# Apparatus for generating laser radiation and laser having said apparatus

FIELD: physics, optics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser optics. The apparatus for generating laser radiation (3) comprises homogenisers (1) configured to separately homogenise a plurality of partial beams (6) or a plurality of groups (7) of partial beams (6) of laser radiation (3) such that partial beams (6) or groups (7) thereof from the homogenisers (1) in the working plane (8) form a linear distribution (9, 19) of intensity with fronts (10) which abruptly fall at the ends. Means of closing (2) the partial beams (6) or groups (7) thereof are made and installed such that linear distribution (11, 20) of intensity is formed in the working plane (8), wherein the length of said distribution is greater than the length of each of the linear distributions (11, 20) of intensity of the partial beams (6) or groups (7) thereof. The closing means (2) include a lens array with a plurality of lenses (5). The following condition is satisfied for the lenses (5) of the lens array: 2·F·NA(50%)=M·P_{2}, where M=1, 2, 3,…, F is the focal distance of each lens, P_{2} is the centre to centre distance between the lenses, NA(50%) is the numerical aperture of each of the lenses (5), defined by an angle at which intensity of light passing through the lenses (5) falls by half.

EFFECT: simple design.

18 cl, 9 dwg

The invention concerns a device for the formation of laser radiation in accordance with the restrictive parts of p. 1 and 2, as well as laser compliance with the restrictive part p. 12 formula.

Definitions. "In the propagation direction of the laser radiation" means the average direction of propagation of the laser radiation, in particular if it is not a plane wave, or is at least divergent. Under the "laser beam", "light beam", "partial beam" or "ray", unless specifically indicated, means not idealizing ray geometrical optics, but a real light beam such as a laser beam of Gaussian profile or a modified Gaussian profile or Top-Hat profile that has not infinitely small and elongated cross-section. Under the top-Hat-distribution or Top-Hat-intensity distribution or Top-Hat-profile refers to the intensity distribution, which in relation to at least one direction is described, mostly rectangular function rect(x)). Thus the real intensity distribution, with deviations from a rectangular function in the percentage range or falling edges, can be called Top-Hat-distribution or Top-Hat-profile.

Apparatus for forming laser radiation above-described kind and laser described above kind from the local from WO 2008/006460 A1. As homogenizer provided by the lens matrix, lenses which have different widths. In particular, the width of the lenses decreases from the edge to the middle. This achieves a Top-Hat-angle distribution with trapezoidal falling fronts passing through the homogenizing laser radiation. Several laser modules with such homogenizers can be placed next to each other so that their laser radiation in the working plane overlap in a homogeneous linear intensity distribution.

The disadvantage of this prior art is the fact that required Top-Hat-angle distribution with trapezoidal falling fronts. To achieve homogenizers have to perform complex, with center-to-center distance (pitch) between the lenses decreases from outside to inside.

The task underlying the present invention is to provide a device for laser radiation forming the above-described type and a laser of the type indicated above, which, in particular concerning the implementation of homogenizers, would be more simple and/or inexpensive construction and would provide a high linear homogeneity of the intensity distribution in the working plane.

According to the invention, this is achieved by a device for shaping the laser described in the above kind with the distinguishing characteristics of p. 1 and/or through the device for the laser radiation forming the above-described kind with the distinguishing characteristics of p. 9, and by laser described above kind with the distinguishing characteristics of p. 17 formulas. Dependent claims relate to preferred embodiments of the invention.

Under item (1) provides that for lenses of the lens matrix we have the following condition:

2·F·NA(50%)=M·P_{2,}

where M=1, 2, 3,..., and F denotes a focal length of each lens, R_{2}- center distance between the lenses, a NA(50%) - the numerical aperture of each lens defined by the angle at which the intensity passing through the lens light is decreased by half.

