Method of construction of vertical drains
SUBSTANCE: method comprises twisting the device for drain formation in the ground or soil to the desired depth. The device consists of dual hollow tubes. The outer tube has uniformly spaced protrusions of constant rectangular section rigidly fixed on the lateral cylindrical surface along the helical line with a constant pitch. After reaching the desired depth by the device, the inner tube together with the cohesive soil is removed from the outer tube to form a hollow space. The soil is removed from the inner tube. Then the inner tube is wrapped with anti-suffusion material and placed back into the hollow space of the outer tube. Then filter material is poured. The dual outer and inner tubes as filled with the filter material are twisted using a handle.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and productivity in the construction of vertical drains in cohesive soils.
4 cl, 7 dwg
The invention relates to the field of engineering and agriculture. Intended for the construction of vertical drains in cohesive soils.
There is a method of digging holes in granular soils . The method is characterized by the fact that in the soil or the soil to the desired depth twirl device. The device consists of a double hollow tubes. The disadvantage of this technical solution are:
- granular soils are highly permeable, so there is no need to arrange a vertical drains;
to use this method for water drainage is not effective due to the possible collapse of the walls of the hollow pit.
The closest technical solution is a way of digging pits in cohesive soils . The method is characterized by the fact that in the soil or the soil to the desired depth twirl device. The device consists of a double hollow tubes. The outer pipe has evenly spaced protrusions constant rectangular cross-section rigidly mounted on a lateral cylindrical surface along a helical line with a constant pitch. After reaching the device to the desired depth of the inner tube together with cohesive soil withdrawn from the outer tube with the formation of the hollow space. The disadvantage of this technical solution are:
to use this method to divert water inefficiently due to possible falling of the article is NOC hollow pit.
The purpose of the invention is the increased efficiency and productivity in the construction of vertical drains in cohesive soils.
This objective is achieved in that on the soil surface installed a special device for the construction of vertical drains (Fig.1). The device consists of a double hollow pipe, the outer pipe has evenly spaced protrusions constant rectangular cross-section rigidly mounted on a lateral cylindrical surface along a helical line with a constant pitch. In the upper part of the tubes are holes in which to insert the handle (Fig.1, 2). Rotational effort applied to the handle, which results in a rotation of the device for the construction of vertical drains and burying it in a coherent soil or the soil to the desired depth. Efforts can kiss pairs from different sides of the handle. Then the inner tube together with a cohesive soil is removed from the outer tube and forms a hollow space (Fig.3, 4). Forth from the inner tube to remove the soil, and below it wrapped protivosudorozhnym material (Fig.5). The inner tube is placed back into the hollow space of the outer pipe, and then fall asleep in it the filter material, and a dual outer and inner pipes as falling asleep filter material twisting by using the handle (Fig.6). Kacha is the firmness of the filter material you can use sand, gravel or crushed stone.
As protivokorrozionnoe material can be used geotextiles. Task protivokorrozionnoe material is to prevent the mechanical driving of the vertical drains.
The proposed method can be used to make vertical drains depth of 1÷3 m (Fig.7).
Arm length depends on the magnitude of the required force needed to rotate and burial of a special device.
In Fig.1 shows a device for the construction of vertical drains, General view; Fig.2 - section L-L of Fig.1; Fig.3 shows a device for the construction of vertical drains in the context of Fig.4 shows a device for the construction of vertical drains at the time of extracting the inner rough ground in the context of Fig.5 shows a device for the construction of vertical drains at the time of lowering of the inner pipe wrapped with protivosudorozhnym material in the context of Fig.6 shows a device for the construction of vertical drains covered with filter material in the context of Fig.7 shows a vertical drena in the section.
Device for the construction of vertical drains installed on the surface of the earth 1. The device consists of a double hollow tubes, the outer tube 2 and inner tube 3. Outer tube 2 has projections 4 is rigidly fixed on a lateral cylindrical surface the displacement is along a helical line, and at the top of the outer tube 2 and inner tube 3 has openings 5, which are inserted in the arm 6. After penetration of the device at the desired depth of the inner pipe 3 together with the ground 7 is removed and forms a hollow space. Next, the inner tube 3 wrapped protivosudorozhnym material 8 and is placed back into the hollow space of the outer tube 2, and then fall asleep filter material 9.
