Method and device for cooling/liquefaction at low temperature

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to a method of cooling/liquefaction at low temperature of the working fluid, in particular the working fluid having helium in its composition or constituting pure helium, using the device of cooling/liquefaction, comprising a working circuit equipped with a compression station and a cold unit. In the device of cooling or liquefaction the working gas is subjected in the operating circuit to the cycle impact, comprising sequentially compressing the working fluid in the compression station, cooling and expansion of this working fluid in the cold unit and heating with the working fluid with the purpose to return it to the compression station. This compression station comprises one or more compression stages, in each of which one or more compressors are used, mounted on the supports. The cooling device comprises a device of obstructive gas injection, different from the working fluid, at the level of one support of one or more compressors in order to form the gas barrier directing leakage of the working fluid from the working circuit in the direction of the recirculation zone and the return of this working fluid to the working circuit.

EFFECT: group of inventions is aimed at improving reliability and economical efficiency.

25 cl, 5 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a method and to a device designed for refrigeration/liquefaction at low temperature.

In particular, the present invention may relate to a method and to a device intended for liquefaction, and to a method and to a device designed for cooling with the use of helium.

More specifically, the present invention relates to a method for cooling/condensing at low temperature of the working fluid medium, in particular of the working fluid, having in its composition helium or representing a pure helium through the device refrigeration/liquefaction, containing a working circuit, provided with a compression station and a cold block, and the working gas in the working circuit of this device refrigeration/liquefaction exposed to the business cycle contains the following steps performed operations: compression of the working fluid in the compression station, the cooling and expansion of the working fluid in the cold block and subsequent heating of the working fluid to return to the station entrance compression, and the compression station contains one or more compression stages, each of which uses one or more compressors that are installed on supports.

In cooling devices or device on the Ah liquefaction operating at relatively low temperatures (e.g., at temperatures less than 80 To or at temperatures below 20 K), is commonly used working fluid (e.g., helium), subject to the implementation of the business cycle effects of compression, expansion, cooling and heating. These devices typically require the use of multiple stages of compression of the working gas. In each stage of compression is used, one or more impellers of the compressor. These compressors can represent, for example, a compressor of the centrifugal type.

Leakage of the working gas in the compression station on level surfaces the interaction between the rotating impellers mentioned compressors and stationary parts of these compressors are inevitable. In particular, in the case when the working gas is helium, are relatively substantial gas leakage at the level of the supports, in which is mounted the shaft of the impeller of the compressor. To limit these losses are relatively expensive gas known technique limits the leakage of the working gas at the level of each support for each stage of compression by such bodies as the sealing device (or gaskets), forming a labyrinth of obstacles for gas, oil sealing gasket sealing gasket with a floating ring or gas sealing device.

In addition to the fact that such sealing systems increase the cost of this device, these known sealing systems are not always adapted to the technologies used in cooling devices or devices liquefaction.

In addition, the lubricating oil present in the moving mechanisms station compression, should not contaminate the working gas by mixing with helium or as a result of contact with moisture and/or light hydrocarbons). Indeed, these impurities are introduced into a work path, create the danger of formation of traffic jams at cryogenic temperatures, and even the danger of the destruction of the equipment.

The technical problem of the invention is to fully or partially eliminate the above-mentioned disadvantages of having a place on the existing level of technology.

To solve this technical problem the method in accordance with the invention, corresponding, at the same time, its generic definition given in the above preamble, is mainly characterized in that the cooling device includes a device for injection blocking gas other than the working fluid, at the level of the at least one support one or more compressors for the button to form a gas barrier, guide leakage of the working fluid from the working circuit, in the direction of the recirculation zone and return this fluid to the working path.

At the same time, the implementation methods of the invention can contain one or more of the following characteristics:

device injection blocking gas forms a gas barrier that is designed to prevent the transit passage of leakage of the working fluid in the direction of at least one so-called contaminated zone station compression, and among these areas of contamination can be noted such areas as: mechanism of this station compression containing lubricating oil, the area that is not sealed with respect to ambient atmosphere;

- blocking the gas is injected at the level of the at least one support and a pressure less than the pressure of the working fluid in the working circuit, the compressor mounted on said support;

- blocking the gas is composed of nitrogen or represents a pure nitrogen;

device injection blocking gas contains at least one point of injection of this blocking gas and at least one output that is designed to collect a mixture containing an injected blocking the gas and the working fluid environment, do the th from one or more leaks;

device refrigeration/liquefaction is composed of the body of the cleaning gas containing the input intended to be cleaned gas, and the output is intended for purified gas, and the output of this cleaning organ is connected by fluid working circuit-level output from the compression station, and at least part of the mixture preventing gas and the working fluid collected on at least one output again is injected at the input body cleaning to clean this mixture and its subsequent re-injection into the working circuit at the output of the compression station;

- entrance cleaning organ is powered by gas, different from the working fluid working circuit, this means that the working path is a path of so-called "open" type;

at least part of the blocking mixture gas and the working fluid collected on at least one output again is injected into the working circuit-level station entrance compression, and/or at the intermediate stage of compression, and/or the output level of this station compression;

- duty cycle is the so-called loop "closed" type, and the device comprises a body of the cleaning gas having input designed to be cleaned gas and fed only the working gas from the working circuit, the output designed for cleaned gas, which then supply the cold block;

device refrigeration/liquefaction contains the body of the cleaning gas having an input intended to be cleaned gas, and the output is intended for purified gas, and the output of the cleaning organ is connected by fluid working circuit-level station entrance compression, and at least part of the blocking mixture gas and the working fluid collected on at least one output again is injected to the input of the cleaning organ for its cleaning and subsequent re-injection into the work path at the entrance to the station compression;

device refrigeration/liquefaction contains the body of the cleaning gas having an input intended to be cleaned gas, and the output is intended for purified gas, and referred to the output of the cleaning organ is related to movement of fluid from the working circuit to the intermediate compression stage of the compression station and/or at the level of station output compression, and at least part of the blocking mixture gas and the working fluid collected on at least one output, again injected to the input of the cleaning organ for its cleaning and subsequent re-injection into the work path inside or in the direction of the entrance to the station compression;

at least a portion of the mixture preg is adiusaha gas and the working fluid, collected at at least one output is compressed before zapisywanie its entrance cleaning organ;

- the proposed device contains the body of the cleaning mixture, intended for separating contaminants from the working gas and, in particular, to remove the blocking gas from the above-mentioned mixture, and this mixture is again injected into the working path after passing through the cleaning organ;

- cleaning organ contains a separation system designed to remove impurities other than the working fluid, such as gaseous nitrogen;

- cleaning organ contains, if necessary, the compression system to be cleaned or cleaned gas;

- one or more of used compressors are compressors centrifugal type;

one or more turbines expansion of the cold block represent the turbine centrifugal type.

