Composition of extraction chromatographic material for selective separation of u(vi), th(iv), np(iv) and pu (iv) from nitric acid solutions
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of recycling of radioactive solutions. Composition of extraction chromatographic material for selective separation of U(VI), Th(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) from nitric acid solutions contains three components. As complexants composition contains 33% of methyltrioctylammonium nitrate (MTOAN) and 1-16% of phosphoryl podand. As matrix composition contains macroporous spherical granulated copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene. As phosphoryl podand used are derivatives of 1,5-bis[2-(oxyethoxyphosphoryl)-4-(alkyl)phenoxy-3-oxapentane of general formula I , where Alk is alkyl C1-C12.
EFFECT: extension of spectrum of highly efficient selective sorbents for extraction of U(VI), Th(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) from nitric acid solutions.
The high radioactivity of the solutions obtained in the processing of irradiated nuclear materials, puts forward a number of specific requirements to the methods of division and separation of their components. These methods should have a high selectivity and versatility, i.e., must be suitable for the separation of components of solutions with a wide variety of their composition, to vary the utmost simplicity and the possibility of application of remote technology for their implementation. To the greatest extent this can be achieved by a method of extraction chromatography using sorption materials of various types. As known sorbents do not always possess the necessary characteristics, the development of new compositions and highly efficient extraction chromatographic materials is of great interest.
The present invention relates to the field of chemical technologies for processing of radioactive solutions obtained in the processing of irradiated nuclear materials, namely, compositions extraction chromatographic materials obtained by applying (impregnation) organic ion-selective complexing compounds in organic and inorganic matrix.
The aim of the invention is to increase the selectivity of separation of U(VI), Th(IV), Np(IV) the Pu(IV) from nitric acid solutions, obtained by dissolution of irradiated nuclear materials in nitric acid.
The closest analogues of the properties to the proposed technical solution is the sorbent brand TEVA Resin" produced by the company "Eichrom Technologies, Inc", where as the complexing component is used methyltrioctylammonium nitrate (MEAN), and the matrix is a copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene. [1. E. R. Horvitz, R. Chiarizia, M. L. Dietz, H. Diamond, and D. Nelson. "Separation and Preconcentration of Actinides from Acidic Media by Extraction Chromatography", Analytica Chimica Acta, 281 (1993) 361-372. 2 E. P. Horwitz and Maxell, Sherrod L. et al. "Separation and Preconcentration of Actinides by Extraction Chromatography Using a Supported Liquid Anion Exchanger: Application to the Characterization of High-Level Nuclear Waste Solutions", Analytica Chimica Acta, 310 (1995) 63-78.].
The disadvantages of sorbent TEVA Resin for the separation of U(VI), Th(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) from nitric acid solutions include the low partition coefficients of these elements, solubility MEAN in nitric acid, which leads to its leaching from the surface of the sorbent, and, as a consequence of instability of the separation process of the target elements.
The task of improving the selectivity of separation of U(VI), Th(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) from nitric acid solutions is solved in that the proposed composition of the new extraction chromatographic material impregnated type, including as a complexing component mixture MEAN, a constant percentage of 33% and strippedand - a derivative of 1,5-bis[2-(acetoxymethyl)-4-(alkyl)]phenoxy-3-oxapentane (I), where: R represents alkyl, C1-C12with the percentage from 1% to 16%, and the rest is a polymer matrix - macroporous spherical granular copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene with a granule size of 40-200 microns.
The following examples illustrate the invention:
Synthesis of 1,5-bis[2-(acetoxymethyl)-4-ethyl]phenoxy-3-oxapentane, the structure of which is described by the formula I when R=Et, we have described previously [RF Patent №2391349 for the invention of the Russian Federation 1,5-Bis[2-(acetoxymethyl)-4-ethyl]epoxy-3-oxapentane as a ligand for selective extraction of Thorium(IV) in a series of Uranium(VI) and Lanthanum(III) from nitric acid media / Tsivadze A. Y., Baulin C. E., Baulin D. C., Tananaev, I., Safiulin A. M. Appl. 03.12.2008 published. 10.06.2010 (B. I. No. 16)].