The method of construction of vertical drains is carried out as follows. On the soil surface 1 is installed (Fig.1). The device consists of a double hollow tubes, the outer tube 2 has evenly spaced protrusions 4 a constant rectangular cross-section rigidly mounted on a lateral cylindrical surface along a helical line with a constant pitch. In the upper part of the pipe has holes 5 into which is inserted the handle 6 (Fig.1, 2). Rotational effort applied to the handle 6, which results in a rotation of the device for the construction of vertical drains and burying it in a coherent soil or soil 1 at the desired depth. Efforts can kiss pairs from different sides of the handle. Then the inner tube 3 together with cohesive soil 7 is withdrawn from the outer tube 2 and is formed hollow space (Fig.3, 4). Forth from the inner tube 3 remove the ground 7, and below it are wrapped around protelos the fusion material 8 (Fig.5). The inner tube 3 is placed back into the hollow space of the outer tube 2, and then fall asleep in it the filter material 9, and a double outer 2 and inner tube 3 as sleep filtering material 9 twisting by means of a lever 6 (Fig.6). As the filtering material 9 can use sand, gravel or crushed stone.
As protivokorrozionnoe material 8 can be used geotextiles. Task protivokorrozionnoe material 8 is to prevent the mechanical driving of the vertical drains.
The proposed method can be used to make vertical drains depth of 1÷3 m (Fig.7).
Arm length 6 depends on the magnitude of the required force needed to rotate and burial.
The proposed solution has a wide range application, effective analogues, and is more economical.
Sources of information
1. The patent of Russian Federation №2492605, IPC A01B 1/00, A01B 5/04. The method of digging pits in loose soils / Lamerton, Z.; statements. 17.02.2012; publ. 20.09.2013 (similar).
2. The patent of Russian Federation №2492605, IPC A01B 1/00, A01B 5/04. The method of digging holes in cohesive soils / Lamerton, Z.; statements. 17.02.2012; publ. 20.09.2013 (prototype).
1. The method of construction of vertical drains, characterized in that in the soil or the soil to the desired depth tightening device consisting of SDV is built of hollow tubes, outer of which has evenly spaced protrusions constant rectangular cross-section rigidly mounted on a lateral cylindrical surface along a helical line with a constant step, after the device the desired depth of the inner tube together with cohesive soil withdrawn from the outer tube with the formation of a hollow space and is removed from the soil, then the inner tube wrapped protivosudorozhnym material and placed back into the hollow space of the outer pipe, and then fall asleep filter material, and a dual outer and inner pipes as falling asleep filter material twisting by using the handle.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the filtering material you can use sand, gravel or crushed stone.
3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as protivokorrozionnoe material can be used geotextiles.
4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the depth of the vertical drains 1÷3 m
SUBSTANCE: method for horizontal draining of waterlogged structures on pile foundations relates to construction, namely to the construction of drainage systems for the protection of structures on pile foundations against ground water logging. As per the proposed method, dewatering of a waterlogged object is achieved due to the fact that from one radial drain well developed along the outer wall outside the structure normally to rows of the load-carrying piles and equipped with a filter there passed are additional side drain wells between the rows of piles. Drilling of additional shafts is performed by means of a downhole motor and diverting devices out of the above said radial well. The steadiness of walls of the additional wells at drilling is provided by the application of hydrolysed polyacrylonitrile or other self-decomposed drill fluids. After driving of the side additional shafts is completed, the drill tool is disconnected and used for the shutoff of the well bottom, and the motor together with drill pipes is removed through a filter pipe that was drawn by means of the downhole motor.
EFFECT: proposed drainage system allows solving a problem of protection against waterlogging of structures on pile foundations.
SUBSTANCE: mouth of the drain manifold comprises a shut-off valve 32 with the float drive 23 and the rod 31 mounted on the drain headwall, located in the drainage well 16. The mouth of the drain manifold comprises a plug-ended pipe 1 and is equipped with two chambers 10 and 11. The lower chamber 10 is connected to the upper chamber 11. The chambers 10, 11 through the inlet openings 12, 13 with the pipes 14, 15 are connected through the side wall 16 of the well mounted in the channel 17, and constitute a hydraulic switch, in which the water levels are recorded by the flap valves 19, 20. The upper chamber 11 is connected with a water-filled container 27 with a float 23 connected by the hinged-lever drive with a valve 19 and rigidly through the rod 31 with the shut-off valve 32. The lower chamber 10 is connected through the check valve 7 with the gate 6 with the drain tube 5 connected to the Venturi tube 4 of the drain 3. The outlet opening 18 at the bottom of the chamber 11 is provided with a flat flap valve 19, and the tube 14 - with the flap valve 20. The flap valve 20 through the hinges with the rod 21 is connected with the flap valve 19 which is connected by the hinged-lever drive through the fixed hinge 22 with a float 23. The water-filled container 27 with a calibrated water outlet opening 33 has a float movement limiter made in the form of the level retainers 24.
