Optical beam splitter in form of composite dichroic prism
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optical instrument-making and an optical beam splitter. The optical beam splitter is a composite dichroic prism and is made in form of several transparent prisms glued together. The transparent prisms have on one face at the gluing point a dichroic coating intended for reflecting different frequency components of incident radiation. The shape and mutual arrangement of the transparent prisms is selected based on the condition of intersection of glued planes at one point.
EFFECT: higher compactness of the structure.
The use of
The invention relates to optical spectral devices using the decomposition of the light beam into multiple spectral components or using the addition of radiation from light sources with different spectral components in one bundle.
Multicolor photometry requires the measurement of several portions of the spectrum that can be done or sequentially, in turn changing the required filters in the optical path of the photometer, or simultaneously, dividing the analyzed beam of light into multiple colored beams and directing each in its measuring channel. Most currently used photometers implements the first method of measurement because it requires minimum hardware cost: one photodetector, one amplifier, one recording device, and has the flexibility to specific Supervisory task.
Multi-color photometer with simultaneous measurement of the investigated flow in several spectral bands is structurally more complex, but has a number of advantages: reduced costs, time information, you can get an instant color quick-variable objects and secure the color of objects when not very good weather conditions, you can apply optimal the e for each spectral channel photodetectors. For this reason, various authors have repeatedly proposed multi-color multi-channel photometers, in which the luminous flux from the measured object shared between spectral channels using diffraction gratings, prisms or dichroic mirrors. For spectral analysis of images of the latter are adapted to the greatest extent. In this case, each channel is virtually all of the radiation corresponding to the spectral range, and the device is suitable for simultaneous multi-color dimensions weakly illuminated objects in complex background conditions.
Because the present invention is directed to the spectral analysis of images quickly proceeding processes, the prior art further considered in the field of beam-splitting systems on the basis of dichroic coatings, thin-film structures, which in some spectral range Δλ reflect almost all the light and let the rest of the radiation. Dichroic optical beam divider (OLD) represents a structure of alternating thin film layers of dielectric with high and low refractive indices deposited by vacuum deposition on a transparent substrate. The total number of layers of dichroic OLD is usually 20-30 depending on the requirements of the shape of the curve is tragedia (bandwidth) and to the working frequency range.
Most often, the OLD do as inclined at an angle to the incident beam of plane-parallel glass plates with multilayer-coated surface (US 8405048, G01J 1/58, 2009  is similar). The disadvantage of plane-parallel glass plate as the basis for the deposition of multilayer coatings is the color flare in the direction of the reflected rays as a result of multiple reflection inside the plate. For this reason, the preferred beam-splitting prisms.
Known included in the spotlight of the OLD in the form of triangular dichroic prism output collecting face and a semi-transparent dichroic mirror coating on the other two, is designed to reflect different frequencies in the optical range of electromagnetic waves (US 6082863, G03B 21/14, 2000 -  - equivalent). This OLD does not glare, as in flat dichroic mirrors , but may not collect or arrange luminous flux if there are more than three of its frequency component.
Famous OLD as team dichroic prism (PSD) that contains the input or output face for respectively input or collect the total luminous flux and at least one bonding adjacent faces of at least two components specified dichroic prism transparent prisms with dichroic coating on one facet in place of each bonding to reflect this coverage depending on the angle with a luminous flux of different frequency components (http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/  - similar). This OLD can decompose or collect luminous flux with an arbitrary number of frequency components. The disadvantages of  can be attributed to the fact that output or input beams of the light flux with different frequency ranges are not completely fill the volume of the PSD and have inside of a various length of the optical path (Fig. 1). This spectral component, cut one dichroic mirror, does not interact with another dichroic mirror, if their working band of wavelengths do not overlap.