The method for producing the inventive extraction-chromatographic material
A solution of 3.3 g MEAN and 1.6 g of 1,5-bis[2-(acetoxymethyl)-4-ethyl] phenoxy-3-oxapentane and 45 ml of chloroform is rapidly added to a suspension containing 5.1 g of a copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene with the size of the spherical granules 100-150 μm and 50 ml of chloroform. The resulting mixture was stirred on a magnetic stirrer for 1 h, then transferred to a round bottom flask and remove the solvent in vacuo on a rotary is m evaporator. The residue is transferred into a porcelain Cup and dried to constant weight at room temperature. The sorbent yield 10.0 g (100%).
Sorption characteristics of the proposed sorbents with respect to U(VI), Th(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) was investigated by the method of frontal extraction chromatography in different experimental conditions (composition of the sorbent, at various concentrations of HNO3and in the presence of oxalic acid as a Stripping component). To determine the dynamic distribution coefficients (Kd) analyze elements of the front output curves (Fig.1 - typical front output curves) were processed according to the method described in [brown t, Garcini, Extraction chromatography. M: Peace.: - 1978. 615 S.]. Dynamic distribution coefficients Kdfor each of the retrieved items was calculated by the formula:
where V0,5- weight of the solution,
passed through the sorbent to half overshoot, g;
meis the mass of sorbent in the column,
Front output curves of U(VI) depending on the composition of the extraction chromatographic material shown in Fig.2, where 1 - is orbent, containing 33% MEAN; 2 - 15% of compound I; 3 - 33% MEAN and 3.2% of compound I; 4 - 33% MTOAH and 4.8% of compound I; 5 - 33% MEAN and 8.0% of compound I; 6 - 33% MEAN and 16.0% of compound I. In all experiments, the mass of the sorbent was 15 mg; the amount of sorbent granules 40-70 μm; concentration of U(VI) 20 mg/l; the concentration of HNO30,4 M Similar frontal according to Th(IV) shown in Fig.3; where 1 - sorbent, containing 33% MEAN; 2 - 15% of compound I; 3 -33% MEAN and 3.2% of compound I; 4 -33% MEAN and 8% of compound I; 5 -33% MEAN and 16% of compound I; in all experiments, the mass of the sorbent was 15 mg; granules size 40-70 μm; concentration of Th(IV) and HNO3accordingly amounted to 2 mg/l and 0.4 M In Fig.4 shows a front output curves of Np(IV) for sorbents with different composition, where 1-63 mg sorbent, containing 33% MEAN; 2 - 70 mg of sorbent, containing 33% MEAN and 1.5% of compound I; 3 -70 mg sorbent, containing 33% MEAN and 11% of compound I; 4 -77 mg sorbent, containing 33% of compound I and 16% of compound I. the Size of sorbent granules was 150-315 μm; the diameter of the column 4.6 mm; speed eluent, 1 ml/min; the concentration of Np(IV) and HNO3was 6.8 mg/l and 0.5 M, respectively. Front output curves of U(VI), Zr(IV), Th(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV), obtained on the sorbent, containing 33% MEAN, 1% phosphorylated I, at a flow rate of eluent, 1 ml/min, the concentration of U(VI), Th(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV), equal to 5 mg/l and the concentration of HNO3equal to 0.8 is shown in Fig.5. The analysis of these dependencies allows us to conclude that in the case of sorption of U(VI), Th(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV), the use of a mixture MEAN and phosphorylated I as components of the stationary phase sorbents leads to a significant synergistic effect, the maximum expression which occurs in the sorbent, containing 33% MEAN and 16% of compound I, which corresponds to the molar ratio of these components is equal to 2:1. For example, the minimum value of the distribution coefficient for Th(IV) at a concentration of CHNO3M for the proposed sorbent is 2700, and for the prototype (sorbent brand TEVA Resin") is similar to the value of Kd=90 (Fig.6, where 1 - sorbent, containing 20% MEAN; 2-21,6% of compound I; 3-20% MEAN and 21.6% of compound I, when the concentration of Th(IV) 20 mg/l).
Thus, the sorption capacity of the inventive sorbent 30 times sorbent brand TEVA Resin".
It should be noted that the dependence of the dynamic values of the distribution coefficients for U(VI) and Th(IV) on the concentration of HNO3(Fig.7, where U(VI)-1 and Th(IV)-2) when using sorbent containing 20% MEAN and 21.6% of compound I, unlike sorbents on the basis of individual MEAN and phosphorylated I (Fig.6) essentially depends on the concentration of HNO3that allows you to selectively implement the sorption-desorption of these actinides selection of the concentration of HNO3.