The present invention relates also to a device for cooling and/or liquefaction at low temperatures of the working fluid, having in its composition helium or formed pure helium, and this device contains a work path, provided with a compression station and a cold block, and the working gas is subjected to the working circuit to the impact of the business cycle, containing sequentially: the compression of the working fluid environments is in the compression station, the cooling and expansion of the working fluid in the cold block and heating the working fluid to return to the station compression, and the compression station contains one or more compression stages, each of which uses one or more compressors that are installed on supports, characterized in that the cooling device contains a device injection blocking gas other than the working fluid, at the level of at least one of the supports of one or more compressors to form a gas barrier, the guide leakage of the working fluid supplied from the working path, in the direction of the recirculation zone and return to the work path.

In accordance with other possible features:

device injection blocking gas contains at least one point of injection of this blocking gas and contains at least one output that is designed to collect the mixture of this blocking of the gas and the working fluid received from one or more leaks, and this loop contains a channel for re-injection of the aforementioned mixture in the working circuit-level station entrance compression, and/or at the level of intermediate compression stage of the compression station, and/or at the level of the output from the compression station;

- upon the other device contains the body of the cleaning mixture, designed for separating contaminants from the working gas and, in particular, to extract from this mixture blocking gas, and this mixture is again injected into the working path after passing through the cleaning organ.

The present invention also can refer to any alternative device or method that contains any combination of characteristics, as already mentioned above, and is indicated in the following statement.

Other features and advantages of the invention will be better understood from the following description of examples of implementation, where references are given in Appendix figures, among which:

- Fig.1 is a partial and schematic view in section, illustrating an example implementation of a compressor wheel mounted on supports containing collection device and lead to leakage of the working gas in accordance with the invention;

- Fig.2 is a partial and schematic view illustrating the structure and operation of the first example implementation of a device for cooling and/or liquefaction in accordance with the invention;

- Fig.3 is a partial and schematic view illustrating the structure and operation of the second example implementation of a device for cooling and/or liquefaction in accordance the with the invention;

- Fig.4 is a partial and schematic view illustrating the structure and operation of the third example implementation of a device for cooling and/or liquefaction in accordance with the invention;

- Fig.5 is a partial and schematic view illustrating the structure and operation of the fourth example implementation of a device for cooling and/or liquefaction in accordance with the invention.

An example implementation of a device for cooling and/or liquefaction is shown in Fig.2, in the usual way station 2 contains a compression and cold block 3.

In this cooling device and/or liquefaction, a working fluid with a relatively small molar mass, and a preferred manner, helium, prevailing in the gas mixture, or pure helium.

As presented in the Annex figures, this helium can be obtained from a source S gas containing a predominant amount of helium, obtained, for example, on the basis of natural gas (or other gas), which is cleaned by cleaning unit 1 thus, in order to give helium in the working circuit device refrigeration/liquefaction. This unit or the cleaning body 1 contains, for example, cryogenic gas separation system and/or two absorber arranged parallel and options is onerously alternating manner, in accordance with successive cycles of absorption/regeneration (for example, PSA or TSA). The absorbers are, for example, the sinks in the form of activated carbon or sorbents based on silica and are intended for removing contaminants, such as air or nitrogen.

This means that this system forms the contour of the open type with continuous introduction of contaminants.

As it usually happens, the working gas is compressed at ambient temperature in station 2 compression, passing through one or more of the 12 steps of compression, each of which uses one or more compressors, for example, with centrifugal compression.

Thus, at the input station 2, the compression of the working gas enters at a temperature close to ambient temperature, and under the so-called low pressure LP, having a value of, for example, in the range from 1 to 3 bar absolute value. Then, the output of the first stage 12 of the compression pressure of the working gas can reach the so-called medium pressure Mr having a value, for example, in the range from 3 to 8 bar absolute value.

Then the output of the second stage 12 of the compression pressure of the working gas can reach the so-called high pressure HP, having a value of, for example, in the range from 9 to 27 bar absolute value.

Then the compressed working gas enters the cold block 3, where he Podwale the Xia cooling (or pre-cooled). Usually in the process of cooling or pre-cooling) thermal energy (or heat) is removed from the working gas in the expansion in one or more cryogenic turbines and/or as a result of heat exchange with the cryogenic fluid medium, such as nitrogen (details of the construction of a cold unit are given in Appendix figures for reasons of simplicity of the drawings).

The working fluid after the implementation of its heat exchange with the user, may then be returned to the input station 2 compression (with a possible gradual heating in heat exchangers).

As is schematically shown in Fig.1, leakage of the working gas (helium Not) occur, in particular, at the level of the supports 5 of the shaft 25 of the wheels 12 of the compression.

The preferred way one or more devices 15 seal positioned around the shaft 25 at the level of each support 5 in order to limit leakage of the working gas from the working path (this sealing device may represent, for example, a device sealing labyrinth type).