Famous OLD in the form of a PSD that contains the input or output face for respectively input or collect the total luminous flux and at least one bonding adjacent faces of at least two components specified dichroic prism transparent prisms with dichroic coating on one facet in place of each bonding to reflect this floor, depending on the angle with a luminous flux of different frequency components (patent US 6327092, G02B 27/14, 2001  - prototype). According to  geometry and mutual arrangement of the prisms constituting after gluing team dichroic prism is selected from the condition of intersection of the planes of the location of these cuts on the line. This, with the bulk symmetry PSD, makes the OLD design more compact.
Disclosure of inventions
The objective of the invention is to Powys the th efficiency of OLD, made in the form of SDP. The technical result of the invention is to create the most compact design PSD with a symmetrical arrangement of an arbitrary number of keywords. light component.
The specified task and the technical result is ensured by the fact that in the OLD in the form of a PSD that contains the input or output face for respectively input or collect the total luminous flux and at least one bonding adjacent faces of at least two components specified dichroic prism transparent prisms with dichroic coating on one facet in place of each bonding to reflect this floor, depending on the angle with a luminous flux of different frequency components, according to the invention, the geometry and mutual arrangement of the prisms constituting after gluing team dichroic prism is selected from the condition of intersection of the planes of the location of these cuts at one point.
A causal relationship between the features and achievable technical result is that the intersection of the planes of the location of splices at one point ball provides volumetric symmetry PSD, creating the greatest possible compactness OLD.
A brief description of the illustrations
In Fig. 1 schematically OLD according to the analogue of , Fig. 2 - scheme Of The D according to the invention with receivers derived from it frequency component; in Fig. 3 - scheme of the same OLD on a larger scale with the axonometric image of the intersection of the planes of the location of splices prisms PSD at one point.
Detailed description of the device
OLD as PSD 1 contains in this example (Fig. 2-3) of the input face 2 to enter the total luminous flux 3 and N cuts...2 2.1.N adjacent faces falling into the dichroic prism of transparent prisms with dichroic coating on one facet in place of each of the specified bonding to reflect this floor, depending on the angle with a luminous flux of different frequency components 3.1...3.N total luminous flux 3. Geometry and mutual arrangement of the prisms constituting after gluing PSD, selected from the condition of intersection of the planes of the location of these cuts at one point 4 (Fig. 3). In particular, PSD radial divider of Fig. 2, 3 is a transparent cube, cut six planes on six pyramidal prisms. On each plane 2.1...2.5 obtained prisms caused his dichroic coating, and then produced the bonding is obtained by cutting cube prisms in SDP 1 with the input face 2 located at an angle of 45° with respect to the incident beam 3. Faces of prisms with adhesions 2.1...2N oriented relative to each other with the same or different spatial angles α (Fig. 2) based on the C required frequency bands of the light component, reflected by the dichroic coatings, and the convenience of the output of the divider or by typing in the appropriate rays...3 3.1.N. On the path of these rays is set accordingly photodetectors or photoslittle 5.1...5.N (Fig. 2). Between each photodetector 5.1...5.N and the corresponding output line SDP is set collecting lens (not shown). The maximum number of frequency components at the output of the PSD, you can ensure you are running the latest in the form of faceted sklonnogo ball with an arbitrary number of prisms (not shown).
The operation of the device
The OLD according to the invention is as follows. Initial luminous flux 3 is applied to the input face 2 PSD 1. The bandwidth of each frequency component 3.1...3N, reflected by the dichroic coating adhesions 2.1...2N, depends on the angle of the degradable components of the beam relative to the plane of the corresponding bonding with dichroic coating. Passing through the output face PSD frequency components 3.1...3N through a collecting lens serves on the photodetectors 5.1...5.N. The OLD in the opposite direction when collecting frequency component from emitters 5.1...5.N is similar.
The proposed OLD can be used in spectroscopy to highlight certain spectral component, video or photographic technique for the division of the exposed image on the three basic colors, for the spectral composition of a light beam projector systems, laser TVs, medical endoscopes, etc.
