Leucosapphire flat-concave lens forming flat wavefront for extraordinary beams
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in optical systems of UV, visible and IR optical, optoelectronic and laser devices. A flat-concave lens is made of a plastically deformed piece part, wherein an integral flat surface is perpendicular to an axis of symmetry of the piece part and formed from an apex of the piece part at x0<H, wherein H is the thickness of the piece part. An output surface of the lens has a profile providing measuring the thickness hy=h0×n0/ny, wherein h0 is the lens thickness in the centre, n0 is an ordinary beam refraction index, while ny is an extraordinary beam refraction index at a distance Y from the lens centre. The piece part is made by the plastic deformation of a parallel-sided plate of a crystal Z-section by the central annular bend. The lens surface is formed by removing an excessive layer of the material from the piece part.
EFFECT: producing the leucosapphire lens forming the flat wavefront of extraordinary beams and transparent within 25,000-2,000 cm-1 for a parallel beam of light perpendicular to the input surface.
2 cl, 1 dwg
The invention relates to the technology of lenses for optical systems of modern optical, and optoelectronic and laser devices operating in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions of the spectra, and can also be used in the manufacture of lenses of sapphire with a plane wavefront of the extraordinary beam.
A method of obtaining an optical lens, comprising obtaining a convexo-concave workpiece by plastic deformation of the bending plane-parallel plates of the Z-cut crystals l2O3 hemispherical punch or a punch in the form of a spherical segment and the orientation of the axis of symmetry of the workpiece on the optical axis of the lens at subsequent technological operations (see RF patent 2285757, publ. 20.10.2006 IPC index SV 33/00). This method does not allow element made of sapphire, forming a flat wavefront extraordinary beam.
Closest to the proposed technical solution is a flat lens made of sapphire and method of reception of plastically deformed billet, in which the axis of symmetry of the flat lens coincides with the axis of symmetry of plastically deformed billet, and incoming and outgoing surfaces are planes perpendicular to it, and part of the flat surface of the lens formed by the top of the workpiece. However, when normalmapping parallel beam of rays is not created flat wavefront extraordinary beam due to the different speeds of light propagation in the details associated with the change of the optical properties of the crystal during plastic deformation (see RF patent 2482522, publ. 25.05.2013 IPC index G02B 1/02).
This way we obtain a flat collective lens of sapphire for extraordinary rays (parallel beam of light directed perpendicular to the input surface, transparent in the area 25000-2000 cm-1. However, this method allows to obtain a collective lens for the extraordinary beam with a variable wave front in the working aperture.
The objective of the proposed technical solution is the creation of lenses made of synthetic sapphire, forming a planar wave front for extraordinary rays, and transparent in the area 25000-2000 cm-1for a parallel beam of light directed perpendicular to the input surface.
The technical result is achieved with the help of a group of inventions, the United inventive concept: the design of the lens and the way it was received.
PLANO-concave lens made of sapphire, forming a planar wave front for extraordinary rays, made of plastically deformed billet in which a member is a flat surface perpendicular to the axis of symmetry of the workpiece and formed from the top of the workpiece at a distance x0<N, where H is the thickness of the workpiece, and the exit surface has a profile which, providing a change of thickness hy=h0×n0/nywhere h0the thickness of the lens in the center, n0is the refractive index of ordinary ray, and nythe refractive index of the extraordinary beam at a distance Y from the center of the lens.
A method of obtaining a PLANO-concave lens made of sapphire, forming a planar wave front for extraordinary rays, including the manufacturing of the workpiece by plastic deformation of a plane-parallel plate made of Z-cut crystal method the Central ring bending, forming the lens surface using the methods of removal from the workpiece excess layer material with the incoming surface is formed by the vertices as a plane perpendicular to the axis of symmetry of the workpiece at a distance x0<n of its vertices, where H is the thickness of the workpiece, in which unlike the prototype facing concave lens surface is formed as a surface of rotation with a cross section that provides a change in the thickness of the lens hy=h0×n0/nywhere h0the thickness of the lens in the center, n0is the refractive index of ordinary ray, and nythe refractive index of the extraordinary beam at a distance Y from the center of the lens.