In accordance with the invention prevents gas (e.g. nitrogen) is injected at the level of the supports 5 and the shaft 25, in particular, in order to isolate the working path from the mechanical part, containing lubricating oil (fur the isms the gears and engines of the compression station). This means that the barrier gas is provided in order to direct leakage of the working gas in the direction of exit 24. For example, two points 14 injection blocking gas N2can be placed on both sides of the outlet channel 24 to the mixture, having in its composition injected blocking the gas N2and assembled the working gas does Not. For example, only blocking the gas N2transit passes in part, in contact with the lubricating oil On or with the atmosphere.

The preferred way pressure injected blocking gas has a value smaller than the pressure of the working gas at the level of the corresponding wheel compression. This eliminates the possibility of contamination of the working of this circuit blocking gas.

In addition, it should be noted that the leakage of the working gas in the direction of the blocking gas is necessary for the satisfactory operation of this sealing zone (in particular, with the purpose of cooling the supports).

The output 24 of the blocking gas is composed of a non-negligible quantity of the working gas (e.g., having a value in the range from 20 to 50 molar percent). Thus, this mixture of helium and nitrogen (No+N2) out of the pillars under a relatively low pressure, for example, having a size in the range from 1 d is 7 bar absolute value and depend on the particular level of compression.

In Fig.2 schematically shows a first method of implementation, which may include, for example, to block the liquefaction of industrial type.

In this way the implementation of the proposed device comprises a body 1 cleaning gas with the inlet 11 to be cleaned gas and an outlet 21 for the already purified gas. The output 21 of the cleaning body 1 is connected in a fluid environment with a working circuit on the output level of the station 2 or compression on the lower level of the cycle depending on its temperature.

The input 11 of the cleaning body 1 is supplied from a source gas S, which represents, for example, a mixture of methane, nitrogen and helium. This means that the working gas from the working circuit is fed in open loop using less pure gas, which is subjected to processing to clean it.

In addition, the blocking mixture gas and the working fluid collected on the above outputs 24, again injected through the channel 13 to the input of the cleaning body 1 for the purpose of its purification with subsequent injection into the working circuit at the output station 2 or compression on the lower level of the cycle depending on its temperature. This means that blocking the gas, mixed with the working gas at the outlet 24 of the compression system may be directed to the suction of the cleaning body 1, for example, at the level of the suction of the compressor, representing the portion of the cleaning body 1 Indeed, this recovered mixture has a degree of pollution with nitrogen, which can be comparable with the operation of the cleaning body 1.

Consumption, leakage of the working gas is relatively small compared with the consumption of compressor cleaning unit. The level of sealing at the level of each stage 12 of the compression of the working gas as it is not critical. Consequently, costly technical solutions 15 to ensure the sealing can be excluded at the level of supports to reduce the overall cost of the system.

In Fig.3 presents a second method of implementation, which may include, for example, to the cooling unit. On this Fig.3 and subsequent figures, elements identical to the elements described above are denoted by the same digital items and will not be described again. The device shown in Fig.3, operates in this way the implementation of a working circuit is closed (no introduction of the working gas through an external source).

A mixture of blocking gas and the working fluid collected at the outputs 24, again injected preferred way directly at the level of the input station 2 compression or entry level intermediate stage of the compression station through the channel 13. This mixture (i.e. a mixture of blocking gas and working gas), collected at the outputs 24 of the compressor 2, the modulated is foreseen, thus, directly into the low pressure circuit corresponding compression stage or station compression.

This return gas in the cycle may cause pollution (blocking gas, such as nitrogen) in a working circuit. These impurities are preferred cleansed in a working circuit. This clearance may be implemented in any appropriate definition of the dimensional parameters of the absorbers treatment, usually provided in a cold block 3, or by introducing an additional system 1 cleaning. Thus, as shown in Appendix figures, a work path optional image may contain body 1 cleaning gas with the inlet 11 to be cleaned gas powered working gas at the exit of station 2 compression. The output 21 of the purified gas from the body 1 cleaning supplies cold block 3.

On the cooling unit of this type in which the operating cycle is carried out in a closed path, the loss of working gas at the level of the footings should be relatively limited.

In Fig.4 shows a third method of implementation, which may include, for example, to the cooling unit. In this implementation, the device operates with a so-called closed working circuit. A mixture of blocking gas and the working fluid collected at the outputs 24, again injected at the input 2 of the gas feed body 1 gas purification. As in the previous case, the body 1 cleaning removes contamination (by assignment of all or part of the blocking gas, for example, through the sinks of nitrogen type TSA or PSA, in the case when the blocking gas is nitrogen). This means that in this case, the recovered mixture of blocking gas (nitrogen) and the working gas (helium) exits the compressor 12 under sufficient pressure to be directly entered in the usual body 1 clean with slight pressure.

The output 21 of the purified gas from the cleaning body 1 is connected by fluid working circuit-level station entrance 2 compression. This means that the working fluid is directed to the working path after the cleanup.

In Fig.5 shows a fourth mode of implementation, which may include, for example, to the cooling unit. In this implementation, the device operates with a working circuit is closed. A mixture of blocking gas and the working fluid collected on all or part of the outputs 24, again injected at the input 21 of the gas feed body 1 cleaning gas through the compressor 6. This means that the mixture is compressed to a pressure sufficient to allow its purification at high or medium pressure (for example, at a pressure having a value in the range from 3 to 27 bar absolute is th value). Cleaned working gas at medium or high pressure is again injected at the level of the intermediate stage of the compression station 2 compression and/or at the level of the exit station 2 compression.

Of course, the invention is not limited to the above examples of its implementation. For example, we can consider the device, which is intermediate between the variants of its implementation, shown in Fig.4 and 5. This means that in the case where the recovered mixture has a relatively low pressure of from 1 to 3 bar (pressure impellers, compressor first stage), this mixture can be compressed to a medium pressure (having a value in the range from 3 to 9 bar) before cleaning or re-direct injection into the circuit. In the case where the recovered mixture has an average pressure of, for example, from 3 to 15 bar (pressure impellers intermediate stage of the compressor), this mixture may be directed to the scrubber 1 medium pressure. Thus, the size of the recuperation of the compressor can be reduced.