Optical beam splitter in the form of team dichroic prism containing the input or output face for respectively input or collect the total luminous flux and at least one bonding adjacent faces of at least two components specified dichroic prism transparent prisms with dichroic coating on one facet in place of each bonding to reflect this floor, depending on the angle with a luminous flux of different frequency components, characterized in that the geometry and mutual arrangement of the prisms constituting after gluing team dichroic prism is selected from the condition of intersection of the planes of the location of these cuts at one point.
SUBSTANCE: device has a first (46) and a second (47) optical element. The second optical element (47) is arranged such that its first surface faces the second surface of the first optical element. The device allows relative displacement between the first and second optical elements to control points of incidence of light beams on the first surface of the second optical element. Each of the first and second optical elements has a prismatic plate, having a plurality of prismatic structures (48, 49). The first surface of each of the first and second optical elements is flat, and the second surface has said plurality of prismatic structures formed on it.
EFFECT: high reliability and easy control of the direction of transmitted light.
4 cl, 29 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multibeam interferometer has two reflective semitransparent coatings. The zone where the interference pattern is formed is formed by a refracting prism having a totally-reflecting face and which is a common substrate for the two reflective semitransparent coatings. The prism has two identical refracting angles which are formed by a face with total internal reflection and faces with the reflective semitransparent coatings.
EFFECT: enabling mechanical and optical stabilisation of the multibeam interferometer.
SUBSTANCE: prism is composed of three Iceland spar crystals glued together, the optical axes of which are parallel to the input face of the prism and to each other. The refraction index of the glue is less than the refraction index for an ordinary ray. The crystals are cut at an angle which provides total internal reflection of an ordinary ray from the gluing line. The middle crystal is rhomb-shaped in the principal cross-section. The angle between the faces of the crystals, which provides total internal reflection of an ordinary ray, is greater than where nk is the refraction index of the glue used to glue the crystals; no is the refraction index for an ordinary ray in Iceland spar; and less than where ne is the refraction index of an extraordinary ray in the crystal. Side crystals have a symmetric shape relative the centre of the cross-section of the middle crystal, and the output face is perpendicular to the reflected ordinary ray.
EFFECT: high accuracy of linking the direction of the polarisation plane with the normal to the optical surface of the polariser.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical equipment, and particularly to metering systems for mouth cavity. System comprises registering device, comprising photodetector and light source, interface joined to registering device and comprising light-conducting prism, in which there is a surface of registration and surface of image generation. In process of use surface of registration is brought closely to or in contact with surface of chewing, front surface or one of side surfaces of metered row of teeth or into mouth cavity, and surface of image generation is joined to registering device. At the same time registering device is arranged with the possibility of disconnection from interface, prism represents Bauernfind prism, and source of light emits white light. Source of light is located opposite to one of prism sides and is arranged so that it may illuminate metered row of teeth or mouth cavity continuously or for a short period of time.
EFFECT: device application makes it possible to increase viewing angle to obtain image of the whole surface of row of teeth or whole mouth cavity in a single operation.
9 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: reflecting prism can be used in projection displays and other optical devices. Reflecting prism for bringing plane of polarization in rotation is made of optically transparent material and it has shape of rectangular parallelepiped with three truncated angles in form of prisms. Isosceles triangular bases of those prisms belong to mutual perpendicular sides of parallelepiped. One side face of any prism has to be cutting plane which forms one of three working surfaces of reflecting prisms. Working surfaces of prism are disposed at angle of total internal reflection and they are made for series reflection of incident light beam which cones to reflecting prism at angle of 90 degrees to its side to form exit light beam being co-linear to incident beam. Working surfaces at reflection of beam provide turn of plane of polarization.
EFFECT: improved reliability of operation.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: visual devices; range finders; IR optical systems.
SUBSTANCE: prism unit has prism and two structure identical wedge compensators mounted in front of input and behind output faces of prism for rotation around axis belonging to main cross-section of prism. At initial position the input face of second compensator is parallel to output face of first compensator. Compensator can be composed of two like wedges glued together. Wedges are made of materials having different dispersion coefficients or refractivity factors. The wedges are connected in such a manner that bigger base of one wedge at main cross-section has to be prolongation of smaller base of the other wedge.
