sites can only be used on the fields of small and average depth. In addition to the increased cost of ton/km, the implementation of transport schemes without transshipment point will increase Park purchased trucks or increasing the period of extraction. Also, this method does not ensure complete extraction of reserves in case of increase of the volume of ore in the contact part of the RT.
The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a way of completion career with two adjacent ore bodies, including the construction of the ring transport congresses opposite direction with a single movement of dump trucks, abutting on divergent sites, and transshipment sites, the offset of the pit in places steep fall of the ore body ledges convex-polygonal profile, divided by a safety berms required width, forming a part of the career field, one of the ore bodies, spiral transport Congress width duplex traffic, ore extraction on both ore bodies by drilling and blasting method for separation of ore pillar in the pit, when finalizing pillars gradual formation from turning the site of the new transport conventions with the repayment old, t is unsportive ore to the mill, and overburden in the outer blade, the construction of the underground mine workings and systems of drainage. Under reconstruction the reconstruction of the Eastern side of the quarry with partial refinement of its pillars and handling of waste rock into the internal dump, renewal parts SSB transport Congress on steeply inclined, transportation of ore from the lower horizons career SSS to transshipment site, overloading in heavy trucks for transportation to the factory, creating a breed of pillows at the bottom. Moreover, the formation of steep transport congresses carried out with a gradient of 200 to 250‰. At the time of finalisation of pillar transport connection before turning the site carried out through the inclined shaft (Patent RF №2382200, E21C 41/26, publ. 10.01.2008,).
The disadvantage of using this method is its low efficiency. The method does not ensure complete extraction of reserves in case of increase of the volume of ore in the contact part of the RT. Technology improvements ore pillars using only a steeply transport communications on the depth of tunable pit increases the amount of ore left at the first stage in the ore pillars. Therefore, removal of this volume will be an expansion of the Park SSS or increase time of completion career. Technology plays the lower part of the ledge convex-polygonal Professor who La in the limiting position with the soles of the first horizon at the height of the double ledge would increase the cost of drilling and blasting operations (due to the increased volume of the wells).
The technical result of the invention is to improve the efficiency and completeness of extraction of minerals in the open way, by reducing the volume of transported overburden during further development, while ensuring the safety of operations and training of the bottom of the quarry for the transition to underground mining.
This objective is achieved in that in the way of completion career with two adjacent ore bodies: Western (MDGs) and Eastern (art), including the construction of the ring transport conventions (TC) counter direction with a single movement of dump trucks, abutting on divergent sites, transshipment site, construction of the pit triple ledges at an angle of 60-75°, divided by a safety berms required width, forming a part of the career fields in one of the ore bodies transport Congress width, providing two-way traffic of trucks,and adjacent to the divergent sites, ore extraction in both ore bodies by drilling and blasting method, leaving pillars at the sides, the export of ore to the mill, Stripping - in external dumps, construction of underground mine workings and systems of drainage, under reconstruction the reconstruction of the Eastern pit wall art with partial refinement of its pillars and handling of waste rock into the internal dump, p is reformina part of the single-sideband transport Congress on the Eastern side of steeply inclined, transportation of ore from the lower horizons career articulated dump trucks (SSS) to transshipment site, overloading in heavy trucks for transportation to the factory, creating a breed of pillows on the floor of the quarry, originally from the lower turning the site into mined-out space ZRT occiput capital Congress, providing transport links to the full depth of the quarry, at the stage of reconstruction of the pit sequentially forming ledges with a vertical slope and berms minimum width, two-lane reconstruct the Congress in the Congress with an increased slope in the opposite direction from the turning area in the South-Western part of the quarry form a new osypnoi Congress, carry the drainage tube in the area, repay TC opposite direction with single-lane traffic on the Western side is built from the top turning the site in the northwestern part of the career TC with increased slope, work out the pillars ZRT, expand new osypnoi Congress and carry out loading and transportation part of the ore during the mining of pillars ZRT appliances with a remote control (RC) to the interchange point, another part of the ore is transported to the bottom of the art, creating the ore pillow after completion of pillars ZRT to technologically appropriate depth, striking the pillars of art on the ore pillow settle Tran is tailoring Congress.