EFFECT: reliability of operation in transient conditions, depending on the position of water level in the channel is provided by the presence of hydraulic relay consisting of two chambers, interconnected by the valves, and the container, in particular the calibrated opening in it, calculated from the condition that the water level in the retainer of closing of the shut-off device is slower.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: previously they make a horizontal circular drainage 1 with a tubular drain having gravel fill and wrapped in geotextile. Then a bed drain 3 is arranged under the bottom of the basement with filtering fill from crushed stone. A sink 4 is equipped with fill from coarse-grained sand. Walls 6 and the bottom 7 of the basement are hydraulically insulated. Piles 8 are driven, and a groove-and-tongue wall 9 is arranged. Perpendicularly to the horizontal drains 1 tightly to the groove-and-tongue wall 9 at the rated distance they arrange vertical perforated plastic pipes 2. Vertical collectors 2 are wrapped by a protective filtering material and are combined into a single system. For quick reduction of ground water level they apply forced pumping of water by a pump 10 from vertical collectors 2 with its further discharge into the horizontal circular drainage 1.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of drainage operation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: drainage-humidification system comprises a supply 1 and a discharge 2 closed irrigation pipelines interconnected with water distribution executive unit. The water distribution executive unit consists of a vertical pipe 3 mounted on the supply pipeline 1 and the working chamber 4 of pressure with separation from it by the membrane 5 with the rod 6. The water distribution executive unit, the valve gear 19, the container 24 with the float 23, and the rotary valve 44 with the control pipeline are located in series. The cavity 11 of the chamber 4 is connected via the hydraulic pipeline 64 provided with a valve 65, with the switch 27, the shank of which is fixed pivotally with one end of the lever 50 to the rod 22. Movement of the upper lever 50 is limited by the upper stop 58, and the lower lever 51 - by the lower stop 59 above and below the threshold level in the storage container 24. The valve gear 19 is made in the form of a cylinder and has a double piston 20 which is pivotally coupled to the rod 22 of the float actuator. The valve gear 19 is connected to the supply irrigation pipeline 1 through the control pipeline 34 to the valve 35 and is respectively connected to the manifold 42 with drains-humidifiers 43. The storage container 24 with a siphon 28 communicates through the rotary valve 44 to the control pipelines 31, 34, respectively, with valves 32, 35 and with the supply pipeline 1.
EFFECT: system enables to create closed automated systems in land reclamation, to save water resources, to obtain the necessary productivity of agricultural products with the effective use of land.
6 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of land reclamation and can be used for draining soils in heavy-textured soils, as well as in regulation of the water level in upper pools of bulkhead structures in irrigation and drainage-humidification channels. The system comprises an inlet 1 and an outlet 28 drains, a storage container 2 and a chamber 3 connected by the pipe 4. The chamber 3 is placed in an inspection manhole 5, in which a siphon is mounted. A float 18 is placed in an additional chamber 20 and is provided with a load 19 with a variable mass. The system comprises a three-port articulation linkage, the first port 8 of which is pivotally connected to the first horizontal axis of rotation 7. A shutter 6 is connected to the axis of rotation 7 with the ability of rotation and fixing the shutter in the end positions by means of clamps on the output head of the chamber 3 which is connected to the inlet pipe. The second port is made in the form of a rod 9 mounted on the second horizontal axis of rotation 11 and connected to a lever 10. The lever 10 is pivotally connected to a rod 12 rigidly connected to the float 18. The rod 9 by a lever 13 with a slider 14 is connected to a rack 15, on which a limiter 16 is secured using a retaining screw 17. In the bottom of the additional chamber 20 there is an inlet 23 with the located valve 24 connected to a float sensor 25. The inspection manhole 5 is equipped with a siphon made in the form of a vertically mounted cylindrical nozzle 29 connected to the outlet 28 drain, and a cap 30 located above it. The combination of the articulation linkage with the floating drive mounted on the wall of the chamber (well) with control elements enables to avoid imbalances by moving the shutter 6 on the axis 7, and the operation of the siphon also enables to adjust automatically water discharge to the outlet drain with the stable flow rate.