EFFECT: improved precision of prism unit.
8 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: printed article has a substrate, having an upper surface and a lower surface; a graphic image layer having a plurality of images printed on at least one surface of the substrate; and a plurality of polygonal lenses printed on at least one surface of the substrate above the graphic image layer. The polygonal lenses are colourless, magnifying convex lenses. The printed lenses have a height between 0.0001 and 0.005 inch, width between 0.0005 and 0.01 inch when viewed from above and distance between the lenses between 0.0005 and 0.01 inch.
EFFECT: high image definition.
7 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for coherent laser beam combining includes a laser with a fibre amplifier and a system of splitters which splits the laser beam into N+1 optical channels, from which one reference channel and N amplifier channels are selected. The apparatus also has a piezoceramic phase modulator of the reference channel, a harmonic electric oscillation generator connected the phase modulator of the reference channel to form an electrical positive feedback and operating at natural resonance frequency of the piezoceramic modulator, N phase-shift piezoceramic elements of operating channels, a system for combining N laser beams, which includes N collimators of operating channels connected to the N phase-shift piezoceramic elements of operating channels. Furthermore, the apparatus has a collimator with a reference channel telescope, connected to the piezoceramic phase modulator of the reference channel, a divider plate, N photodetectors on which control optical signals of interference of the reference and operating channels fall, N synchronous detection units which include a key synchronous detector, the synchronisation input of which is connected to the harmonic electric oscillation generator and the signal input is connected to the output of the N-th control photodetector. The output of the key synchronous detector is connected to the N-th phase-shift piezoceramic element of the operating channel to form an electrical negative feedback.
EFFECT: faster operation of the system.
13 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: described is an artificial microoptic system and a protective device, which include a planar image formed from a matrix or a pattern of pictograms and a matrix of focusing elements; the system forms at least two different artificial images, owing to which one artificial image serves to regulate or control the degree of visibility of the other artificial image. In a typical form, the matrix of pictograms forms a planar artificial image, while interaction of the matrix of focusing elements with the matrix of pictograms forms a separate artificial enlarged image which serves to control the field of view of the planar image, thus serving to regulate or control the degree of visibility of the planar image. Therefore, the planar image visually emerges and disappears, or is turned on and off, depending on the viewing angle of the system.
EFFECT: improved system.
41 cl, 158 dwg
SUBSTANCE: pulsed laser radiation source has at least one pulsed laser, an optical means for summation of radiation and a focusing system. The source further includes a driving generator whose output is connected to the input of the pulsed laser, and the output of the pulsed laser is optically connected in series to an optical switch, a matching unit, an optical delay means and the optical means for summation of radiation and then further with the focusing system, wherein the output of the driving generator is connected to the control input of the optical switch.
EFFECT: high output optical power of laser radiation pulses.
SUBSTANCE: image display system includes an array of microstructured pictogram elements made for combined formation of an image or information, and structured coating material applied on at least part of the surface of a layer of microstructured pictograms. Observation or reading using a magnifying device is possible. The array of microstructured pictogram elements is embedded in a pictogram layer. Structuring of the coating material makes up a region where there is coating material and regions where there is no coating material. The artificial imaging system includes an array of focusing elements and an imaging system which includes an array of microstructured pictogram elements which is embedded in the pictogram layer. The array of focusing elements and the imaging system interact in order to form at least one artificial optical image. Structured coating material is used, which is applied on at least part of the surface of the microstructured pictogram layer. Structuring of the coating material makes up a region where there is coating material and regions where there is no coating material.
EFFECT: enabling open authentication of currency, documents, industrial articles and products, and visual magnification of industrial articles, products and packaging.