Renewal SSB transport Congress on steeply inclined carry on the Eastern edge of the quarry, tykwa the Western section of the same Congress.
The formation of a new tsepnogo TC in the developed space ZRT lead with a slope of 120‰.
The restructuring of the two-lane TC in Congress with an increased slope 140‰ in the opposite direction leading from the upper turning the site.
Transportation of ore from the transfer point to the transshipment site are with the driver, then overload in heavy trucks and transported to the factory.
When porting the system of drainage in microbe produce drilling vodopropusknye wells in underground mining, which further produce wastewater.
From the upper turning the site into North-Western part of career building TC (18) with a slope of 140‰.
To increase ore extraction in an open way after revision pillars of both ore bodies TC with increased slope 140‰ built from the top turning the site into North-Western part of the quarry, can be continued until the ore pillars.
And the transshipment of ore with ZRT in the ore pillow if possible, can be employed heavy trucks.
Features of mining quarry "Good" associated with staging and testing mostorod the ing and refining the ore pillars with a view to ensuring a stable amount of processing ore at the processing plant by creating a reserve of ore on the ore depots for the period of the underground mine at full capacity.
The dumping of capital exit 11 from the lower turning the site into mined-out space ZRT at the first stage of refinement allows to increase the volume of ore production in the current career path, providing transport links to the full depth of the quarry, which increases the efficiency of mining by open method.
Introduction under reconstruction quarry ledges with a vertical slope and berms minimum width allows it to fit into the existing scheme of opening, while reducing the amount of overburden and to improve the efficiency of operations.
Reconstruction under reconstruction two-lane TC 8 in the Congress with an increased slope in the opposite direction 17 allows you to create a new transport communication art and partly to work out the ore pillars 14 of the existing fleet of trucks.
Forming on the rotary platform 9 in the South-Western part of the career of the new tsepnogo exit 18 provides transport links to the full depth of the quarry for trucks with wheel formula 4×2, and also allows you to increase the volume of mined ore from pillar 14 art 3 the second stage of the mining pit. Increase the width of the vehicle 18 allows the loading and transportation of ore equipment with the remote control when mining of pillars ZRT. This increases the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Renewal SSB transportnogo the exit 4 on a steeply 15 are carried out by the Eastern Board, tykwa the Western section of the same Congress that allows you to create a new transport links in the area from razminovochnaya platform 5 at elevation. minus 80 m to the upper pivot of the platform 6 at elevation. minus 170 m New transport link between these sites allows you to transport SSS mined ore transshipment points 19 (at elevation. 70 m) and 22 (at elevation. minus 30 m) and further to congestion in heavy-duty trucks to warehouse ore aboard a career that improves the completeness of the extraction and the efficiency of the method in General.
The formation of the West pit outside ledges with a vertical slopes (up to 180 m) and berms minimum width, as well as transport Congress 20 with an increased slope 140‰ reduces the amount of Stripping activity in the finalization of pillars ZRT, increasing the efficiency of the way of completion career.
Ore transportation equipment with remote control lead to a transfer point 21, next to the driver to overload the site with congestion in heavy trucks. Complex mining equipment with remote control allows you to work in hazardous, to increase the production of ore without violating the requirements of safety, increasing the efficiency of the method in General.
The transfer of the drainage system 12 with the MDGs in microbe allows you to move from the Eastern part of the quarry on the MDGs additional volume of scrys who's breeds and increase the width of tsepnogo exit 18 to 50÷80 m, that will increase the level of safety of mining works at the final development stage career.
Transportation of ore to the bottom of the art allows you to create ore cushion 24. Further, when mining stocks underground way it will increase the efficiency of the method of processing as a whole.