Under item 9 also provides that the funds of overlap include the lens matrix with many lenses, and lenses of the lens matrix condition:

2·F·NA(50%)=M·P_{2,}

where M=1, 2, 3,..., and F denotes a focal length of each lens, R_{2}- center distance between the lenses, a NA(50%) - the numerical aperture of each lens defined by the angle at which the intensity passing through the lens light is decreased by half.

These signs are used to provide a uniform overlapping of the individual partial beams or groups of partial beams across the working plane without the need for the fronts of the angular distributions of the trapezoidal fell, or without the need to nd Organizatory had varying center-to-center distance between the lenses. According to the present invention is very high uniformity is achieved at the specified ratio between the geometric arrangement of the lenses of the lens matrix and the numerical aperture of each lens corresponding to 50% of the intensity of the transmitted light. This invention homogenizers can be made of evenly spaced identical lenses.

Thanks to the invention it is possible to create, in principle, homogeneous linear intensity distribution of the laser radiation of arbitrary length. In addition, the quality of homogeneity is violated only due to manufacturing tolerances in the manufacture of the lens matrix for homogenizers and/or means of overlap. Greater uniformity can be achieved without complicated settings.

Due to the above conditions and the simultaneous existence of feedback provided by the control device according to p. 9, it is possible to achieve a very uniform distribution of intensities.

Additionally, it can be provided that the laser radiation and lenses of the lens matrix we have the following condition:

,

where w_{0}denotes the distance in the working plane between the maximum intensity and decreased to 1/e^{2}the intensity created one lens intensity distribution, a d - Russ is the right in the working plane between the maximum intensities of two adjacent lenses of the distributions of intensities.
Preferred in this embodiment is, on the one hand, that hausapotheke angular distribution of the partial beams or groups of partial beams may overlap so that there are uniform line. Requirement w_{0}/d>1,1 is not necessary to adhere as strictly as requirement 2·F·NA(50%)=M·R_{2}therefore , the design of such devices can be more simple.

Other characteristics and advantages of the invention are explained with the help of the following description of preferred examples of its implementation with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:

- Fig. 1: schematic top view of the first variant of the device for forming the laser radiation, and explains the intensity distribution of one group of the partial beams in a working plane;

- Fig. 2: schematic top view of the first variant of the device, and explains the distribution of the total intensities of all groups of partial beams in a working plane;

- Fig. 3: schematic top view of the second variant of the device for forming the laser radiation, and explains the distribution of the total intensities of all groups of partial beams in a working plane;

- Fig. 4: schematic top view of the third one variant of the device for forming the laser radiation, and explains the intensity distribution of the one is the group of the partial beams in a working plane;

- Fig. 5: schematic top view of the third variant of the device for forming the laser radiation, and explains the distribution of the total intensities of all groups of partial beams in a working plane;

- Fig. 6: schematic top view of a fourth variant of the device for forming the laser radiation, and explains the intensity distribution of one group of the partial beams in a working plane;

- Fig. 7: schematic top view of a fourth variant of the device for forming the laser radiation, and explains the distribution of the total intensities of all groups of partial beams in a working plane;

- Fig. 8: schematic detailed top view of the laser with the fifth variant of the device for the formation of laser radiation;

- Fig. 9: schematic detailed side view of the laser of Fig. 8.

In the figures, identical or functionally identical parts or light rays or the intensity distribution denoted by the same reference position. In addition, some of the figures for clarity, denoted by the Cartesian coordinate system.

Is depicted in Fig. 1 and 2 option device includes homogenizers 1 and means overlap 2. The funds slabs 2 are located in the Z-direction distribution of the generated laser radiation 3 for homogenizers 1.

Homogenizate the s 1 is made in the form of a single lens matrix and include a large number located next to each other in the X direction of the lenses 4. Thus we can talk about the cylindrical lenses with passing in the direction of the Y axis, and the spherical lens.

Tools of the overlap of 2 made in the form of a single lens matrix and include a large number located next to each other in the X-direction of the lens 5. It may also be cylindrical lenses with passing in the direction of the Y axis, and the spherical lens. Lens 5 can have the same focal length F.

