Dry building mix

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: dry building mix including sand, lime, Portland cement, fillers based on silicic rocks includes binding gaize being overburden rock of Pershinskoye minefield of quartz porphyry of Dalmatovsky District of Kurgan Region, or similar gaize with content of hydrated silicone dioxide of at least 70% and has the following component ratio (parts by weight): sand - 240±5, gaize - 35±5, lime - 25±5, Portland cement of M400 grade - 30±5 - for masonry mortars with compressive strength of up to 250 kg/cm2; component ratio (parts by weight) is as follows: sand - 195±5, gaize - 30±5, lime - 15±5, Portland cement of M400 grade - 20±5 - for masonry and finishing mortars with compressive strength of up to 161 kg/cm2; component ratio of finishing mortars is as follows: sand - 40%, lime - 30%, gaize - 30% (Portland cement is not included) with compressive strength of up to 77 kgf/cm2; it can also contain lime-containing wastes of different productions and plasticizing agents or other functional additives.

EFFECT: enlarging the scope of application of a mix and improving its qualitative characteristics.

3 cl

 

The scope to which the invention relates.

The invention relates to the field of building materials, in particular for the dry lime-siliceous construction mixtures with the use of produced overburden mining industry.

The level of technology.

In the construction used a dry mix composition: cement, sand, lime, silica fillers, modifying agents.

The closest analogue is developed Penza state building of the Academy of dry building mixtures, having in its composition: quartz sand, Portland cement, fine fillers on the basis of local carbonate and siliceous rocks, polymer additives (C. I. Kalashnikov, B. C. dem'yanova, N. M. Dobsina. "Dry mixes based on local building materials" (Penza architectural-building Academy), "Building materials", No. 5, 2000, pp. 30-32).

In a known construction and building materials, fillers based on local siliceous rocks of the content of the main active component of hydrated silicon dioxide is not sufficient for a significant reduction in the amount of Portland cement in masonry mortars or not to use Portland cement and modifying additives be the loss of quality in finishing solutions. Rocks are not Stripping, which also increases the cost of the mixtures. Not used not disposed of lime-containing waste.

The problem to which the invention is directed, is to reduce the cost of production of dry mixes through the use of local overburden - silica silica clay, reducing the amount of Portland cement in the mixture or suspension without loss of quality, created on the basis of the mold box binder, with the possibility of extended application in various types of dry mixes, as well as opportunities for the use and disposal of overburden - silica silica clay, lime-containing waste.

The technical result consists in the use in the binder composition of the inventive dry mixes overburden - moulding boxes Pershino deposits of quartz porphyry Dalmatovo district Kurgan region or similar flasks with a high content of silicon dioxide to reduce the amount of Portland cement or exclude its use and the combination of the composition of the mixture depending on the application, providing the necessary strength, as well as the possibility of using lime-containing wastes from various industries.

The technical result is the following set of features:

In dry construction the nutrient mixture, includes sand, lime, Portland cement, fillers based on siliceous and carbonate rocks, characterized in that it includes knitting the mold, which is the overburden rock Pershino deposits of quartz porphyry Dalmatovo district Kurgan region, or a similar flask with the contents of hydrated silicon dioxide of at least 70% and has the following ratio of components (mass.h.): sand - 235-245, flask - 30-40, lime - 20-30, Portland cement M400 - 25-35 - for masonry mortars with providing compressive strength respectively Marche M200; the ratio of the components (mass.h.): sand - 190-200, flask - 25-35, lime - 10-20, Portland cement M400 - 15-25 - for masonry and finishing solutions with providing compressive strength respectively Marche M150; composition for finishing solutions: sand - 40%, lime - 30%, flask - 30% (no Portland cement) with the provision of the compressive strength, respectively Marche M75.

In addition, it can be used lime-containing waste from various industries and can also be included plasticizers or other additives, with the possibility of extending the application range of mixtures and improve their quality characteristics.

The implementation of the invention

The task on which the invention is directed, is the development of dry construction worker who's mixes on the basis of local building materials, the implementation of significant opportunities to reduce the use of Portland cement or completely abandon him in finishing, plaster mixtures, and to refuse the use of functional modifiers.

On the basis of the Kurgan plant ZHBI-2 was investigated flask Pershino deposits of quartz porphyry Dalmatovo district Kurgan region as a component of the binder, together with lime - pushonka from, Perm (CaO+MgO is not less than 75%) and sand Profitscore career, Barrow, developed the optimum ratio of components of mixtures.

In the process of researching options developed mixtures were produced following types of tests:

- Determination of the mobility of mortar;

- Determination of the density of mortar;

- Define stratification of mortar;

- Definition of woodenjewelry mortar;

- Determination of the tensile strength of the solution to bending and compression;

- Determination of the average density of the solution;

- Determination of the adhesion strength of the stone.

Investigated flask is overburden rock in mining quartz porphyry with a layer thickness from 11.9 to 43.1 m currently discharged into the dumps, polluting the nature.