Similarly, we can consider the device, which is intermediate between the variants of its implementation, shown in Fig.2 and 3. This means that in the case where the recovered mixture has a relatively low pressure, the tion, constituting, for example, from 1 to 3 bar (tyre pressure compressor first stage), this mixture can be directly introduced into the circuit at the input station of compression.

In this case, to handle excess dirt dimensional parameters of conventional internal sinks cold block 3 (designed for cleaning the working fluid) is preferably determined appropriately.

In the case where the recovered mixture has an average pressure of, for example, from 3 to 15 bar (pressure impellers intermediate stage of the compressor), this mixture may be directed to the scrubber 1 medium pressure.

Thus, it is easy to understand that having a simple structure and relatively low cost, the device in accordance with the proposed invention allows to recover and return to the cycle working fluid environment, forming the object leaks.

The present invention allows to control the pollution of the working gas barrier gas. The working gas, contaminated blocking gas is recovered and purified (cold block 3 and/or in the outer body 1 treatment). This clearance may be implemented with an average pressure after compression (or after increasing the pressure that is compatible with the sealing system). Cleaned the AZ can be re-introduced into the circuit-level area of low pressure, and/or at the level of the zone of moderate pressure, and/or at the level of the zone of high pressure.

The present invention may include, in particular, to any unit condensing or cooling (helium cycle or in a cycle using a noble gas) great performance.

The present invention can be applied, in particular, also to the installation, designed for the liquefaction of hydrogen, in which the working gas helium is used.

1. The method of cooling/condensing at low temperature of the working fluid medium, in particular of the working fluid, having in its composition helium or formed pure helium, using the device refrigeration/liquefaction, containing a working circuit, supplied by a station (2) compression and cold unit (3), and this cooling device/liquefaction working gas is subjected in the working circuit to the impact of the cycle containing sequentially steps: compress the working fluid environment in the station (2) compression, is cooled and extend the working fluid environment in a cold block (3) and re-heated working fluid environment with the aim of returning to the station (2) compression, and this station (2) compression contains one or more compression stages, each of which uses one or more compressors (12) installed on the supports (5), characterized in that the cooling device which contains the device (4) injection blocking gas, other than the working fluid, at the level of the at least one support (5) one or more compressors to form a gas barrier, the guide leakage of the working fluid from the working circuit, in the direction of the zone (13) recycling and return (13, 21) in the work path.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the device (4) injection blocking gas forms a gas barrier in order to prevent the transit passage of leakage of the working fluid in the direction of at least one so-called contaminated zone (121) station (2) compression, including: mechanism of this station (2) compression, containing lubricating oil, or area that is not sealed against the atmosphere.

3. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 or 2, characterized in that the blocking gas is injected at the level of the at least one support (5) and under a pressure lower than the pressure of the working fluid in the working circuit, the compressor mounted on said support (5).

4. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 or 2, characterized in that the blocking gas is composed of nitrogen or represents a pure nitrogen.

5. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the blocking gas is composed of nitrogen or represents a pure nitrogen.

6. The method according to any of paragraphs.1, 2 or 5, characterized in that the device is on (4) injection blocking gas contains at least one point (14) of this injection blocking gas and at least one outlet (24), intended for collection of a mixture containing an injected blocking the gas and the working fluid medium received from one or more leaks.

7. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the device (4) injection blocking gas contains at least one point (14) of this injection blocking gas and at least one outlet (24), designed to collect a mixture containing an injected blocking the gas and the working fluid medium received from one or more leaks.

8. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that the device (4) injection blocking gas contains at least one point (14) of this injection blocking gas and at least one outlet (24), designed to collect a mixture containing an injected blocking the gas and the working fluid medium received from one or more leaks.

9. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the cooling device/liquefaction is composed of a body (1) purification of gas containing the input (11) to be cleaned gas and the outlet (21) for purified gas, and the output (21) of the body (1) purification of bound fluid working circuit on the output level of the station (2) compression, and also that at least part of the blocking mixture gas and the working fluid collected using at least one outlet (24), SN the VA is injected (13) to the input of the body (1) cleaning with a purpose of its treatment and subsequent re-injection into the work path at the exit from the station (2) compression.

10. The method according to any of paragraphs.7 or 8, characterized in that the cooling device/liquefaction is composed of a body (1) purification of gas containing the input (11) to be cleaned gas and the outlet (21) for purified gas, and the output (21) of the body (1) purification of bound fluid working circuit on the output level of the station (2) compression, and also that at least part of the blocking mixture gas and the working fluid collected using at least one outlet (24), again injected (13) to the input of the body (1) cleaning with a purpose of its treatment and subsequent re-injection into the work path at the exit from the station (2) compression.

11. The method according to p. 9, characterized in that the inlet body (1) clean electricity gas other than the working fluid path, the working path is a path of "open" type.

12. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that the inlet body (1) clean electricity gas other than the working fluid path, the working path is a path of "open" type.

13. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that at least part of the blocking mixture gas and the working fluid collected through at least one outlet (24), again injected (13) in the work path at the level of the input station (2) compression, and/or at the intermediate stage of compression, and/or n is the output level of the station (2) compression.

14. The method according to any of paragraphs.7 or 8, characterized in that at least part of the blocking mixture gas and the working fluid collected through at least one outlet (24), again injected (13) in the work path at the level of the input station (2) compression, and/or at the intermediate stage of compression, and/or at the level of the output station (2) compression.

15. The method according to p. 13, wherein the duty cycle is the so-called loop "closed" type, as well as the fact that it contains a body (1) purification of gas with the inlet (11) to be cleaned gas, powered only by working gas from the working circuit and the outlet (21) for cleaned gas, which supplies cold block (3).

16. The method according to p. 14, wherein the duty cycle is the so-called loop "closed" type, as well as the fact that it contains a body (1) purification of gas with the inlet (11) to be cleaned gas, powered only by working gas from the working circuit and the outlet (21) for cleaned gas, which supplies cold block (3).

17. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the cooling device/liquefaction contains the body (1) purification of gas with the inlet (11) to be cleaned gas and the outlet (21) for purified gas, and the output (21) of the body (1) purification of bound fluid from the working circuit is and the level of the input station (2) compression, and also that at least part of the blocking mixture gas and the working fluid collected through at least one outlet (24), again injected (13) to the input of the body (1) cleaning with a purpose of its treatment and subsequent re-injection into the work path at the entrance to the station (2) compression.

18. The method according to any of paragraphs.7 or 8, characterized in that the cooling device/liquefaction contains the body (1) purification of gas with the inlet (11) to be cleaned gas and the outlet (21) for purified gas, and the output (21) of the body (1) purification of bound fluid working circuit-level input station (2) compression, and also that at least part of the blocking mixture gas and the working fluid collected through at least one outlet (24), again injected (13) at the entrance of the authority (1) cleaning with a purpose of its treatment and subsequent re-injection into the work path at the entrance to the station (2) compression.

19. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the cooling device/liquefaction contains the body (1) purification of gas with the inlet (11) to be cleaned gas and the outlet (21) for purified gas, and the output (21) of the body (1) purification of bound fluid working circuit at the intermediate stage of the compression station (2) compression, and/or at the level of the output station (2) compression, and also that at least part of the mixture of block is it gas and the working fluid, collected through at least one outlet (24), again injected (13) to the input of the body (1) cleaning with a purpose of its treatment and subsequent re-injection into the working circuit, or the output station (2) compression.

20. The method according to any of paragraphs.7 or 8, characterized in that the cooling device/liquefaction contains the body (1) purification of gas with the inlet (11) to be cleaned gas and the outlet (21) for purified gas, and the output (21) of the body (1) purification of bound fluid working circuit at the intermediate stage of the compression station (2) compression and/or at the level of the output station (2) compression, and also that at least part of the blocking mixture gas and the working fluid, collected through at least one outlet (24), again injected (13) to the input of the body (1) cleaning with a purpose of its treatment and subsequent re-injection into the working circuit, or the output station (2) compression.

21. The method according to p. 19, characterized in that at least part of the blocking mixture gas and the working fluid collected using at least one outlet (24), uncompressed (6) before zapisywanie input (11) of the body (1) cleanup.

22. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that at least part of the blocking mixture gas and the working fluid collected using at least one outlet (24), uncompressed (6) is before zapisywanie input (11) of the body (1) cleanup.

23. The device cooling/condensing at low temperatures of the working fluid, having in its composition helium or representing a pure helium, and this device contains a work path, provided with a station (2) compression and cold unit (3), and the working gas is in the working circuit to the impact of the cycle containing sequentially: the compression of the working fluid in the station (2) compression, cooling and expansion of the working fluid in the cold block (3) and heating the working fluid to return to the station (2) compression, moreover, this station (2) compression contains one or more compression stages, each of which uses one or more compressors (12) installed on the supports, wherein the cooling device includes a device (4) injection blocking gas other than the working fluid, at the level of the at least one support (5) one or more compressors to form a gas barrier, the guide leakage of the working fluid from the working circuit, in the direction of the zone (13) recycling and return (13, 21) in the work path.

24. The device according to p. 23, characterized in that the device (4) injection blocking gas contains at least one point (14) of this injection blocking gas and contains at IU is e one output (24), intended for collection of this mixture introduced blocking gas and the working fluid received from one or more leaks, and also that this circuit contains a channel (13) for re-injection of the aforementioned mixture in the working circuit-level input station (2) compression, and/or at the level of the intermediate stage of the compression station (2) compression, and/or the output level of the station (2) compression.

25. The device according to p. 24, characterized in that it comprises a body (1) purification of the mixture, intended for separating contaminants from the working gas and, in particular, to extract from this mixture blocking gas, and this mixture is again injected into the working path after passing through the body (1) cleaning.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to refrigerating equipment. An air refrigerating unit comprises a turbocompressor, a turboexpander and a combustion chamber. The output of the turbocompressor's compressor is connected to the input of a pneumatic controller. The first output of the pneumatic controller is communicated with the combustion chamber. The second output of the pneumatic controller through the first air cooler is connected to the input of the second compressor of the turboexpander. The input of the turbocompressor turbine is communicated with the output of the combustion chamber. The unit is equipped by a heat pump. The heat pump circuit comprises a steam and gas condenser and an additional compressor driven by the turbocompressor turbine. The output of the additional compressor is communicated with the heat absorption circuit of the steam and gas condenser through the heat releasing circuit of a steam evaporator and a throttle. The output of the heat absorption circuit of the steam and gas condenser is communicated with the input of the additional compressor. A steam superheater is installed at the gas removing line between the output of the turbocompressor turbine and a regenerator. The steam and gas condenser, a heat exchanger and a separator are successively installed at the gas removing line between the output of the regenerator and the atmosphere. The gas output of the separator is led out to the atmosphere. The condensate output of the separator is led to the input of the heat absorption circuit of the regenerator. The steam output of the heat absorption circuit of the regenerator is communicated with the combustion chamber by a line including successively connected heat absorption circuits of the steam evaporator and the superheater.

EFFECT: invention is aimed at the refrigeration efficiency increase and environment protection improvement.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: turbo refrigerator plant comprises, at least, one turbo refrigerator with motor communicated with refrigeration chamber accommodating air cooler and fan. In compliance with this invention, refrigeration chamber temperature is controlled by varying motor rpm. To freeze said chamber to preset temperature, motor rpm are increased from minimum to maximum together with switching fan on and reducing motor rpm from rated to minimum with simultaneous switching fan off on reaching preset temperature.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability, longer life.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: method of producing cold air in turbo-refrigerator comprises atmospheric air withdrawal, compressing aforesaid air in turbo-compressor compressor, cooling it feeding it to turbo-expander compressor inlet. It compresses compressing it additionally, cooling and feeding to turbo-expander turbine inlet, cold air being transferred from turbo-expander turbine outlet to its inlet. Compressed air flow coming from turbo-compressor compressor is divided into two flows. One flow is fed, via air cooler, to the turbo-expander compressor inlet. Second flow, preferably that with lower flow rate, is directed into combustion chamber to oxidise fuel, while resultant combustion products are mixed with steam. Steam is produced by power of gases outcoming from turbo-compressor turbine. Mix obtained is sent to turbo-compressor turbine.