It is established that eSerbia U(VI), Th(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) from the surface of the sorbent can be efficiently carried out by adding eluent ammonium oxalate (Fig.8 the dependence of the distribution coefficients of U(VI), Zr(IV), Th(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) concentration of ammonium oxalate in eluent). The dependences obtained in the following experimental conditions: mass of sorbent 40 mg of the sorbent Composition: 33% MEAN and 1% phosphorylated I. the flow Rate of eluent, 1 ml/min, the Concentration of U(VI), Th(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) in all experiments was 5 mg/L. Concentration of HNO30.8 M Concentration of ammonium oxalate: 1-100 mg/l; 2-50 mg/l; 3-25 mg/l; 4-0 mg/L.
Thus, on the basis of the presented data we can conclude that differences in the dynamic values of the distribution coefficients of U(VI), Th(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) allow selective separation of these elements in the inventive sorbent.
The composition of the extraction chromatographic material impregnated type for the selective extraction of U(VI), Th(IV), Np(IV) and Pu(IV) from nitric acid solutions containing three components with the following content (wt.%): methyltrioctylammonium nitrate (MEAN) - 33, phosphorylated is a derivative of 1,5-bis[2-(acetoxyphenyl)-4-(alkyl)]phenoxy-3-oxapentane General formula I, where R represents alkyl, C1-C12, - 1÷16, macroporous spherical granular copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene with the size of g is anal 40-400 µm -
the rest of it.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to radio analytical chemistry and can be used to monitor content of radionuclides in fresh and sea water, in urine of individuals exposed to radiation and in samples of different process solutions. The method of extracting radionuclides from aqueous solutions includes filtering the solution through a selective sorbent placed in the drip chamber of an apparatus used for intravenous transfusion of infusion solutions and preparing an agent suitable for gamma-ray spectrometry.
EFFECT: faster method while maintaining high efficiency and reducing measurement errors and distortion of results due to absorption of the measured gamma-radiation by filters.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorption extraction of caesium radionuclides from aqueous solutions. The method of extracting caesium radionuclides includes filtering an aqueous solution through a selective sorbent which is iron-potassium ferrocyanide on a support, desorption of caesium from the sorbent with an alkaline solution containing Trilon B and potassium oxalate. The eluate obtained from desorption is further filtered through a sorbent which is nickel-potassium ferrocyanide.
EFFECT: faster caesium extraction and minimal volume of obtained concentrate containing caesium radionuclides.
1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorbents produced on the basis of fly grit microspheres of thermal electric power stations and can be used for removal of radio nuclides from liquid wastes. Synthesis of sorbent comprises deposition of active component on the surface of microspheres by mixing the latter with alkaline metal ferrocyanide solution (arrester), removal of excess arrester solution whereby arrester volume retained by microspheres is defined. Transition metal salt solution is added to the mix of microspheres and arrester to hold the mix to phase separation. Thereafter liquid phase is removed while obtained sorbent is dried. In compliance with second version, sorbent synthesis comprises processing of microspheres with the solution of vanadium, or zirconium or tungsten salts and removal of excess solution whereby salt solution volume retained by microspheres is defined. Thereafter, alkaline metal ferrocyanide solution (arrester) is added thereto, excess arrester solution is removed to hold the mix to phase separation. Thereafter liquid phase is removed while obtained sorbent is dried. In compliance with both versions, sorbent is dried at 60-80°C for 1-2 hours or at a room temperature for 15-20 hours.
EFFECT: efficient removal of cesium, cobalt, cerium, europium, etc.
11 cl, 6 dwg, 6 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to safe operation of nuclear power plants. Content of uranium in process media of nuclear power plants is controlled as follows: collecting a sample of the process medium, alkanising said sample to pH 9-11 by adding ammonia, filtering through a cellulose acetate membrane with freshly deposited manganese dioxide, dissolving the membrane with manganese dioxide in hydrochloric acid while boiling, reducing uranium with ascorbic acid and zinc metal to oxidation state IV, and then determining content of uranium in the solution using a photometric method using arsenazo III in a chloride medium.
EFFECT: simple and faster control, lowering the uranium detection limit 40-fold.