In the depicted example, the overlap 2 contain five lenses 5. You can also completely provide more in particular significantly greater number of lens 5, and then correspondingly larger and the number of lenses 4 homogenizers 1.

In the depicted example, the width of the lenses 5 means overlap 2 three times greater than the width of the lenses 4 homogenizers 1, so that each of the lenses 5 means overlap 2 correspond to the three lenses 4 homogenizers 1. Respectively to the center-to-center distance (pitch) P_{1}between the lenses 4 and the center-to-center distance R_{2}between the lenses is the relationship 3·P_{1}=P_{2}(Fig. 1).

Provision could also be made smaller or larger lens 4 homogenizers 1. In particular, there is the possibility of a larger number of lenses 4 homogenizers 1 of each of the lenses 5 means overlap 2.

In the depicted example, the generated laser radiation 3 if p is the falling down on the homogenizers 1 must have a linear intensity distribution, the length of this linear intensity distribution in the X-direction corresponds approximately to the length of the homogenizer 1 in the x direction.

The laser light 3 is cleaved by the lenses 4 homogenizers 1 to a large number of partial beams 6. Each group of 7 from three partial beams 6 passes through one of the lenses 5 means overlap 2. In the working plane 8, located at a distance D from the lens means 5 overlap 2, corresponding to the focal length F of the lenses 5, three partial beam 6 in each group 7 overlap with the formation of linear distribution 9 intensity (Fig. 1).

Distribution 9 intensity is, in General, form Top-Hat distribution, which has, however, not infinitely steep and relatively moderately descending fronts 10 (Fig. 1). The shape of the distribution 9 intensity is set by the shape of the homogenizer 1, in the particular form each of the individual lenses 4.

In Fig. 2 homogenizers 1 and means overlap 2 completed and are arranged so that in the working plane 8 distribution 9 intensity of individual groups of 6 partial beams 7 are overlapped with respectively 50% of the maximum intensity of the individual distributions 9 intensity. The result is a very uniform distribution of the 11 full intensity.

The condition in which essentially no hesitation to cross the ment of the individual distributions 9 intensity distribution 11 full intensity, can be written as

2·F·NA(50%)=P_{2}

Thus NA(50%) indicates a numerical aperture of each of the lenses 5, defined by the angle at which the intensity passing through the lens 5 of the light is reduced by half.

An additional condition is that the intensity of individual groups 7 partial beams 6 in the working plane 8 were the same. This can be achieved by using the device shown in Fig. 8 and 9.

This laser between homogenizers 1 and means overlap 2 are the splitters 12, and their number corresponds to the number of lenses 5 means overlap 2. Through beam splitters 12, respectively, a small portion 13 of the light group 7 partial beams 6 deviates from the direction Z of propagation upward in Fig. 9, or in the y direction.

These parts 13 of the laser radiation 3 fall on the sensors 14, which may determine the intensity of each of the groups 7 partial beams 6. Further, the laser includes a comparator 15, which can be compared with each other determined by the sensors 14 of the intensity of individual groups 7 partial beams 6. The comparator 15 can control the power supply of one or more schematically depicted in Fig. 9 sources 17 laser radiation such that the intensity of the bands 7 partial beams 6 are equal.

This can be achieved that through each of the lenses 5 cf the of funds overlap 2 passes of the laser radiation of the same power. This leads to a very homogeneous linear distribution 11 full intensity, is shown in Fig. 2.

In Fig. 8 and 9, the dashed lines indicate the splitters 12 and the sensor 14', which may be provided alternatively denoted by solid lines to the splitters 12 and the sensor 14 by overlapping 2.

The sensors 14 can be made in the form of a photodiode, photoresistor, phototransistor, photocell, etc.

The splitters 12', the sensors 14' and Comparators 15 form together controls that provide the same power or intensity groups 7 partial beams 6 in the working plane 8. These controls can also be provided in all variants of Fig. 2-7.