45 cl, 52 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes a laser radiation splitter. The splitter splits polarised radiation from an external source into basic and reference radiation. Basic radiation is directed onto a second splitter where it is split into N channels and amplified by amplifiers in each channel. Part of the radiation is collected by a semitransparent mirror(s). A control beam is formed, compared with reference radiation and then converted to an electric signal. The control signal for phase adjustment modules is calculated based on the signal parameters using a computation unit. Phase adjustment is carried out using N phase adjustment modules lying after amplifiers which perform phase shift in each channel using cyclic control signals. The value of each control signal in each of the N channels is determined separately via summation of the signal which is determined from shift of interference fringes in the plane of the array of a multichannel photodetector with the signal determined from the results of measuring intensity of the resultant radiation. Beams of control and reference radiation fall on the multichannel photodetector at a small angle with respect to each other. Resultant radiation is obtained when all beams of control radiation are focused on a one-channel photodetector using a lens.
EFFECT: obtaining high-power monochromatic coherent radiation.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to medical equipment, namely, to laser probes and their combinations, applied in ophthalmology. Probe contains irradiating optic fibre for light beam irradiation, optic system, located on the irradiation side of irradiating optic fibre, and two or more receiving optic fibres, located opposite to irradiating optic fibre. Optic system contains diffractive surface. Light beam, irradiated by irradiating optic fibre, is diffracted into two or more diffracted light beams, focused in plane, parallel to diffraction surface. Receiving ends of each of two or more receiving optic fibres, are intended for reception of light beam, diffracted by optic system, are located in plane, parallel to diffraction surface. Another version of implementation is ophthalmologic laser probe, containing irradiating optic fibre and optic system, located on irradiation side of irradiating optic fibre. Optic system is made in the same way as in the previous version. Connection for laser probe contains case, optic system, located in case, first connecting link, located on one side of optic system; and second connecting link, located on the other side of optic system. Optic system contains diffraction surface, each of two or more diffracted light beams is focused in plane, parallel to said surface.
EFFECT: application of group of inventions will make it possible to reduce operation time due to probe construction which makes it possible to form multipoint laser beam.
27 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: protective coating has a layer of polymer material with shape memory, having a surface made of microlenses, where each microlens is associated with one of a plurality of images on the protective coating. The layer of polymer material with shape memory is sensitive to external stimulating effect, for example to temperature, a solvent or moisture, owing to transition from a first state in which the optical property of the microlens has a first value to a second state in which the optical property of the microlens has a second value. The microlenses have refracting surfaces which transmit light to positions in the protective coating, yielding a composite image from images formed on the protective coating when the layer of polymer material with shape memory is in one of a first or second state.
EFFECT: invention provides change in optical properties of the article as a result of the external effect.
9 cl, 19 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disclosed microoptical systems for artificial magnification include a pictogram matrix; and a matrix of pictogram focusing elements (microlens); where the matrix of pictogram focusing elements and the pictogram matrix arranged relative each other in such a way that at least one artificially magnified image having a motion effect is provided. Each of the said pictogram matrices and matrices of pictogram focusing elements have their own separate design features, for example the matrix of pictogram focusing elements can have thickness less than 50 micrometres and/or the effective diametre of the base of pictogram focusing elements can be less than 50 micrometres.
EFFECT: possibility of using disclosed engineering solutions on objects for everyday use, which are subjected to multiple mechanical effects and deformations without breaking down and deterioration of characteristics of microoptical system for artificial magnification with provision for high magnification and obtaining a clear image of protective micro-structured elements.
103 cl, 33 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has at least one display apparatus, a total internal reflection (TIR) optical element connected to a drive and at least one optical path distributing optical element. The TIR optical element can form an optical path for transmitting an image of the environment directly from the environment to at least one optical path distributing optical element. The optical path distributing element has a surface with controlled TIR and can form an optical path for transmitting the image of the environment from the TIR optical element to at least one eye of an observer, and can also form an optical path for transmitting a virtual image from the display apparatus to at least one eye of an observer.
EFFECT: reproduction of a virtual image and an image of the environment, low power consumption and weight.
22 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises spectrometre including collimator and angular shift scales. Note here that prism is made up of prismatic pan with analysed water arranged between electromagnet poles.
EFFECT: maintaining optimum conditions of water magnetic treatment.