SUBSTANCE: radionuclides and toxic metal ions are removed from water using sorbents in form of gaize crumbs with diameter of 20-50 mm.
EFFECT: invention enables to avoid intermediate operations and use of deactivating substances.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method to decontaminate liquid wastes containing one or several radioactive chemical elements to be removed, including the following stages: the stage of putting in contact the liquid wastes with the solid particles in the first reactor; the stage of suspension settling in the second reactor, as a result of which the solid phase is produced, and the liquid phase; the stage of separation of the specified solid phase and the specified liquid phase, a part of the specified solid phase produced after the stage of settling is repeatedly sent into the first reactor for realisation of the stage of putting in contact.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve efficiency of decontamination.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of handling liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) of nuclear power plants (NPP) and may be used in process of recycling of floor drains and still bottoms of NPP LRW for removal of the radio nuclide 60Co with its concentration in the solid phase. The method to extract the radionuclide 60Co from liquid radioactive wastes of the NPP includes introduction of iron cations (III) and nickel cations (II) into the solution at the mole ratio of 1:1 and potassium ferrocyanide at the mole ratio with iron cations (III) from 2:1 to 4:1.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simpligy the process of extraction of radionuclide 60Co from NPP LRW, to reduce time of its performance.
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is material which contains polyazacycloalkane which is grafted on polypropylene fibre, a method of producing said material and a method of removing metal cations from a liquid by bringing said liquid into contact with said material.
EFFECT: disclosed material combines excellent selectivity of binding heavy metals, lanthanides or actinides with excellent operational characteristics.
55 cl, 6 dwg, 9 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of determining specific activity of radionuclides in low-activity and waste mineralised water involves filtration thereof through a sorbent layer containing a heavy metal ferrocyanide, a heavy metal sulphide and a strontium sorbent with extraction of radionuclides thereon and subsequent spectrometric analysis of said radionuclides. An anion-exchange resin is also added to the sorbent containing a heavy metal ferrocyanide and a heavy metal sulphide. The sulphate obtained after passing water through the three-component sorbent is further filtered through a strontium sorbent layer which is in form of a cation-exchange resin. Gamma-spectrometric determination of specific activity of radionuclides sorbed on the three-component sorbent is carried out. Determination of the specific activity of radionuclides sorbed on the cation-exchange resin is carried out via radiometric measurement of their total β-activity in an eluate.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining specific activity of γ-emitting radionuclides and easy determination of specific activity of γ- and β-emitting radionuclides in low-activity and waste mineralised water.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method to decontaminate spent ion-exchange resin, including changeover of radionuclides sorbed on the ion-exchange resin into a solution of acid sodium salts, treatment of a decontaminating solution from caesium radionuclides on a composite ferrocyanide sorbent and pH correction. Prior to treatment of the decontaminating solution from caesium radionuclides, the solution is treated from cobalt radionuclides by addition of alkali to the range of pH 2.5÷11.7 and co-deposition of cobalt radionuclides with oxides of ferrum (III), desorbed from the ion-exchange resin, with subsequent separation of residue. The treated decontaminating solution is returned into a reservoir of an initial solution. The pH value is corrected to 0.5-4.0 by addition of mineral acids, and the solution is used repeatedly for decontamination of fresh portion of the spent ion-exchange resin.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce volume of radioactive wastes subject to burial or controlled storage due to higher efficiency of decontamination of radionuclides and higher efficiency of decontaminating solution treatment by selective methods.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorption technologies, in particular to adsorbents, which are applied for drying from water of gaseous media. Adsorbent for removal of water from gases contains porous matrix, into pores of which active water-absorbing hygroscopic substance from the group of halogenides of alkaline earth metals is introduced, and as porous matrix applied are mesoporous silicates from the group including silicate MCM-41, alumosilicate, zirconesilicate or titaniumsilicate, obtained by method of sol-gel method or template synthesis with the following heating in air flow at temperature 200-450°C for 1-4 h, with water-free calcium chloride in amount 40-100 wt % counted per dry substance of matrix being introduced from water solution into mesopores with size 2-10 nm and the total volume of pores over 1 cm3/g by method of impregnation and the following drying of adsorbent in air at 100°C for 2 h.