A comprehensive analysis of the flasks showed:

- bulk density0,705 t/m3
- crushability in the dry state34,24%
- otmuchivanie25,7%
- porosity51,1%
- crushability in the wet state28,6%
- frost7 cycles
- compressive strength1-3 MPa
- the intensity of γ-radiation2-16 mcR/h
- thermal conductivityof) 0.157 W/m*°C

The main component of the mold box is hydrated silicon dioxide SiO2in the amorphous state. Chemical composition represented by the following elements:

MaterialThe content of oxides in weight %
SPTSiO2FeO2Al2O3 CaOMgOTiO2Na2O+K2OSO3Σ
totalincluding Krist.
flask6,475,317,623,357,61,961,70,652,70,1799

Activity flasks with respect to the calcium oxide is 500 mg Cao/g

Mineralogical composition comprises the following components:

- 20% - angular particles, represented by quartz with normal optical characteristics, grain clear, colorless,

- 70% - fine grain structure, painted with oxides of Fe in yellow-brown shades, made according to x-ray phase analysis of the unstructured cristallisation and fine tridymite;

- 1% - magnetite;

- 10% - angular particles - plagioclase acid composition.

In addition, the flask contains minerals such as feldspar, quartz - SiO2the tridymite - SiO22the fragmentation due to the presence of amorphous phase.

On the basis of the main active component is amorphous hydrated silica SiO2×H2O. the Appearance of tumors in a mixture of sand, lime and silica clay obliged to this component. For the appearance of tumors in matrices mandatory factor is the dissolution of the components and their concentration in the solution must be higher than the solubility limit of tumors. The solubility of amorphous silica is much higher crystalline forms, represented by quartz. Thus, there is a solution with a high content of amorphous hydrated silica and calcium hydroxide, and the content of SiO2×H2O in solution is significantly greater than CA(Oh)2that creates favorable conditions for the formation of a slightly basic of calcium hydro.

The reaction of the curing mixture on the basis of the mold box lime is as follows:

xSiO2×H2O+yCa(OH)2+zH2O=nCaOmSiO2kH2O

The products of the curing mixture arenaceous marl and lime, shut water, products of a similar hardening of the cement stone.

The content of hydrated silicon dioxide in the flask Pershino field exceeds 75%, which is high for anal is the same molds. Activity flasks with respect to the calcium oxide is 500 mg CaO/g while conventional quartz shows activity to the CaO about 125 mg CaO/g That, in General, can be attributed to the mold Pershino deposits of quartz porphyry to the effective component of the mix.

Analysis of test results showed that the best results for compressive strength, bending, coupling with a rigid Foundation showed composition having the following composition: 40% sand, 30% lime, 30% of the mold box. This is the best composition that meets the requirements for finishing plaster solutions according to GOST 28013-98.

In the prepared mixtures were used slaked lime, from Perm (CaO+MgO is not less than 75%) and quartz sand Profitscore career, Barrow, sifted through sieves, providing fractions up to 0.5 mm3. Also used lime-containing wastes, in particular, ferromagnetic production Chelyabinsk Electromechanical plant, with the content of CaO+MgO up to 65%.

The water holding capacity of the obtained mortar - 95,4 (must be at least 90%).

Separation of a freshly prepared mixture 6,36 (should be no more than 10%).

The average density, D, of the hardened mortar in the project age - 1719 kg/m3(meets the requirements for heavy mortars - 1500 and more).

The strength of the solution on the compression project is coherent age - 76,82 kgf/cm2that corresponds to the brand M75.

Brand mobility for plaster Pto2 (sediment cone 7-8 cm).

The strength of the coupling with a rigid Foundation 2,37 kg/cm2.

For use as a masonry mortars was developed mixture with the addition of Portland cement M400 with the following ratio of components (mass.h.): sand - 235-245, flask - 30-40, lime - 20-30, Portland cement M400 - 25-35 with a compressive strength of 250 kg/cm2that corresponds to the brand M250; and a ratio of components (mass.h.): sand - 190-200, flask - 25-35, lime - 10-20, Portland cement M400 - 15-25 - for masonry and finishing solutions with compressive strength of 161 kg/cm2that corresponds to the brand M150.

The resulting mixture can be used in soils with aggressive groundwater as high activity silica clay to calcium oxide in masonry mortars allows you to avoid mildew.

On the basis of the conducted research it can be concluded that the developed dry mixes meet the necessary requirements and are implemented as mixtures for finishing and masonry mortars.

According to the calculation of economic efficiency of production of the inventive dry mixes using local materials - the cost of raw materials for the production of mixtures of 40% or more is, when using lime-containing waste, lower imported.

The ecological value of the invention consists in the use, disposal of overburden, which is the side with the production of quartz porphyry, as well as in the possible uses, utilization of lime-containing wastes from various industries.

1. Dry mortar, which includes sand, lime, Portland cement, fillers based on siliceous rocks, characterized in that it contains in the binder composition to the mold, which is the overburden rock Pershino deposits of quartz porphyry Dalmatovo district Kurgan region, or a similar flask with the contents of hydrated silicon dioxide of at least 70% and has the following ratio of components (wt.h.): sand - 235-245, flask - 30-40, lime - 20-30, Portland cement M400 - 25-35 - for masonry mortars with providing compressive strength respectively Marche M200; ratio of components (wt.h.): sand - 190-200, flask - 25-35, lime - 10-20, Portland cement M400 - 15-25 - for masonry and finishing solutions with providing compressive strength respectively Marche M150; composition for finishing solutions: sand - 40%, lime - 30%, flask - 30% (no Portland cement) with the provision of the compressive strength, respectively Marche M75.

2. The mixture under item 1, characterized in that its composition can be used too lime-containing waste from various industries.

3. The mixture under item 1, characterized in that its composition can be included plasticizers or other additives, with the possibility of extending the range of application of the mixture and quality improvement.



 

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