Receive new design PLANO-concave lens made of sapphire in this way allows us to provide the unique the properties of the crystal optic lens, in which incident parallel beam of unpolarized beams directed perpendicular to the flat surface of the lens after refraction on the incoming (flat) surface of the lens forms an extraordinary beam, which extends at an angle p to the axis of symmetry of the lens and an ordinary beam at a speed determined by the deflection angle of the optical axis of the crystal from the axis of symmetry of the lens, i.e., dependent on the distance of the ray to the center of the lens. And in the center of the unusual speed of the beam corresponds to a refractive index of n0more, and with increasing distance from the center of the lens, the speed of propagation of the beam is reduced according to the change of refractive index nythe refractive index of the extraordinary beam at a distance Y from the center of the lens. To create a planar wave front time passing rejected the extraordinary beam to refraction at the outgoing surface must be increased to compensate for a lower rate, until the length of time equal to the passage of a beam (ordinary and extraordinary) in the center of the lens. Change the time of the passing beam is proportional to the change in the refractive index of the extraordinary beam with increasing distance from the center of the lens.
The drawing shows a diagram of the PLANO-concave lens made of sapphire, forming a planar wave front for extraordinary rays and refraction of the teaching, falling perpendicular to the input surface of the lens, where 1 is the lens thickness in the center of the h0Z is the optical axis of the plastically deformed crystal, 2 - part flat surface of the lens, 3 - facing concave surface of the lens, 4 - ordinary ray, 5 - extraordinary ray. The angle R between the ordinary beam 4 and the extraordinary ray 5 after refraction at the input surface of the lens. Y - the distance from the lens center, the largest of which is formed profile facing - concave surface with the thickness of the lens hy=h0×n0/ny.
A specific example of a PLANO-concave lens made of sapphire, forming a planar wave front for extraordinary rays from a crystal is made of sapphire the workpiece in a plane-parallel plate is Z-cut, which is subjected to plastic deformation of the bending hemispherical punch with a radius of 32 mm Workpiece thickness H=6.0 mm treated by removal of excess material by the method of grinding and polishing to obtain the input surface of the lens plane perpendicular to the axis of symmetry of the workpiece, and a second lens surface, symmetrical relative to the center of the part, formed as a surface of rotation with a cross section that provides a change of thickness hy=h0×n0/nywhere - h0the thickness of the lens in the center, n0while the motor of refraction of the ordinary ray, and nythe refractive index of the extraordinary beam at a distance Y from the center of the lens.
Received a PLANO-concave lens is a lens formed with a plane wavefront of the extraordinary ray in the fall on the surface of the beam directed perpendicular to the input surface of the lens.
At normal incidence of the beam of the ordinary ray is refracted upon exiting surface of the lens. The delay time of the extraordinary ray depends on the distance of the ray to the center of the lens and its thickness in the center, the distance of the location of the input surface of the lens relative to the workpiece. Synthetic sapphire is the material with the normal dispersion of the refractive index of light, and changing the wavelength of the radiation shape facing the surface of the lens, you should consider using the ratio of hy=h0×n0/ny.
Lenses manufactured in the described manner, have unique properties that must be used in the manufacture of crystalline parts made of sapphire with a plane wavefront extraordinary beams used in the optical systems of modern devices operating in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions of the spectra.
1. PLANO-concave lens made of sapphire, forming a planar wave front for extraordinary rays, made of practicesinformation workpiece, where a member is a flat surface perpendicular to the axis of symmetry of the workpiece and formed from the top of the workpiece at a distance x0<N, where H is the thickness of the workpiece and the output surface has a profile that provides the variation of thickness hy=h0×n0/nywhere h0the thickness of the lens in the center, n0is the refractive index of ordinary ray, and nythe refractive index of the extraordinary beam at a distance Y from the center of the lens.
2. A method of obtaining a PLANO-concave lens made of sapphire, forming a planar wave front for extraordinary rays, including the manufacturing of the workpiece by plastic deformation of a plane-parallel plate made of Z-cut crystal method the Central ring bending, forming the lens surface using the methods of removal from the workpiece excess layer material with the incoming surface is formed by the vertices as a plane perpendicular to the axis of symmetry of the workpiece at a distance x0<n of its vertices, where H is the thickness of the workpiece, characterized in that the facing concave lens surface is formed as a surface of rotation with a cross section that provides a change in the thickness of the lens hy=h0×n0/nywhere h0the thickness of the lens in the center, n0is the refractive index of ordinary ray, and n the refractive index of the extraordinary beam at a distance Y from the center of the lens.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to improved method of obtaining workpieces from silver halides and their solid solutions for fibrous infrared lightguides, which includes application on silver halide crystal-core of crystalline shell of crystalline silver halide with refraction index lower than in crystal-core, and thermal processing. Shell on crystal-core is applied by ion-exchange diffusion in ion-exchange source, as the latter taken is finely disperse silver halide powder with coarseness 1-20 mcm, diffusion is carried out at temperature, close to melting temperature of crystal-core in atmosphere of mixture of vapours of halides, included into composition of crystal material and powder, taken in equal ratio under pressure 0.2-0.5 atm.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce optic loss of lightduides, operating in infrared spectrum range.