EFFECT: increased refrigeration factor.

1 dwg

Air refrigerator // 2370711

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: proposed air refrigerator comprises turbo compressor, turbo expander and combustion chamber. Turbo compressor outlet communicates, via first air cooler, with turbo expander compressor inlet. Turbo compressor turbine inlet communicates with combustion chamber outlet. Turbo expander compressor outlet communicates, via second air cooler, with the inlet of turbo expander turbine, while outlet of the latter communicates with cold consumer. Turbo compressor outlet communicates with the inlet of air control valve that serves to divide the flow into two flows. Second outlet of air control valve communicates, via first air cooler, with turbo expander compressor inlet. Combustion chamber communicates with fuel feed assembly, air control valve first outlet and steam source outlet. Combustion chamber outlet communicates with turbo compressor turbine inlet. Turbo compressor turbine inlet accommodates steam source. Turbo compressor and turbo expander incorporate air-lubed bearings.

EFFECT: increased refrigeration factor.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, gas distribution.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to heat and power engineering and is goaled for the application in the means of using energy of natural gas operational pressure differential. Method of supplying natural gas to consumers by a gas distribution station (GDS) with reducing lines implies simultaneous production of electric energy and cold during reduction with the usage of a power and refrigerating unit (PRU) which is switched on parallel to the GDS. PRU is equipped by an expansion-generation aggregate (EGA) with a heat exchanger. Automatic units for opening/closing of GDS reducing lines synchronously with EGA switching on/off are mounted at the reducing lines to provide for interconnected functioning of GDS and PRU as a unite gas-reducing system with keeping total section of its elements for gas passing in case of changes in gas supply mode, input gas pressure and number of operating EGA. In case of closing all reducing lines the GDS is put into reserve, gas input into the GDS collector and gas output are blocked by controlled shut-off valves. In case of PRU or most of EGA stop the above shut-off valves and GDS reducing lines are opened providing for standard GDS operation.

EFFECT: increasing stability of the time variable of supplying gas to the consumers along with keeping specified gas pressure and allowable temperature at the system output.

14 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: heating engineering, particularly heat pumps and domestic and industrial cooling plants.

SUBSTANCE: method involves simultaneously performing isothermal compression and adiabatic expansion of different working body portion parts with following pressure recovery to initial value in heating and cooling heat-exchangers. Heterogeneous working body supplied as foamed neutral liquid provided with foaming additives and inert gas, is compressed. Then the working body is separated into liquid and gaseous fractions, which are separately throttled and expanded correspondingly. After that the fractions are separately supplied into parallel heating and cooling heat-exchangers with following mixing thereof and foam generation. Device comprises working body circulation loops provided with compressor, throttle and cooling and heating heat-exchangers. Compressor outlet is connected with tangential connection pipe of separator. Upper connection pipe of separator is linked to expander inlet. Lower connection pipe thereof is attached to throttle, which in turn is connected with inlet nozzle of injector included in inlet connection pipe of compressor through heating heat-exchanger. Side connection pipe of injector is communicated with expander outlet through cooling heat-exchanger. The expander is mechanically or electrically linked to compressor drive.

EFFECT: decreased pressure in cooling and heating heat-exchangers to compressor pressure level and increased ecological safety.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: cooling and heating equipment, particularly for simultaneous environmental air heating and cooling in industrial objects.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises turbo-expander and multistage compressor connected to turbo-expanded through high-pressure pipeline. High-pressure pipeline includes water heat-exchanger and the first dehumidifier, as well as two recuperative heat-exchangers and the second dehumidifier. Low-pressure pipeline communicates turbo-expander with object to be cooled or heated. Air inlet line has serially arranged sucking means and filter. Air inlet line is linked to multistage compressor. Single-stage centrifugal pump and turbo-expander are connected to common shaft. Additional dehumidifier is installed downstream of the first recuperative heat-exchanger. Additional heat-exchanger is arranged in low-pressure line so that one cavity thereof is connected to the second recuperative heat-exchanger inlet and another one is communicated with outlet thereof. Low-pressure line section located upstream of object to be cooled and/or heated is made as at least one pipeline provided with electric production air heater. Additional air supply loop branches away from air inlet line upstream of multistage compressor and is communicated with single-stage centrifugal pump inlet. Excessive heat removal loop is connected to single-stage centrifugal pump outlet.

EFFECT: increased reliability and thermodynamic efficiency, as well as improved operational conditions.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: transmission of thermal energy to vacuum dehydration and drying machines, vacuum driers, evaporation machines and low-temperature dehydration of materials; reworking and utilization of wastes of poultry farms and pig-breeding farms; food-processing, medical and microbiological industries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes loading the staring material, evacuation of chamber to pressure below atmospheric, mixing the starting material, collection, drainage and removal of condensate, conductive supply of heat to starting material at simultaneous heating it within temperature range whose low level is limited by water evaporation temperature at working pressure in technological space and upper level is limited by conditions ensuring avoidance of losses of useful properties of starting material and destruction of living cells which is necessary for retaining proper properties of final product. The process is completed by discharge of dehydrated product. Thermal energy of water steam released in the course of dehydration of starting material in vacuum chamber is returned to heating system of starting material due to compression of steam to pressure not below atmospheric, after which compressed steam is delivered to hermetic cavities of technological heat exchanger-evaporator unit where starting material is kept. Superheated steam is condensed inside unit and thermal energy released at this is transferred to material being dehydrated which moves over surface of unit. Condensate is continuously drained from hermetic cavities of heat exchanger-evaporator via pipe line connected to heat exchanger which is used for delivery of cold starting material to vacuum chamber. Thermal energy of condensate is transmitted to cold starting material. Device proposed for realization of this method includes vacuum chamber where technological heat exchanger-evaporator unit is mounted , loading/unloading system, starting material heating system, chamber evacuation system, condensate receiver; it is additionally provided with compressor connected with collector through which used hot water-and-steam mixture is discharged into technological heat exchanger-evaporator unit and then to heat exchanger used for heating the starting material for delivery of it to loading system.