Blasting the ore pillars of art on the ore pillow after completion of pillars ZRT up technologically feasible depth reduces the time to finalize career open way, to prepare the bottom of the pit to underground mining method.
The use of dump trucks for handling ore with ZRT in the ore pillow allows you to increase the amount taken from the quarry ore during the mining of pillars ZRT.
The method is illustrated in Fig.1-4:
in Fig.1 - position of mining operations at the end of the testing of the first stage career in the plan;
in Fig.2 - position of mining operations at the end of the testing of the second stage career in the plan;
in Fig.3 - regulation of mining operations at the end of the refinement career in the plan;
in Fig.4 - scheme of phased testing career:
1 - quarry;
2 - Western ore body (ZRT);
3 - East ore body (art);
4 - transport conventions opposite direction with single-motion;
5 - razminovochnye site at minus 80 m and minus 125 m on the southern and Western sides of the quarry;
6 - upper pivot the Playground is especially at minus 170 m, which are joined transport conventions 4 opposite direction with single-motion;
7 - subparallel sloping gallery with access (portal) in the quarry at minus 170 m and minus 290 m;
8 - two-way transport Congress on art 3;
9 - rotary Playground with a loop connection of the inclined sections at minus 245 m;
10 - lower pivot area with the portal at minus 290 m;
11 - capital osypnoi exit at the end of the first stage of completion of the quarry on the North-Western side of the mark. minus 290 m - minus 320 m;
12 - system of water drainage;
13 - pillar ZRT 2;
14 - the pillar of art 3;
15 - steeply inclined (225-237‰) transport Congress on the Eastern edge in the interval mark. minus 42 m minus 155 m;
16 - pocket for maneuver (turn) dump trucks;
17 - transport Congress with an increased slope 140‰ in art 3;
18 - new osypnoi Congress with a slope of 120‰ at the end of the second stage of the completion of the quarry;
19 - reloading point at elevation 70 m;
20 - transport exit stamp from minus 170 m ÷ minus 260 m with a slope of 140‰ in the North-Western part of the quarry;
21 - Playground - interchange point at minus 255 m (change control mode remote control driver and back);
22 - reloading point at minus 30 m;
23 - rock pillow on ZRT 2;
24 - ore pillow on art 3.
An example of a specific implementation
Field Tr. "Good" is represented by two steeply dipping individual ore bodies 2 - Western (MDGs) and 3 - East (art), split rock bridge (Fig.1). The testing is performed by stages in depth General, career 1. The design depth of the pit is estimated to be equal to 640 m (A. about. minus 320 m). Following refinement of the underlying stocks will be by underground methods.
The first stage of refinement (Fig.1). In the process of working out the rock mass in the contours of the initial stages of development of the field in depth, side career "Successful" formed internal ledges at an angle of inclination of the slopes 60÷75°, divided by a safety berms required width. The width of the congresses to minus 80 m provides two-way movement of heavy trucks, and in the interval marks minus 80 m ÷ minus 170 m - SSB transport conventions opposite direction 4 razminovochnye 5 (on the Western and southern edge of the quarry at minus 80 m and minus 125 m) sites. Plank congresses opposite direction 4 are joined at minus 170 m on the upper pivot the platform 6, which also built experimental-industrial underground area with penetration 2 subparallel inclined adits 7 with access (portal) into the quarry. Below, minus 170 m to the mark. minus 290 m opening career is on the PFUR the th body 3 (art) two-way transport exit 8, with swivel pad 9 with a loop connection of the inclined sections at minus 245 m and adjacent to the lower pivot the platform 10 to the minus 290 m, which is also the output (portal) of subparallel inclined tunnels 7. With the turning of the platform 10 is formed of capital osypnoi exit 11 in the range marks minus 290 m ÷ minus 320 m, thereby providing transport links to the whole depth of the pit 1. Osypnoi capital exit 11 is constructed in the developed space in the North-Western part of the quarry after 1 ore body (MDGs) in this area. There, in the developed space Western part of the quarry, pass zumpfe building drainage system 12.