EFFECT: system is reliable and stable in operation, it has continuous monitoring of the water level and eliminates an emergency.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry, and namely to development of flooded mineral deposits, as well as it can be used at unwatering of foundations and in hydraulic engineering. In order to protect an open pit against underground water influx, the main horizontal drain wells 4 are constructed normally to open pit 2 side 1. At least two opposite lying additional side horizontal drain wells are constructed out of each main horizontal drain well 4. Out of points 5, 6, 7 on the main horizontal drain wells 4 there constructed to one side in the direction of adjacent wells 4 to the right are additional side horizontal drain wells 8, 9, 10. Out of the same points 5, 6, 7 on adjacent wells 4 there constructed to the left are additional side horizontal drain wells 11, 12, 13. All the additional side horizontal drain wells are constructed till their mutual intersection and formation of a closed drain circuit. All wells are constructed at the bottom of the drained water-bearing horizon.
EFFECT: providing increase of entrapment degree of breakthrough of underground water to open pit sides and reducing drilling volumes of the main horizontal drain wells owing to enlarging distance between them.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: system comprises a feeding drain line 1, a collecting container 2 connected to an inspection pit 3 by the pipe 4, and a vertical overflow wall 5 with an opening 6. The vertical overflow wall 5 is fastened to the bottom 7 and rigidly embedded in the side walls of the pit 3. The overflow wall 5 is provided with a horizontal shelf 8 directed towards the pipe 4. The inspection pit 3 is communicated with a chamber 9 which has a broken inner wall 10 with an opening for the inlet pipe 12. The lower central part of the broken wall 10 between the chamber 9 and the pit 3 is made as an opening 13 and comprises a seat with a valve 14 on the hinge 15 and the float drive. The chamber 9 is hydraulically connected by the siphon 22 and the vertical pipe 23 to the outlet drain line 24. The siphon 22 is separated from the float drive by the cantilever partition 20 and has a charging tube 25. The relationship in the operation of the inspection pit, the chamber with the float drive, the siphon and other construction elements enables to increase the reliability and accuracy in the work of the construction.
EFFECT: efficient periodic washing from suspended sediments of the construction and the drain line to the source of the collector.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: controller comprises a drainage well 1, a locking element 3 mounted on the inlet head of the drain pipe, a float 11 with a rod 14, and a pipe 28 of the discharging collector 29. The locking element 3 is provided with an L-shaped lever 4 which is pivotally attached to the rod 5 connected to the lever of the float actuator 10, pivotally connected with one end to the side of the well. The float 11 and the locking element 12 of the pipe 28 are pivotally connected by the rods 14, 15 to the middle part of the lever 10 with the ability of their vertical movement, respectively, to the opposite when changing the position of the locking element 3 at the inlet head of the drain. The float 11 is located in the chamber 16 which is placed inside the well 1.
EFFECT: improving reliability and accuracy of work by maintaining the water level in the well, flexible and differentiated regulation of preset levels on the command area.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: it can be used in nonchernozem belt, as well as industrial, municipal, township and other territories and can be used in the design, construction and maintenance of drainage systems and the use of drained soils. The method comprises carrying out land clearance operations and construction of a closed collector and sparse parallel drains. The construction breakdown of the drains attached to the collector is carried out, followed by shrinkage of soil of humus horizon - the arable layer on the pathway of drain by the bulldozer with an angled blade. The trenching with depth of not less than 1.1 m with a given slope is carried out. The bottom of the trench is levelled and the pipe is placed on it, wrapped with protective filter material. The drain pipe at least 20 cm above its crown is padded with water-permeable loosely cohesive sabulous-sandy soil of binomial deposits cut from the trench shoulders. The filling of the trench is carried out, which has the width of not less than 0.5 m, to plough pan of the arable layer by its ploughing also with water-permeable loosely cohesive sabulous-sandy soil by monohull hinged brush-and-bog plough PBN-100A with mould and hanging cutter. The levelling layer of soil is carried out excavated during the digging of the trench, in depressions construction band of drain and reclamation of shrinked soil layer on the construction band with a bulldozer with angled blade. Planning of the soil surface and ploughing the soil is carried out. For sustainable spilling the water-permeable loosely cohesive sabulous-sandy soil in the loosened area of cohesive poorly water-permeable soil, as well as the slit behind the drive rod and the rack of the ripper and plough pan of the moving ploughshare and fixed feet pad of the ripper the continuous deep cross loosening of soil is carried out with vibration ripper in the period when the level of soil water stand id not higher than the bottom of the trench of drain to a depth of not less than 30 cm less than the minimum depth of the drain location. Deep loosening of soil is carried out in two mutually perpendicular directions at an angle of 45 degrees to the drain direction.