EFFECT: invention ensures creation of effective adsorbent with high capacity by water.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of silicate materials. Disclosed is a method of producing inverted-phase hydrophobisated polysilicate sorbents, which includes reaction of a hydrophilic silicate component with an amphiphilic silicate component in an aqueous medium. Co-condensation of said components is carried out with molar ratio of water to the sum of the silicate components of 124-250. An acidic and/or alkaline component is also added to the reaction mixture until polysilicate hydrogel forms. The obtained sorbent is intended for use as a filter medium and as an enterosorbent.
EFFECT: obtaining three-dimensional hydrogel of polysilicic acid containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups in an aqueous medium.
17 cl, 3 tbl, 1 dwg, 16 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of chromatography. Claimed is a method of obtaining a filling agent. The method includes the first stage of interaction of an inorganic particle, which has a hydroxyl group, with a silane binding agent, having an alkenyl group with the carbon number from 2 or more and 8 or lower and/or an alkynyl group with the carbon number from 2 or more and 7 or lower, and the second stage of interaction of the inorganic particle, which reacted with the silane binding agent, with the compound, represented by the general formula (1): . R1 represents an alkyl group with the carbon number from 4 or more and 50 or lower or an aryl group with the carbon number from 6 or more and 30 or lower, and each of R2 and R3 represents independently a hydrogen atom, chlorine or an alkyl group with the carbon number from 1 or more and 4 or lower. The first stage additionally includes interaction of the inorganic particle, which reacted with the said silane binding agent, with the silane agent, which does not have any alkenyl or alkynyl group.
EFFECT: group of inventions ensures obtaining the filling agent for a column, in which a low degree of widening of the main substance peak is ensured.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of adsorptive separation of one compound from a mixture of C8 aromatic hydrocarbons, namely from para-xylol. The method of separating para-xylol from the mixture of an initial raw material includes bringing liquid, which contains an undesirable isomer, in contact with a layer of adsorbent, which includes crystals of a metal-organic framework, selected from the group, consisting of Al-MIL-53, Zn-MOF-5 and their mixtures, and extraction of para-xylol from the adsorbent. The said crystals of the metal-organic framework adsorb para-xylol and make it possible for meta-xylol, ortho-xylol and ethylbenzene to pass through the said crystals of the metal-organic framework without adsorption.
EFFECT: method provides separation of para-xylol from other C8 aromatic hydrocarbons.
8 cl, 9 dwg, 5 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of catalysis. Described is method of obtaining metal oxide on substrate, suitable for application as precursor for catalyst or sorbent, which includes the following stages: (i) impregnation of substrate material with metal nitrate solution in solvent, (ii) keeping impregnated material in gas mixture, containing nitrogen oxide, at temperature within the range to remove solvent from impregnated material with simultaneous drying and stabilisation of metal nitrate on substrate, with obtaining dispersed on substrate metal nitrate and (iii) calcination of dispersed on substrate metal nitrate to realise its decomposition and formation of metal oxide on substrate, where calcinations is performed in gas mixture, which consists of one or several inert gases and nitrogen oxide, and concentration of nitrogen oxide in gas mixture is within the range 0.001-15 vol.%.
EFFECT: increased catalytic activity of obtained products.
12 cl, 4 dwg, 11 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to field of biochemistry, ecology, protection of the environment. Claimed is preparation for purification of water and soil from oil pollution, which contains microorganisms, oil destructors, sorbent, cryoprotector - glycerol, microfertilisers - sodium nitrate 0.5% and potassium phosphate 0.5%. As oil destructor, it contains association of oil-oxidising microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis VKM B-81, Pseudomonas spp. VKM B-892, Pseudomonas putida VKM B-1301, Rhodococcus sp. VKM Ac-950, Mycobacterium flavescens VKM Ac-1415 in amount 75-85% of the total number of cells, as well as soil bacteria Agrobacteium radiobacter VKM B-1219 in amount 15-25% of the total number of cells. Sorbent in preparation represents finely-dispersed dehydrated zeolite with size of granules 0.1-0.5 mm, powdered with Aerosil A-300 nanoparticles. Ratio of components in preparation (wt %) is the following: zeolite - 94±1, Aerosil A-300 - 3±0.5, glycerol - 1±0.2, sodium nitrate - 0.5±0.2, potassium phosphate- 0.5±0.2, association of oil-oxidising microorganisms with Agrobacteium radiobacter in efficient quantity 2-3*108 kl/g - 1±0.5. Also claimed is method of preparation obtaining. Assocoation of oil-oxidising bacteria and fraction of soil bacteria are grown separately. After that, two obtained culture liquids are mixed in ratio 75-85% of association of oil-oxidising bacteria of the total quantity of cells and 15-25% of soil bacteria of the total quantity of cells. Suspension is concentrated to concentration 2*1011 kl/ml. Zeolite is preliminarily crushed to granules with size 0.1-0.5 mm, kept in furnace at temperature 250°C to the stage of swelling, cooled to temperature 20°C at humidity 10-12% and mixed with Aerosil A-300. Glycerol, sodium nitrate, potassium phosphate are introduced into concentrated suspension, and after that mixed with zeolite. Obtained zeolite and concentrated suspension are mixed with ratio 9:1. After that process of contact-chemical dehydration is carried out.