EFFECT: reduction of heat losses.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: technology of production of cold.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is used for cooling the air contained in isolated cavity; air to be cooled is directed to compressor where it is compressed at rise of temperature; then, compressed air is directed to heat exchanger where it is cooled at constant pressure and then it is directed to gas-expansion machine where it is expanded and its temperature is lowered, after which it is directed to isolated cavity. Cooling the compressed air in heat exchanger is effected through heat exchange with surrounding medium. Depending on ambient temperature, area of heat-exchange surface is varied between compressed air to be cooled in heat exchanger and surrounding medium. Temperature of cooled air at the gas-expansion machine outlet is changed to preset level.

EFFECT: possibility of maintaining required temperature conditions in isolated cavity; enhanced energy efficiency of process.

10 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: wave expander-compressors, possibly used in compression systems and plants with expansion machines.

SUBSTANCE: expander-compressor includes housing in which rotor is mounted on shaft. Rotor has energy-exchange ducts communicated at rotor rotation with branch pipes for supplying and discharging gas through gas supply nozzles and diffusers for discharging gas in respective gas distributing devices. Housing is in the form of stator having electric winding. Rotor having energy-exchange ducts is provided with short-circuit winding whose rods are arranged between outer surface of rotor and its energy-exchange ducts.

EFFECT: simplified design of wave type expander-compressor.

2 dwg

FIELD: wave expander-compressors, possibly used in compression systems and plants with expansion machines.

SUBSTANCE: expander-compressor includes housing in which rotor is mounted on shaft. Rotor has energy-exchange ducts communicated at rotor rotation with branch pipes for supplying and discharging gas through gas supply nozzles and diffusers for discharging gas in respective gas distributing devices. Housing is in the form of stator having electric winding. Rotor having energy-exchange ducts is provided with short-circuit winding whose rods are arranged between outer surface of rotor and its energy-exchange ducts.

EFFECT: simplified design of wave type expander-compressor.

2 dwg

FIELD: technology of production of cold.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is used for cooling the air contained in isolated cavity; air to be cooled is directed to compressor where it is compressed at rise of temperature; then, compressed air is directed to heat exchanger where it is cooled at constant pressure and then it is directed to gas-expansion machine where it is expanded and its temperature is lowered, after which it is directed to isolated cavity. Cooling the compressed air in heat exchanger is effected through heat exchange with surrounding medium. Depending on ambient temperature, area of heat-exchange surface is varied between compressed air to be cooled in heat exchanger and surrounding medium. Temperature of cooled air at the gas-expansion machine outlet is changed to preset level.

EFFECT: possibility of maintaining required temperature conditions in isolated cavity; enhanced energy efficiency of process.

10 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: transmission of thermal energy to vacuum dehydration and drying machines, vacuum driers, evaporation machines and low-temperature dehydration of materials; reworking and utilization of wastes of poultry farms and pig-breeding farms; food-processing, medical and microbiological industries.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes loading the staring material, evacuation of chamber to pressure below atmospheric, mixing the starting material, collection, drainage and removal of condensate, conductive supply of heat to starting material at simultaneous heating it within temperature range whose low level is limited by water evaporation temperature at working pressure in technological space and upper level is limited by conditions ensuring avoidance of losses of useful properties of starting material and destruction of living cells which is necessary for retaining proper properties of final product. The process is completed by discharge of dehydrated product. Thermal energy of water steam released in the course of dehydration of starting material in vacuum chamber is returned to heating system of starting material due to compression of steam to pressure not below atmospheric, after which compressed steam is delivered to hermetic cavities of technological heat exchanger-evaporator unit where starting material is kept. Superheated steam is condensed inside unit and thermal energy released at this is transferred to material being dehydrated which moves over surface of unit. Condensate is continuously drained from hermetic cavities of heat exchanger-evaporator via pipe line connected to heat exchanger which is used for delivery of cold starting material to vacuum chamber. Thermal energy of condensate is transmitted to cold starting material. Device proposed for realization of this method includes vacuum chamber where technological heat exchanger-evaporator unit is mounted , loading/unloading system, starting material heating system, chamber evacuation system, condensate receiver; it is additionally provided with compressor connected with collector through which used hot water-and-steam mixture is discharged into technological heat exchanger-evaporator unit and then to heat exchanger used for heating the starting material for delivery of it to loading system.

EFFECT: reduction of heat losses.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: cooling and heating equipment, particularly for simultaneous environmental air heating and cooling in industrial objects.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises turbo-expander and multistage compressor connected to turbo-expanded through high-pressure pipeline. High-pressure pipeline includes water heat-exchanger and the first dehumidifier, as well as two recuperative heat-exchangers and the second dehumidifier. Low-pressure pipeline communicates turbo-expander with object to be cooled or heated. Air inlet line has serially arranged sucking means and filter. Air inlet line is linked to multistage compressor. Single-stage centrifugal pump and turbo-expander are connected to common shaft. Additional dehumidifier is installed downstream of the first recuperative heat-exchanger. Additional heat-exchanger is arranged in low-pressure line so that one cavity thereof is connected to the second recuperative heat-exchanger inlet and another one is communicated with outlet thereof. Low-pressure line section located upstream of object to be cooled and/or heated is made as at least one pipeline provided with electric production air heater. Additional air supply loop branches away from air inlet line upstream of multistage compressor and is communicated with single-stage centrifugal pump inlet. Excessive heat removal loop is connected to single-stage centrifugal pump outlet.