EFFECT: reliable hydrological effect of subsurface drainage in the course of its operation is provided, creation of optimised mineral soil with improved soil, water and environmental properties of the root layer, and ecological and economic efficiency of drainage of these soils is increased.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering, namely, to water intake facilities, and may be used to take water from underground sources with shallow ground waters. The method to erect a horizontal underground water intake of combined design, comprising a water receiver and a water collecting well, consists in the fact that the main water receiver is made in the form of an open tray 1, covered on top with a metal net 2, above which they lay gabion mats 3 in longitudinal rows with drainage devices. Gabion mats 3 are made of light fascines, perforated pipes and a metal net. On top of gabion mats 3 along the tray they lay flexible mats 6, made of a drainage filler, which is made of tight rows of light fascines wrapped into a geonet. In the end of the water receiving tray 1 they arrange a water collecting well 9, equipped with a water intake pipeline 10. The proposed method may most efficiently be used in coastal and other water-bearing soil massifs with depth of occurrence of discharge-free level of ground waters of up to 7-10 m for water supply of rural settlements, small towns and villages.
EFFECT: invention provides for efficiency of operation of a water-intake structure.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly to consolidate slopes or inclinations to be eroded by ground waters.
SUBSTANCE: method for slope protection against landslide by diverting ground water with the use of drainage mine tunnel, through filters and upward dewatering wells involves excavating mine tunnel beginning from lower point of original ground under water-bearing horizons with tunnel elevation for water gravity flow, wherein mine tunnel extends parallel to direction of water flow from water-bearing horizons; excavating mine tunnel in different directions perpendicular to above flow direction; performing drilling vertical venting wells at tunnel ends beginning from original ground; drilling upward dewatering wells in water-bearing horizons; drilling vertical wells from original ground used as through filters crossing all water-bearing horizons; connecting thereof with cross-headings excavated from mine tunnel; installing valves at through filter ends; providing filtering members at place of intersection between upward dewatering wells and vertical wells with water-bearing horizons; forming water removal channel in mine tunnel and connecting thereof with original ground; drilling hydraulic observing wells beginning from original ground along line of through filters to control water level in water-bearing horizons.
EFFECT: increased reliability; possibility of diverting 85-90% of water contained in water-bearing horizons.
FIELD: land-reclamation, particularly drainage building in flooded irrigated lands.
SUBSTANCE: method involves digging out channel in a single drainage machine pass by plow-type ditcher; dumping dug out fertile ground on channel brows in banks; digging out trench by operative tool of drainage machine; laying drainage pipe and covering thereof with ground; filling channel with fertile ground. Fertile ground layer is loosened before trench digging out along drainage pipe laying axis, wherein width of loosened ground strip is not less than operative tool width. Loosened ground is laid on channel brows. Trench is dug out by chain operative tool of narrow drainage machine performing reverse rotation and extracted ground is placed between trench walls and drainage machine bunker to cover drainage pipe moved into trench by guiding means. Trench is backfilled with ground with the use of two pairs of banks, which provides successive filling trench with ground and loosened fertile ground.
EFFECT: increased efficiency due to prevention of trench wall compaction, reduced power inputs.
FIELD: hydraulic and reclamation building, particularly in permafrost zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating planned embankment on territory to be developed; performing surface water drainage from embankment. Embankment slope provide water flow to water receiving means and drainage of surface water from adjoining areas. Ground water flowing from adjacent areas are drained during and/or after embankment erection and removed from embankment body. Motor roads and in-territory water draining channel systems are used as water receiving and draining means within the boundaries of territory to be developed. Water diversion ditch system is used for water removal from outside the territory to be developed. Water diversion ditch system are formed along embankment perimeter and above slopes reinforced from embankment side. Motor roads are built on embankment top, wherein motor road pavements are located beneath embankment surface. Embankment has slopes directed towards roads. Motor roads have longitudinal and transversal slopes providing surface water flow along roads to water draining channel system, which drains water into water diversion ditch system. Surface water flows into water diversion ditch system from embankment areas located at a distance from motor roads due to inclining above areas towards water diversion ditch system, which directs water to purification system or to natural temporary or permanent water channels. For ground water removal from embankment body drainage layer is placed in embankment so that drainage layer diverts accumulated water to water diversion ditch system, which is also used to remove ground water entering from areas located adjacent territory to be developed.