In the embodiments of Fig. 1 and 2, lens 4 homogenizers 1 is designed so that the pattern or the angular distribution of groups 7 partial beams 6 has a moderately falling fronts. The overlap distance D=F behind the lens 5 is then depicted in Fig. 1 and 2 distribution 9 intensity.

However, according to the invention can also be performed lenses 4 homogenizers 1 so that the pattern or the angular distribution of groups 7 partial beams 6 had/had approximately endlessly cool descending fronts or was very close to the ideal Top-Hat-coal is the outcome distribution. In this case, the working plane 8 is chosen at a distance D=F behind the lens 5, and the distance D=F+δ. This additional distance of 8 is chosen so that in the working plane 8 is overlapped with the distribution of 9 intensity of individual groups 7 partial beams 6 had less steeply descending fronts 10.

In Fig. 3 shows a variant in which the means overlap 2 no. Overlapping groups 7 partial beams 6 is in the far field, i.e., far from the homogenizer 1.

In Fig. 4 and 5 shows a variant in which the focal length F of the lenses 5 means overlap 2 more than in the variant of Fig.1 and 2. As a consequence, the distribution of 9 intensity of individual groups 7 partial beams 6 in the working plane 8 is wider. If you have condition

2·F·NA(50%)=M·P_{2,}

where M=1, 2, 3,..., then, however, there is deprived of the hesitation the distributions overlap 9 intensity distribution 18 full intensity (Fig. 5). In Fig. 4 and 5 shows the case when M=2.

In the variant of Fig. 6 and 7 lenses 4 homogenizers 1 is designed so that the pattern or the angular distribution of groups 7 partial beams 6 is, however, moderately descending fronts, however, has no angular ranges of constant intensity. The overlap distance D=F behind the lens 5 is then depicted in Fig. 6 and 7 distribution 19 intensive the spine without the Express sloping plot, similar to the Gaussian distribution.

The overlap with the education distribution 20 full intensity inhomogeneities less than 1% is the following:

.

Thus w_{0}denotes the distance in the working plane 8 between the maximum intensity and the intensity is decreased to 1/e^{2}in the 19 distribution of intensity created one of the lenses 5, and d is the distance in the working plane 8 between the maximum intensities distributions 19 intensity generated by two adjacent lenses 5.

1. Apparatus for forming laser radiation (3), containing:

homogenizers (1) made with the possibility to separately homogenized lots of partial beams (6) or multiple groups (7) partial beams (6) of the laser radiation (3), so going from homogenizers (1) partial beams (6) or group (7) partial beams (6) in the working plane (8) created respectively linear distribution (9, 19) intensity with steeply falling on all fronts (10);

tools of the overlap (2) partial beams (6) or groups (7) partial beams (6), made and installed so that in the working plane (8) is a linear distribution (11, 20) intensity, the length of which is greater than the length of each linear distributions (11, 20) intensity casticin the x-rays (6) or groups (7) partial beams (6),

with the means of overlap (2) include a lens matrix with many lenses (5),

characterized in that the lens (5) of the lens matrix condition:

2·F·NA(50%)=M·P_{2}

where M=1, 2, 3,..., F is the focal length of each lens, R_{2}- center distance between the lenses, NA(50%) is the numerical aperture of each lens (5), defined by the angle at which the intensity passing through the lens (5) of the light is reduced by half.

2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the homogenizers (1) and/or the lens matrix are located and/or configured to pass through each of the lenses (5) one of the partial beams (6) or one group (7) partial beams (6).

3. The device according to p. 1, wherein all of the lens (5) of the lens matrix have the same focal length.

4. The device under item 1, characterized in that the lens (5) of the lens matrix are of the same width and/or the same interaxial distance (R_{2}).