Preparation of rock to excavation is carried out drilling and blasting method, then the rock mass ship excavators in dump trucks and transported to the beneficiation plant (warehouse ore) and in external dumps.
Board career 1 at the end of the first stage is formed by the contours of the ore body obtained according to operational intelligence, with its borders at the sides are left Western 13 and 14 Eastern ore pillars, formed as a result of the increase in ore with respect to the data of prospecting. The mining of these ore reserves is provided on the 2nd and 3rd stages of completion career 1.
The second phase of improvements (Phi is .2). The second stage is the partial revision of pillars 14 art 3, designed to test the main volume of ore to minus 320 m (about 84%) with application of the existing fleet of mining equipment. To do this, rebuild the Eastern wall of the open pit 1. The post is on art 3 ledges with a vertical slope from the level 10 m When this rebuild part of the transport exit opposite direction with single-movement 4 on the East side and form a steeply transport junction 15 in the interval marks minus 42 m ÷ minus 155 m with longitudinal slope 225÷237‰ adjacent to the site of the former transport exit 4. As part of exit 4 on the Western side of the marks minus 80 m ÷ minus 90 m extends through the adjacent safety berm, thereby forming a pocket 16 for maneuver (turn) dump trucks. With the upper turning the site 6 (in the interval marks minus 170 m ÷ minus 260 m) reconstruct two-way transport exit 8, forming (in the opposite direction) transport Congress 17 with an increased slope 140‰. Congress 17 pass through the ore body art 3 partial ore pillars 14.
During this period, the output of the personnel mine water drainage, from the bottom to the surface using subparallel sloping tunnel 7 through a portal on the lower pivot area 0.
In the initial period of posting of the Eastern side of the quarry 1 (art 3) part of the overburden, after blasting, roll on the downstream berm and the bottom of the quarry, the other part of the overburden is removed in the overburden dumps: internal and external.
The remainder of the overburden is transported to the area razminovochnaya pad 5 on the horizon minus 80 m, which created the pocket 16 can slide on the bottom of the quarry, thereby creating a supply of overburden required for the formation of a new tsepnogo exit 18. Further, when the reduction of mining operations below 490 m elevation. minus 170 m), the formation of exit 18 is carried out with a rotating platform 9. New osypnoi exit 18 is formed in the developed space in the South-Western portion of the pit 1 from a depth of 565 m (elevation minus 245 m) to a depth of 640 m elevation. minus 320 m) with a slope of 120‰, ensuring the availability of transport links on the depth of the quarry on the West to practice art 3 using conventional trucks (wheel formula 4×2).
During this period, the transportation of the ore is hauled by dump trucks Cat 785 (4×2) and Cat-740 (6×6). Dump trucks Cat 785 downloading 65-70 tonnes (capacity 136 tonnes) ore export warehouse ore for transportation above minus 170 m using transport exit 4 with single-movement and razminovochnye pads 5 located on the Western and southern sides of the car is EPA 1 (movement in Congress is the signs of priority). Due to the fact that dump trucks Cat-740 (articulated dump trucks - SSS) it is advisable to apply for a limited distance at 70 m is formed transshipment point 19. SSS download-33 tonnes (capacity 38.1 tons) transport the ore over a shortened course on a steeply transport junction 15, located on the Eastern edge of the quarry 1, to the handling of paragraph 19, further accumulation of ore shipped to Cat 785 and taken to the ore stockpile.
By the end of the second stage pumping 12, located on RT 2, is transferred to the annular area career 1. Further discharge of mine water flowing below the mark. 115 m (at the bottom of the quarry), through underground mining, which is drilling vodopropusknye wells. Plot sanitation career in elevation. 115 m - minus 320 m is stored as a reserve for the period of Western mining ore pillars 13. Upstream areas of internal drainage, designed to intercept rainfall and flood water entering the quarry, continue to function throughout the period of conducting underground mining operations.