SUBSTANCE: multilayered coating contains three successive layers with an even thickness: a lower mirror metal radio-reflecting skin-layer of pure aluminium, an intermediate protective thermoregulatory dielectric layer of zirconium dioxide and an upper protective wear-resistant highly strong diamond-like carbon layer.
EFFECT: provision of the operation in extreme conditions of open space due to the application of a thin substrate-envelope from a polymer composite material.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a monocrystal with a garnet-type structure to be used in optical communication and laser processing devices. This monocrystal is described by general formula (Tb3-xScx)(Sc2-yAly)Al3O12-z, where 0<x<0.1; 0≤y≤0.2; 0≤z≤0/.3.
EFFECT: translucent monocrystal that can inhibit cracking at cutting.
5 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an immersion liquid which can be used in optical instrument-making for investigating optical parameters of inorganic materials and optical components, including large, irregularly shaped articles. The immersion liquid for optical investigation contains 97-99 wt % meta-bis(meta-phenoxyphenoxy)benzene and 1-3 wt % 2-naphthol. To reduce viscosity and surface tension, the immersion liquid may further contain 0.1-3 wt % dibutyl sebacate per 100 wt % of said composition.
EFFECT: disclosed immersion liquid is nontoxic, has a good refraction index nD>1,6 and high adhesion to inorganic optical materials, which enables to deposit on the entire surface of the investigated substrate or part thereof a thin immersion layer and use thereof for effective quality control of large optical articles without immersion in a cell with an immersion liquid.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to visible light absorbers, particularly novel azo compound monomers, particularly suitable for use in materials for implantable ophthalmic lens materials. The ophthalmic device material includes an azo compound, a device forming acrylic monomer and a cross-linking agent. The ophthalmic device is made from the ophthalmic device material and is in the form of intraocular lenses, contact lenses, keratoprostheses and corneal inlays or rings.
EFFECT: azo compounds are suitable for use as monomers which absorb part of the visible light spectrum (about 380-495 nm).
17 cl, 6 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: free form ophthalmic lens comprises a first optical zone portion comprising multiple voxels of polymerised crosslinkable material containing a photoabsorptive component. The optical zone portion comprises a first area having a first refraction index and a second area having a second refraction index; and a second portion comprising a layered volume of crosslinkable material polymerised beyond the gel point of the crosslinkable material.
EFFECT: obtaining ophthalmic lenses with a free form surface and areas with different refraction indices, which enable to correct vision by changing the focal distance.
18 cl, 19 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of sandwiched materials used in thin-film instruments and devices. Proposed levelling film comprises levelling ply containing binding polymer resin and inorganic filler as components, at least, on one side of transparent polymer substrate. Note here that the number of foreign particles with mean diameter of 20-100 mcm on levelling air surface does not exceed 5 per m2.
EFFECT: decreased amount of linear defects at production of thin-film transistor on film surface.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to producing a terbium aluminium garnet monocrystal which can be used as a Faraday rotator for optical insulators. In the terbium aluminium garnet monocrystal, a portion of aluminium is at least replaced with scandium and a portion of at least aluminium or terbium is replaced with at least one component selected from a group consisting of thulium, ytterbium and yttrium, wherein the garnet monocrystal has the general formula (Tb3-x-zSczMx) (Sc2-yMy) Al3O12 (1), where M represents at least one component selected from a group consisting of Tm, Yb and Y, and x, y and z satisfy the following relationship: 0<x+y≤0.30 and 0≤z≤0.30.
EFFECT: present monocrystal has a high light transmission factor in a wide wavelength range and a wide Faraday rotation angle with cracking-resistance.
8 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polymers for producing ionic silicone hydrogels suitable for making ophthalmic devices. Disclosed are polymers obtained from reactive components comprising at least one silicone-containing component which includes at least one trimethylsilyl group and at least one ionic component comprising at least one anionic group, which is a carboxylic acid-containing component. Also disclosed is a contact lens made from the disclosed polymers.
EFFECT: disclosed polymers demonstrate improved thermal stability and desirable protein uptake.