5. The device under item 1, characterized in that, in addition to laser radiation (3) and lens (5) of the lens matrix condition:

where w_{0}- distance in the working plane (8) between the maximum intensity and the intensity is decreased to 1/e^{2}in the distribution (19) intensity, created one of the lenses (5), a d - distance working in the plane (8) between the maximum intensities in the distributions (19) intensity
created two adjacent lenses (5).

6. The device under item 1, characterized in that it contains controls that include sensors (14), is arranged to determine the intensity of each of the output from the homogenizer (1) partial beams (6) or groups (7) partial beams (6).

7. The device according to p. 6, characterized in that the sensor (14) is designed as a photodiode, photoresistor, phototransistor, photocell, etc.

8. The device under item 1, characterized in that it contains controls that include Comparators (15), made with the possibility of comparing the intensities exiting the homogenizer (1) partial beams (6) or groups (7) partial beams (6).

9. Apparatus for forming laser radiation (3), containing:

homogenizers (1) made with the possibility to separately homogenized lots of partial beams (6) or multiple groups (7) partial beams (6) of the laser radiation (3), so going from homogenizers (1) partial beams (6) or group (7) partial beams (6) in the working plane (8) created respectively linear distribution (9, 19) intensity with steeply falling on all fronts (10);

tools of the overlap (2) partial beams (6) or groups (7) partial beams (6), made and installed so that in the working plane (8) sotdae the Xia linear distribution (11,
20) intensity, the length of which is greater than the length of each linear distributions (11, 20) of the intensity of the partial beams (6) or groups (7) partial beams (6), and

controls performed with the opportunity to have such an influence on the laser radiation (3) to have the same intensity of each of the output from the homogenizer (1) partial beams (6) or each of the output from the homogenizer (1) groups (7) partial beams (6)

characterized in that the cover (2) includes a lens matrix with many lenses (5) and lens (5) of the lens matrix condition:

2·F·NA(50%)=M·P_{2}

where M=1, 2, 3, ..., F is the focal length of each lens, R_{2}- center distance between the lenses, NA(50%) is the numerical aperture of each lens (5), defined by the angle at which the intensity passing through the lens (5) of the light is reduced by half.

10. The device according to p. 9, characterized in that the homogenizers (1) and/or the lens matrix are located and/or configured to pass through each of the lenses (5) one of the partial beams (6) or one group (7) partial beams (6).

11. The device according to p. 9, wherein all of the lens (5) of the lens matrix have the same focal length.

12. The device according to p. 9, characterized in that the lens (5) of the lens matrix are of the same width and/or the same is E. pupillary distance (R_{
2}).

13. The device according to p. 9, characterized in that, in addition to laser radiation (3) and lens (5) of the lens matrix condition:

,

where w_{0}- distance in the working plane (8) between the maximum intensity and the intensity is decreased to 1/e^{2}in the distribution (19) intensity, created one of the lenses (5), and d is the distance in the working plane (8) between the maximum intensities in the distributions (19) intensity generated by two adjacent lenses (5).

14. The device according to p. 9, characterized in that the control means include sensors (14), is arranged to determine the intensity of each of the output from the homogenizer (1) partial beams (6) or groups (7) partial beams (6).

15. The device according to p. 14, characterized in that the sensor (14) is designed as a photodiode, photoresistor, phototransistor, photocell, etc.

16. The device according to p. 9, characterized in that the control means include a comparator (15), made with the possibility of comparing the intensities exiting the homogenizer (1) partial beams (6) or groups (7) partial beams (6).

17. Laser containing at least one source (17) of the laser radiation and apparatus for forming the laser radiation (3), characterized in that the device for which the of the laser radiation (3) is a device according to any one of paragraphs.1-16.

18. The laser under item 17, characterized in that it further comprises at least one power supply unit (16) at least one source (17) of the laser radiation and configured to control at least one power supply unit (16) with the possibility to compare intensities exiting the homogenizer (1) partial beams (6) or groups (7) partial beams (6), in particular with the possibility of adjustment.