EFFECT: inventions make it possible to perform 90-98% utilisation of oil hydrocarbons, as well as petrol, Diesel fuel, mazut, kerosene in short term (2-3 days) at temperatures to -5°C Dry form of preparation makes it possible to increase term of its storage up to 1,5 years at temperature not higher than 25°C.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to getter materials and particularly to sintered non-evaporating getters, and can be used in vacuum engineering and microelectronics, particularly in discharge devices. The sintered non-evaporating getter comprises three layers, wherein the first and third layers are made of titanium-vanadium alloy powder in ratio of 70:30 wt %, the second layer is made of a mixture of said alloy powder and intercalated carbon in ratio of (80:20)-(99:1) wt %, thickness of the first and third layers is 20-200 times the average particle size of the alloy powder, thickness of the second layer is 1-6 times the thickness of the first or third layer, the active area of the layers is equivalent to at least 50 times the geometrical area of the getter, wherein the porosity of the sintered getter is 30-60%.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, improved sorption properties and mechanical strength.
6 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removal of exhaust gases from ICEs and gas turbines. Proposed method is implemented via introduction of reducing agent and reduction of nitrogen oxides over the catalyst based on zeolite at corrugated single-piece carrier. Note here that said carrier features density of 50 g/l to 300 g/l and porosity of 50% and single-piece carrier porosity is caused by 50-200 mcm-deep pores in diameter of 1 to 30 mcm.
EFFECT: efficient removal of nitrogen oxides.
14 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: litter for pet toilet comprises porous granules formed of foam concrete with a specific gravity of 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm3. For manufacturing of granules the industrial waste of foam concrete blocks production is used, which material comprises Portland cement, lime, foaming component, siliceous component, the industrial waste of cellular concrete-clay-brick production and water. As the siliceous component the ground quartz sand is used. As the industrial waste of cellular concrete-clay-brick production the alkaline return sludge is used, made of technological wastes of cutting the clay-brick array and cutting-off the "top crust". In addition gypsum is used. The ratio of components in wt % as follows: Portland cement 15-30, lime 15-20, foaming component 0.03-0.10, ground quartz sand 30-42, the said alkaline return sludge 15-20, gypsum 1.5-2.0, water - the rest.
EFFECT: litter has high hygienic properties.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to air cleaning and may be used in domestic conditions, patient care institutions, industrial rooms, etc. Proposed air cleaner comprises casing composed of constant-cross-section coiled tube making a photo catalytic unit with inner surface coated with photo catalyst layer, blower pump and dust filter with organic or inorganic adsorbent. Note here that tube inner surface nearby photo catalytic unit center is furnished with LED film with UV LEDs secured all over its length.
EFFECT: intensive air cleaning, electric power savings, higher reliability and longer life.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: liquid purification by filtering.
SUBSTANCE: filter for multiple-stage filtering of liquid has chamber equipped with liquid flow inlet and liquid flow outlet; first filter stage provided within said chamber and fluidly communicating with said inlet, said first filter stage comprising material for removal of microorganisms; second filter stage provided within said chamber and fluidly communicating with said outlet, said second filter stage comprising activated carbon. Second filter stage is positioned in said chamber so as to allow liquid to flow through first filter stage before it flows through second filter stage. Filter has third filter stage provided within said chamber and positioned so as to allow liquid to flow through third filter stage before it flows through first filter stage. Third filter stage is made in the form of micro fiber glass web with pores having sizes reducing in the course of flow of the liquid.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in removal of various microorganisms from liquid.
33 cl, 4 dwg