EFFECT: increased reliability and thermodynamic efficiency, as well as improved operational conditions.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: heating engineering, particularly heat pumps and domestic and industrial cooling plants.

SUBSTANCE: method involves simultaneously performing isothermal compression and adiabatic expansion of different working body portion parts with following pressure recovery to initial value in heating and cooling heat-exchangers. Heterogeneous working body supplied as foamed neutral liquid provided with foaming additives and inert gas, is compressed. Then the working body is separated into liquid and gaseous fractions, which are separately throttled and expanded correspondingly. After that the fractions are separately supplied into parallel heating and cooling heat-exchangers with following mixing thereof and foam generation. Device comprises working body circulation loops provided with compressor, throttle and cooling and heating heat-exchangers. Compressor outlet is connected with tangential connection pipe of separator. Upper connection pipe of separator is linked to expander inlet. Lower connection pipe thereof is attached to throttle, which in turn is connected with inlet nozzle of injector included in inlet connection pipe of compressor through heating heat-exchanger. Side connection pipe of injector is communicated with expander outlet through cooling heat-exchanger. The expander is mechanically or electrically linked to compressor drive.

EFFECT: decreased pressure in cooling and heating heat-exchangers to compressor pressure level and increased ecological safety.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering, gas distribution.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to heat and power engineering and is goaled for the application in the means of using energy of natural gas operational pressure differential. Method of supplying natural gas to consumers by a gas distribution station (GDS) with reducing lines implies simultaneous production of electric energy and cold during reduction with the usage of a power and refrigerating unit (PRU) which is switched on parallel to the GDS. PRU is equipped by an expansion-generation aggregate (EGA) with a heat exchanger. Automatic units for opening/closing of GDS reducing lines synchronously with EGA switching on/off are mounted at the reducing lines to provide for interconnected functioning of GDS and PRU as a unite gas-reducing system with keeping total section of its elements for gas passing in case of changes in gas supply mode, input gas pressure and number of operating EGA. In case of closing all reducing lines the GDS is put into reserve, gas input into the GDS collector and gas output are blocked by controlled shut-off valves. In case of PRU or most of EGA stop the above shut-off valves and GDS reducing lines are opened providing for standard GDS operation.

EFFECT: increasing stability of the time variable of supplying gas to the consumers along with keeping specified gas pressure and allowable temperature at the system output.

14 cl, 2 dwg

Air refrigerator // 2370711

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: proposed air refrigerator comprises turbo compressor, turbo expander and combustion chamber. Turbo compressor outlet communicates, via first air cooler, with turbo expander compressor inlet. Turbo compressor turbine inlet communicates with combustion chamber outlet. Turbo expander compressor outlet communicates, via second air cooler, with the inlet of turbo expander turbine, while outlet of the latter communicates with cold consumer. Turbo compressor outlet communicates with the inlet of air control valve that serves to divide the flow into two flows. Second outlet of air control valve communicates, via first air cooler, with turbo expander compressor inlet. Combustion chamber communicates with fuel feed assembly, air control valve first outlet and steam source outlet. Combustion chamber outlet communicates with turbo compressor turbine inlet. Turbo compressor turbine inlet accommodates steam source. Turbo compressor and turbo expander incorporate air-lubed bearings.

EFFECT: increased refrigeration factor.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: method of producing cold air in turbo-refrigerator comprises atmospheric air withdrawal, compressing aforesaid air in turbo-compressor compressor, cooling it feeding it to turbo-expander compressor inlet. It compresses compressing it additionally, cooling and feeding to turbo-expander turbine inlet, cold air being transferred from turbo-expander turbine outlet to its inlet. Compressed air flow coming from turbo-compressor compressor is divided into two flows. One flow is fed, via air cooler, to the turbo-expander compressor inlet. Second flow, preferably that with lower flow rate, is directed into combustion chamber to oxidise fuel, while resultant combustion products are mixed with steam. Steam is produced by power of gases outcoming from turbo-compressor turbine. Mix obtained is sent to turbo-compressor turbine.

EFFECT: increased refrigeration factor.

1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: turbo refrigerator plant comprises, at least, one turbo refrigerator with motor communicated with refrigeration chamber accommodating air cooler and fan. In compliance with this invention, refrigeration chamber temperature is controlled by varying motor rpm. To freeze said chamber to preset temperature, motor rpm are increased from minimum to maximum together with switching fan on and reducing motor rpm from rated to minimum with simultaneous switching fan off on reaching preset temperature.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability, longer life.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to refrigerating equipment. An air refrigerating unit comprises a turbocompressor, a turboexpander and a combustion chamber. The output of the turbocompressor's compressor is connected to the input of a pneumatic controller. The first output of the pneumatic controller is communicated with the combustion chamber. The second output of the pneumatic controller through the first air cooler is connected to the input of the second compressor of the turboexpander. The input of the turbocompressor turbine is communicated with the output of the combustion chamber. The unit is equipped by a heat pump. The heat pump circuit comprises a steam and gas condenser and an additional compressor driven by the turbocompressor turbine. The output of the additional compressor is communicated with the heat absorption circuit of the steam and gas condenser through the heat releasing circuit of a steam evaporator and a throttle. The output of the heat absorption circuit of the steam and gas condenser is communicated with the input of the additional compressor. A steam superheater is installed at the gas removing line between the output of the turbocompressor turbine and a regenerator. The steam and gas condenser, a heat exchanger and a separator are successively installed at the gas removing line between the output of the regenerator and the atmosphere. The gas output of the separator is led out to the atmosphere. The condensate output of the separator is led to the input of the heat absorption circuit of the regenerator. The steam output of the heat absorption circuit of the regenerator is communicated with the combustion chamber by a line including successively connected heat absorption circuits of the steam evaporator and the superheater.

EFFECT: invention is aimed at the refrigeration efficiency increase and environment protection improvement.

2 cl, 1 dwg

Up!