After transfer of pumping 12 in the annular zone of the quarry Stripping with art transported to the MDGs and enhance osypnoi exit 18 to 50 m ÷ 80 m, which enable it to improve the safety of mining works at the final stage is testing career 1.
The third stage of completion (Fig.3 and 4). At the final stage of developing the Western 13 and 14 Eastern ore pillars. The pillars above minus 260 m are processed in an open way, below is underground. Given the short time defined by the start date of commissioning of the underground mine, producing a full cycle of testing and to remove the entire volume repulsed pillars of career is not possible. In this regard, most of the volume of ore from the ore pillars 13 and 14 (above minus 260 m) after blasting is stored at the bottom 1 in the ore cushion 24 on art.
First of all produce a revision of the ore pillars 13 ZRT, repay transport exit 4 with single-lane traffic on the Western side of the interval marks minus 80 ÷ minus 170 meters To ensure access equipment minus 215 m in the North-Western portion of the pit 1 is constructed transport Congress 20 with the upper pivot pad 6 with a slope of 140‰. The Western wall of the open pit 1 is formed outside ledges with vertical jambs and safety berms minimum width. At the end of the mining of pillars 13 the height of the plot side with a vertical ledges will reach 180 meters of Loading of ore trucks is on the new adipem Congress 18 in the immediate vicinity of the bead, with the bulk of the rock mass, the height of which will be repeatedly privatizerussia the height of the stock truck. Given the increased danger of mining operations in such conditions, loading and hauling of rock from the face will be done by the loader Le Toumeau L-950 and SSS with remote control (remote control). To manage complex mining equipment is formed mobile point control, which is located on the site of the interchange paragraph 21. Upon departure of trucks from the danger zone to the site 21 further movement SSS to the TRANS-shipment point is controlled by the driver. Ore SSS (CAT-740) is transported by the congresses 18, 17, 15 in overlying transshipment point 22 at minus 30 m, where it is being shipped in trucks CAT-785 and transported to the warehouse ore. Simultaneously repulsed Stripping leave at the bottom of the pit 1 (Fig.3, 4) breed cushion 23 on the MDGs. After blasting and partial removal of the Western ore pillar 13, the remainder of the ore will be placed in a rejected state over ore wholly designed for underground mining at minus 320 m on art in the ore cushion 24. At the end of the completion of the Western ore pillars 13 (ZRT) plot quarry dewatering below the mark. 115 m is removed.
If necessary, increase the amount of ore mined by open method, transport Congress 20 may be extended to minus 260 m In transportation of ore will be lower Gori is onto on the Western side of the quarry 1 transport Congress 20 through upper pivot pad 6, followed by a steeply transport junction 15 to the TRANS-shipment point 22. And remote control of mining complex will be carried out from the upper turning the site 6.
Blasting the ore pillars 14 art 3 is in the final stages of completion career 1. Additional revealing the workings is not performed, in addition, reclaimed land transport Congress with an increased slope 17 in the range of minus marks 215 - minus 260 m freight transportation link with the bottom of the quarry is interrupted. When breaking pillars 14 the rock mass can slide on the bottom of the quarry bestransportnye way with the subsequent planning for technology of underground mining operations.
When mining of pillars ZRT SSS are used for transportation of ore from tsepnogo exit 18 on transshipment point 22, and for transshipment of ore on the art for the formation of ore cushion 24. To increase moved to a warehouse ore during the mining of pillars ZRT in handling if possible, can be employed heavy trucks.
Thus, the proposed method:
to finish off both the ore body to a technologically appropriate depth,
- separate to form one ore body rock pillow, on the second ore cushion, which reduces dilution and ore loss at underground trabot the e,
- to improve the safety of mining operations with shipping and hauling an additional amount of ore transportation system remote control.