24 cl, 5 dwg, 10 tbl, 18 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to ophthalmic devices and methods for preparing them. What is presented is a soft silicone hydrogel contact lens which possesses an ability to deliver a hydrophobic comfort-maintaining agent (phospholipid, glycolipid, glyceroglycolipid, sphingolipid, sphingoglycolipid, fatty alcohol containing 8 to 36 carbon atoms, or a mixture thereof) into the user's eye gradually releasing it from a polymer matrix consisting of hydrophobic chains formed of a silicon monomer or macromere, and hydrophilic chains formed of a hydrophilic monomer or macromere when in use. What is also presented is a method for making the above contact lens.
EFFECT: in the presented soft silicone contact lens, the hydrophobic comfort-maintaining agent is not covalently bond to the polymer matrix wherein it is distributed and can be released from the soft hydrogel contact lens into the user's eye when in use reliably for a long period of time and thereby reinforcing and stabilising a lipid layer of the lachrymal fluid film and reducing eye dryness.
16 cl, 2 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: plunger pair and metering pump comprises at least one external part of crystal based on aluminium oxide alpha-modification and at least one internal part of crystal based on aluminium oxide alpha-modification, preferably, leucosapphire with working surface roughness Ra2÷5Å. Said surface smoothness is brought about by processing the cylindrical surfaces of part of crystal based on aluminium oxide alpha-modification. This method comprises drilling the preliminary blanks of part of crystal based on aluminium oxide alpha-modification with the help of diamond tool. Three-stage mechanical processing is performed by diamond tool with lubricant-coolants and sequential decreased in abrasive grain size to 125/100 and/or 100/80 mcm. Internal strain is removed from blanks by annealing at muffle furnace. Surface is processed by semisoft or soft grinding wheel or by lap with diamond 5/3 mcm or 1/0 mcm grain on clock oil. Tribochemical finishing of the surface is performed by colloidal SiO2-based composition.
EFFECT: longer life, higher metering precision.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of obtaining single crystal diamond material for electronics and jewellery production. Method includes growing single crystal diamond material by method of chemical precipitation from vapour or gas phase (CVD) on main surface (001) of diamond substrate, which is limited by at least one rib <100>, length of said at least one rib <100> exceeds the longest surface dimension, which is orthogonal to said at least one rib <100>, in ratio at least 1.3:1, and single crystal diamond material grows both on the normal to the main surface (001) and sideward from it, and during CVD process value α constitutes from 1.4 to 2.6, where α=(√3×growth rate in <001>) ÷ growth rate in <111>.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain larger in area diamond materials with low density of dislocations.
14 cl, 8 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: germanium monocrystals are grown in crystallographic direction  after holding at melting point for 1-2 hours, with temperature gradient at the crystallisation front in the range of (10.0÷18.0) K/cm, which provides dislocation density on the level of (2·104-5·105) per cm2.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain germanium monocrystals with considerable increase in signal reception area due to directed introduction of a given concentration of dislocations into the grown crystal and conversion of said dislocations from standard crystal defects to active elements of infrared optical devices.
3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing crystals, for example, amber, pearls and the like with Mohs hardness lower than 4. Proposed method comprises faceting at abrasive wheel with grain size of 20-40 mcm and finishing at abrasive disk with hardness exceeding that of processed material by fine free abrasive. Note here that facet is set and moved off the disc surface at disc zero rpm to prevent damaging the facet by abrasive particles accumulated in front of facet in rotation. Diamond powder, or aluminium oxide, or cerium oxide, is used as abrasive.
EFFECT: finishing to 11th finish class to GOST 2789-59.
6 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to diamond processing, in particular, by thermochemical process. Proposed method comprises applying layer of spirit glue composition onto diamond surface, said composition containing transition metal, for example, Fe, Ni or Co, and processing diamond thermally at temperature not exceeding 1000°C. To prepare spirit glue composition, powder of water-soluble salt of transition metal is used. Said powder in amount of 1-10 wt % of water solution is mixed with spirit solution of glue at salt water solution-to-glue spirit solution ratio of 1:1. Prepared mix is applied on diamond surface in 10-20 mcm-thick layer to be dried. Thermal processing of diamond is performed in two steps. Note here that, at first step, diamond is processed at 600-700°C for 1-2 min, while, at second step, it is processed at 800-1000°C for 15-30 min.
EFFECT: superhigh specific surface with nano-sized (100-200 nm) relief, expanded applications.