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5 dwg

FIELD: technical physics, possible use for expanding arsenal of devices for transformation of electromagnetic field to coherent form.

SUBSTANCE: the device contains semiconductor substrate, on which in slits self-affine topology is formed on basis of fractalizing module, consisting of a set of circles with radius R, where first circle is geometrical locus of positions of centers of other circles of the set with equal distances between adjacent circles, center of first circle coincides with the center of circle with radius equal to 2R and is the center of the whole self-affine topology, and fractalization of module occurs along axes, passing through the center of the first circle and centers of other circles of the set. Self-affine architecture is grounded.

EFFECT: creation of planar source of device for transformation of electromagnetic radiation to coherent form.

6 dwg

FIELD: the proposed invention refers to the field of technical physics and may be used in quality of a plane converter of electromagnetic radiation into a coherent form.

SUBSTANCE: the arrangement has a substrate on which there are two adjoining topologies having common axles of fractalization and a center, the modules of each of them are similar to the corresponding modules of the first adjoining topology. At that additionally on the substrate the third adjoining topology whose radius R_{3 }of the basic circumference equals R_{1}√3 is formed.

EFFECT: increases bandwidth of the received coherent radiation and also increases the degree of radiation coherence.

4 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: physics; optics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method for control of partially coherent or incoherent optical radiation wave or waves field intensity distribution at final distance from its source or in far-field region and device that realises the stated method. At that in realisation of the stated method, optical element is used, which is installed in mentioned field and comprises diffraction grid arranged as periodical by one or two coordinates x, y that are orthogonal in relation to direction of falling optical radiation distribution, with the possibility to separate the mentioned field into partially colliding beams aligned in relation to directions of diffraction order directions.

EFFECT: even distribution of intensity in multimode laser beam with the help of diffraction element.

11 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method aims at producing light homogenisation device comprising at least one substrate (1) that features at least one optically functional surface with large amount of lens elements (2) that, in their turn, feature systematic surface irregularities. At the first stage aforesaid lens elements (2) are formed in at least one optically functional surface of at least one substrate (1). At the second stage at least one substrate (1) is divided into at least two parts (3, 4). Then at least two aforesaid parts of substrate (1) are jointed together again, provided there is a different orientation of at least one of aforesaid parts (4). The said different orientation of one of at least two parts allows preventing addition of light deflections caused by aforesaid systematic surface irregularities after light passage through separate lens elements.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of light homogenisation.

16 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: optical system includes two channels, each of which consists of a collimating lens 1 and a refracting component 2, and a summation component 3, fitted behind refracting components 2 of both channels and having a surface with a polarisation coating. The channels are turned such that, the radiation polarisation planes of the lasers are mutually orthogonal and their optical axes intersect on the surface of the summation component with polarisation coating and coincide behind the summation component. The polarisation coating completely transmits radiation polarised in the plane of incidence on the given surface, and completely reflects radiation polarised in the perpendicular plane. Focal distances of the lenses, size of the illumination body in the semiconductor junction plane and angular divergence of the beam collimated by the lens are linked by expressions given in the formula of invention.

EFFECT: increased power density and uniformity of angular distribution of radiation intensity with minimum energy losses on components of the optical system and minimal overall dimensions.

9 cl, 6 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: device has a laser beam source, a transmitting element in form of a tube placed on the path of beam and filled with air at atmospheric pressure, and a recording unit. On both ends of the tube there are optically transparent end caps which reduce uncertainty of the spatial coordinates of the axis of the beam at the output of the tube. The tube with end caps acts as a high-Q cavity resonator and under the effect of external broad-band (white) noise, a standing wave having natural frequency and overtones is initiated in the tube, under the effect of which equalisation of optical refraction coefficients of air inside the tube takes place.

EFFECT: maximum spatial localisation of the laser beam to enable its use as an extended coordinate axis.

1 dwg, 1 tbl