1. Way of completion career with two adjacent ore bodies (RT): Western (MDGs) and Eastern (art), including the construction of the ring transport congresses opposite direction with a single movement of dump trucks, abutting on divergent sites, transshipment points, the offset of the pit triple ledges angle 60÷75°, divided by a safety berms required width, forming a part of the career fields in one of the ore bodies transport Congress (TC) wide, providing two-way traffic of trucks, and adjacent to the divergent sites, ore extraction in both ore bodies by drilling and blasting method, leaving pillars at the sides, the export of ore to the mill, Stripping - in external dumps, construction of underground mine workings and systems of drainage, under reconstruction the reconstruction of the Eastern side of the quarry (art) with partial refinement of its pillars and handling of waste rock into the internal dump, renewal parts SSB transport Congress on the Eastern side of steeply inclined, transportation of ore from the lower horizons career articulated dump trucks (SSS) on the loading platform, congestion in heavy trucks for transportation to the factory, creating a breed of pillows at the bottom, characterized in that, initially, with the lower turning the site into mined-out space ZRT occiput capital Congress, providing transport links to the full depth of the quarry, at the stage of reconstruction of the pit sequentially forming ledges with a vertical slope and berms minimum width, two-lane reconstruct the Congress in the Congress with an increased slope in the opposite direction from the turning area in the South-Western part of the quarry form a new osypnoi Congress transferred the drainage tube in the area, repay TC opposite direction with single-lane traffic on the Western side, build from the top turning the site in the northwestern part of the career TC with increased slope, work out the pillars ZRT, expand new osypnoi Congress and carry out loading and transportation part of the ore during the mining of pillars ZRT appliances with a remote control (RC) to the interchange point, another part of the ore is transported to the bottom of the art, creating the ore pillow, and after completion of pillars ZRT to technologically appropriate depth marking the pillars of art on the ore pillow settle transport Congress.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that at renewal SSB Tran is tailor Congress on the Eastern side of a steeply join the Western section of the same Congress.
3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the formation of a new tsepnogo TC in the developed space ZRT lead with a slope of 120‰.
4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the reconstruction of the two-lane TC in Congress with an increased slope 140‰ in the opposite direction leading from the upper turning the site.
5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the transportation of ore from the transfer point to the transshipment site are with the driver, then overload of SSS in heavy trucks and transported to the factory.
6. The method according to p. 1, wherein when moving the system of drainage in microbe produce drilling vodopropusknye wells in underground mining, which further produce wastewater.
7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the upper turning the site in the northwestern part of the career construct a vehicle with a slope of 140‰.
8. The method according to p. 1 and/or 7, characterized in that to increase the amount of ore mined in an open way after finishing both pillars of ore bodies to the most technologically appropriate depth TC can be continued until the ore pillows.
9. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the handling of ore into the pillow with the MDGs can be employed heavy trucks.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the mining industry and may be used during extraction and processing of molybdenum-containing ores. A method for extraction and processing of molybdenum-containing ores involves open-pit field zoning, outlining of solid ore sections different by processing characteristics, selective extraction on the outlined sections with ores allocation to separate the flow from the zones with increased molybdenite oxidation and its direction to luminescent separation. A powellite enriched product of separation after its size degradation is directed to bulk floatation obtaining a rough molybdenic concentrate. Then after molybdenite oxidation in the rough concentrate, powellite is leached in an environment of a molten mixture of chloride and sodium silicate. The tail product of separation after its size degradation is directed to bulk floatation obtaining the molybdenic concentrate.
EFFECT: increasing a level and quality of molybdenum extraction to the end product from balance molybdenum ores with higher degree of molybdenite oxidation.
SUBSTANCE: in order to enlarge the range of simultaneous processing and versions of control of a cutting force in the processing zone, formation of destruction zones is performed considering strength characteristics of rock as to width of the processed surface at variation of functional and technological parameters and their rational combination under conditions of selective development of deposits with complex structures. Strength characteristics of rock are fixed by mine rock strength recording sensors connected through a system block to a control system of operation of hydraulic cylinders, and drum balance is provided by distributed offset of hydraulic cylinders. Pressure of working liquid in piston cavities of the hydraulic cylinders is designed for a force required for rotation of turning levers.