2 dwg, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in simultaneous growth of multitude of work pieces of moissanite crystals in cellular mould of forming graphite, in dividing them to separate crystals, in faceting, grinding and in polishing. Before faceting, grinding and polishing work pieces are first glued on a mandrel, then they are re-glued on a back side. Moissanite is polished on a ceramic polisher rotating at rate from 200 to 300 rpm with utilisation of diamond powder (spray) with dimension of a grain from 0.125 to 0.45 mcm, facilitating depth of grooves less, than length of light wave of a visible part of spectre. Also, cut and chipped edges of the work piece with defects not suitable for faceting, are crumbled and returned to a stage of growth. Grinding paste with size of a grain 0.25 mcm can be used for grinding.
EFFECT: increased quality of crystals, increased efficiency due to elimination of cutting operation; reduced expenditures for production and losses of material at cutting during work piece growth.
2 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: semiconductor crystal of silicone carbide includes monocrystal seed part 21 and monocrystal grown part 22 on the above seed part 21; at that, seed 21 and grown 22 parts essentially form regular cylindrical monocrystal of silicone carbide 20; at that, boundary between grown and seed part shall be determined by seed part 23 which essentially is parallel to bases of the above regular cylindrical monocrystal 20 and has deviation from axis approximately through 0.5°-12° relative to base plane 26 of monocrystal 20, and the above monocrystal grown part reproduces polytype of the above monocrystal seed part and has the diametre at least of 100 mm.
EFFECT: obtaining high-quality monocrystals of silicone carbide of big diametre, from which separate plates with off-axis surfaces in the form of circle can be obtained.
28 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to process of fabricating items with spinel crystal structure, such as plates, paddings and active facilities comprising them. According to one version a monocrystal spinel plate is fabricated by treatment of melt and has a non-stoichometric composition defined with a common formula aAD.bE2O3, in which A is chosen out of group including Mg, Ca, Zn, Mn, Ba, Sr, Cd, Fe and their combinations as well, E is chosen out of group including Al, In, Cr, Sc, Lu, Fe and their combinations, while D is chosen out of group O, S, Se, and their combinations as well; at that ratio b:a>2.5:1, so that spinel is enriched with E2D3. Besides a monocrystal spinel material is opened possessing a non-stoichometric composition having a window within the range of waves from 400 to 800 nm. Such items possess reduced mechanical tensions, which facilitates increased output of accepted items.
EFFECT: facilitating increased output of spinel items.
32 cl, 5 tbl, 13 dwg
FIELD: technological processes; chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: single-crystal spinel plate has front and back sides, <111> crystallographic orientation and external perimeter, which has the first and the second facets, at that the first facet means direction of plate cleavage plane, which passes through front surface of geometric locus of points that stretches along the line, which is parallel to the first facet, and the second facet means direction of cleavage plane breaking, at that plate is made of composition in accordance with common formula aAD•bE2D3, in which A is selected from group that includes Mg, Ca, Zn, Mn, Ba, Sr, Cd, Fe, and also their combinations, E is selected from group, which includes Al, In, Cr, Sc, Lu, Fe, and also their combinations, and D is selected from group, which includes O, S, Se, and also their combinations. Boule and plates prepared from it mainly consist of single spinel phase, without secondary phases, and do not contain contaminants and alloying admixtures, i.e. possess improved technological characteristics.
EFFECT: higher extent of finished products output; increase of plates size and reduction of processing cost in manufacture of semiconductors.
18 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex, 5 dwg
FIELD: technological process.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the technology of obtaining plates made from monocrystalline diamond, grown using a chemical vapour deposition method (CVDM) on a substrate. The grown diamond is divided across the surface of the substrate and the plate is obtained. Its main surfaces are located across the surface of the substrate.
EFFECT: obtaining plates with large area, which do not have natural defects.
41 cl, 4 ex, 6 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of semiconductor components and devices.
SUBSTANCE: method for dividing mono-crystal such as GaAs comprises steps of cutting mono-crystal at least by two portions, providing motion of cutting tool (2,3; 8,8w, 8b, 8c) relative to mono-crystal in direction of motion (V); orienting mono-crystal 1 in such a way that to arrange predetermined crystallographic direction (K) in cutting plane (T); selecting angle (ρ) between predetermined crystallographic direction (K) and motion direction (V) in such a way that to provide mutual compensation of forces acting upon cutting tool at cutting process in direction normal relative to cutting plane or providing said forces equal to predetermined value.
EFFECT: increased cutting speed, enhanced quality of wafers allowing omit further working operations of them.
16 cl, 12 dwg