EFFECT: increasing productivity, improving reliability and enlarging technological efficiency of destruction of rocks of different strength and coherence degree by controlling a cutting force in a zone of processing and formation in a surface layer of the processed massif of destruction zones considering strength characteristics of rock at selective development of deposits with complex structures by means of open-pit surface miners.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method describes the selection of sections in the zone of wind currents, drilling of ledges by wells, charging them with explosive charges, blasting and excavation of the blasted mined rock. Meanwhile only upper ledges are drilled without subdrilling to the design outline of the edge profile, and charging and blasting of wells is performed stage by stage by blocks to the profile height. The correlation of the angle of incidence and profile of the open pit edge and the dominating wind speed under the mathematical formula is determined.
EFFECT: improvement of performance of ventilation of open pits and coal strip mines by ensuring of continuous streamlining of edges of open pits and coal strip mines by a natural air flow.
1 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises removal of covering access rock at blast loosening by charges with air cushion in the charge lower end, mechanical loosening and push loading of rock, its piling and loading by excavator into carriers. Blast holes for access rock are drilled in mineral formation to the depth of air cushion at the charge bottom end. Single blasting is performed in well-by-well manner by the system of nonelectric initiation. Every second or third blast well is drilled in mineral formation of decreased hardness.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of destruction, power saving at mineral loosening.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: engineering-geological and hydrogeological survey is carried out to detect available landslide bodies. Then biolocation survey is performed, using the results of which they detect underground watercourses and discover their characteristics for detection of quantity and location of through filters. Afterwards on the surface of a ledge or a slope or a hillside outside the landslide body a header is arranged for collection of surface waters and some shallow watercourses. Afterwards from the foot of the ledge or the slope or the hillside they arrange a drainage mine deep into the ledge or the slope or the hillside outside the landslide body, from the surface of the ledge or the slope or the hillside they drill vertical wells until coupling with the drainage mine for through filers, couplings are arranged with connection chambers, through filters are lowered into vertical wells from the surface, and through filters are made in the form of pipes with perforated sections of holes and filtering elements made at the coupling level with underground watercourses. The header and the drainage mine are arranged with an inclination of i=0.005 towards the drain for self-flow of captured water.
EFFECT: provision of reliable prevention of landslide formation due to complete drainage of surface and underground waters from a landslide body.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and can be used at formation and stabilisation of ore quality at a stage of mining operations. The method involves determination of coordinates of a bucket of a mining unit, content of a useful component in the mined rock in the bucket of the mining unit as a conditional mathematical expectation of content of the useful component at an excavation point, which is determined as per results of preliminary testing of a network of wells in vicinity of the excavation point with determined coordinates, loading of the transport vehicle and its addressing to unloading sites considering content of the useful component in the transported mined rock. Depending on position of the mining unit in relation to location zones of technological sorts of the mined rock in a working face, a possibility is established and a task is created for predominant excavation of a certain technological sort at loading of the transport vehicle, in compliance with which positioning of the bucket of the extraction unit is performed in the working face at excavation; besides, mining-out of the rocks of the working face is started from an outline between technological types of the mined rock, the position of which and location zone of technological types is specified by geophysical methods during excavation as per the analysis data of the mined rock in the bucket of the mining unit.
EFFECT: improving parameters of quality and excavation of technological sorts of ores and mined rock for ore sorting.
SUBSTANCE: method involves performance of hierarchically real structural deep differentiation of a massif, a deposit (or its section), thus, pointing out the following: different-scale and heterogeneous operational sections based on the most characteristic mining-and-geological peculiar features, including peculiar features of components of mine rocks, and within their limits - ore (mining), ore-porous and rock (overburden) horizons, in them - ore bodies or their parts, operating and rock units, in them - real heterogeneous excavation elements divided into thin and extremely thin layers presented with amenable, temporary non-amenable, non-amenable and low-grade diamond-containing ore, or with rocks; automated production of advance, current and operational express information using a complex method representing a combination of forecasting of probabilistic spatial distribution of diamonds in ore units and in their elements and further direct automated identification of availability, position, quality and quantity of diamonds in thin ore layers by means of an X-ray fluorescence method. With that, crystals of diamonds are automatically extracted from thin ore layers by means of annular hole drilling of each of the crystals separately, without any disturbance of their integrity, and separated from mini-massif of each developed thin layer.
EFFECT: improving ecological and energy efficiency of development of diamond-ore deposits.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises an extraction of overburden rocks by longitudinal stripping cuts with placement on their bottom of a free strip, handling of overburdens from working face of the longitudinal stripping cut and their storage in an internal dump. The extraction of overburdens by longitudinal stripping cuts with placement on their bottom of a free strip, handling of overburdens from working face of the longitudinal stripping cut and their storage in an internal dump at the edge of these stripping cuts are performed within the extraction block. Meanwhile along the bottom edge of the internal dump of the extraction block an additional free strip is placed, which is used for storage of overburdens, with forming of internal dump.
EFFECT: improvement of performance of direct mining method at the expense of increase of productivity by minimising of length and time of idle running of the stripping equipment.
SUBSTANCE: in an excavation method of a useful deposit at fan-like advance of scope of mining operations, which involves advancing of a permanent and working trench, installation of transport communications, excavation of a useful deposit and overburden rocks by treatment of wedge-shaped blocks, according to the invention, development of wedge-shaped blocks is performed at two stages as per a shuttle-type scheme without any shifting of transport communications with preliminary formation of an advancing recess at a turning point of transport communications in the direction of the open-pit field boundary on condition of parameters of the advancing recess L, B providing minimum development of a wedge-shaped block by value Bmin.
EFFECT: uninterrupted production of a useful mineral along the whole scope of mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises making ramps on the border of working and final pit edges for heavy-duty dump trucks, with the placement of the ramp part on its width on the subrepose remnant of rocks, and on the other part - on the final pit edge. On the working pit edge parallel to the formed ramp for heavy-duty dump trucks the ramp is made for light-duty dump trucks. When it is impossible to locate on the board the ramp for heavy-duty dump trucks under conditions of decreasing with depth career space, a part of this ramp, located on the subrepose remnant of the rocks, is developed with transportation of rock mass to the surface by light-duty dump trucks on the ramp on the working pit edge. On the part of the ramp for heavy-duty dump trucks, located at the final pit edge the ramp is formed for light-duty dump trucks. The ramp for light-duty dump trucks from the working edge is moved to the final pit edge, with the formation on it of the steep ramp for movement on it of dump trucks with articulated frame. The rock mass from the steep ramp is transported to the surface on the ramp for light-duty dump trucks on the final pit edge. At the lower part of the pit under conditions of confined space the steep ramp for dump trucks with articulated frame is formed in a known manner.
EFFECT: improving the efficiency of the development of deep-seated deposits.
FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.
SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.
7 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing quarry on rows, of which first one is extracted to planned depth with external dump-forming, and extraction of following rows is performed with use of internal dump-forming, placing dug rocks to extracted space of adjacent row with common displacement of dump front with development of mining operations. Second and following rows of quarry are divided on basis of height on extraction levels, extraction of uppermost level is performed with placement of dug rocks in upper dump level of extracted space of adjacent row, using surface transporting communication lines, and during extraction of second extractive level dumping of dump level of inner dump is primarily performed by forming pioneer dump at longitudinal processed edge of quarry, on upper area of which transporting lines are placed and dumping of dump level is performed from there, with descent of mining operations in working area of extractive level profile of upper dump area is altered to provided necessary cargo communications of working horizons of extractive level to dump level, after extraction of extractive level remaining pioneer dump is dug to upper mark of following extractive level, and extraction of following extractive levels is performed analogically, using reformed upper area of pioneer dump.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.
2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.
SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.
EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
1 ex, 10 dwg