EFFECT: simplified structure, reduced labor inputs, provision of stable and effective protective system operation.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: irrigation building, particularly for laying collector-and-drainage system in the case of high ground water level (which is below plough-layer).
SUBSTANCE: method involves erecting pits along drain lines having inclined walls, wherein pit wall inclination is less than natural filtering material slope; filling the pits with filtering material along drain-installing machine travel so that filtering material volume is equal to that of blinding material; laying drain lines along pit axes with narrow-trench drain-installing machine after drain-installing machine bin is filled with filtering material up to level above ground water one, wherein drain laying rate exceeds rate of water percolation from watered ground of trench backfill; maintaining constant filtering material level in the bin due to supplying thereof from pit; additionally leveling and compacting upper filtering material surface. Device comprises main machine, active working tool with reverse operating chain rotation, guiding draining pipe chute and bin. Bin has front cutting part, expandable transversal walls and longitudinal walls bending in vertical plane. Receiving windows are formed in longitudinal walls. Splitter located in front of working tool is mounted on working tool frame and may perform vertical displacement. Splitter comprises plough and side wings enclosing working tool from two sides and connected to plough in front wing parts and to hinges in rear parts thereof. The hinges are connected to bin in front of receiving windows having additional wings installed behind receiving windows to allow installation angle change. Device has gate extending at 3°-4° angle to drain line and located in lower bin part.
EFFECT: increased capacity and drain laying quality, as well as following drainage operational efficiency.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building and irrigation and drainage construction, for agricultural land, underground building parts, roads, and slopes reclamation.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises perforated drainage pipe connected to drain web having extensions, filtering diaphragm and thickened parts in joint areas. The thickened parts are provided with through orifices for bolts receiving. Nuts are screwed on the bolts. Drainage pipe has horizontal slot with bent upwards ends in which drain web in installed.
EFFECT: improved draining efficiency and increased speed of excessive water draining from ground.
FIELD: land reclamation, particularly to lay drain collection system in zones having ground water level above drainage laying level.
SUBSTANCE: method involves loosening fertile ground layer along drain laying axis; digging out channel; forming kerbs of excavated fertile ground; developing trench with chain working tool performing reverse rotation without ground lifting to surface; laying drainage pipe; backfilling the trench and the channel. Pulp consisted of crashed ground and water is extracted from lower trench part during drainage laying and the extracted pulp is supplied into channel or to surface of material used for trench backfilling. Device comprises basic machine, active working tool rotated in reverse direction, drainage pipe tray, box-like hopper with front cutting part, namely knife including post and plowshare. Suction dredge is installed inside the plowshare. Suction dredge has suction line communicated with zone between active working tool and knife through windows formed in front plowshare section. Pressure supply pipeline is communicated with distribution pipelines through intermediate pipeline and bypass gate operated by lever mechanism.
EFFECT: increased productivity and quality of drainage laying in water-saturated ground.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to protect building structure built of clay ground against flooding in the case of bedded mineral deposit mining under the structure.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting dewatering wells in maximal ground subsidence zones over breakage heading center; drilling horizontal drainage wells from dewatering wells at depth, which is less than distance to neutral line at ground layer bent, but is greater than structure foundation erection depth. Well lengths are determined from mathematical expression with taking into consideration parameters of layer cutting and ground shifting process characteristics.
EFFECT: increased clay ground dewatering and structure protection against flooding.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises lying the drain system with the converging drains on the control section, making observation gates within the converging drains, observing the parameters of the operation of the drain system, and comparing the parameters with the permissible values. The drains are provided with mouth and source sections of parallel drains. The lengths of the source and mouth sections of the parallel drains are chosen to be no less than the half of maximum distances between the sources and mouths of the converging drains, respectively.
EFFECT: enhanced precision of control.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises making diverging drainage canals in the area to be drained. The mouths of the bed sections are connected with the collector through the underground pipelines. The flow rates are measured and water is sampled in the mouths of the underground pipelines and in the mouths of the canal section beds connected to the collector. The concentrations of contaminants in the samples is measured, and the results are compared with the permissible values.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions.
FIELD: mining, particularly to protect objects to be developed and located in shifting basing against flooding with ground and surface water.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming water-receiving excavations made as drains, pits or wells; draining and removing water; predicting ground surface relied after ground deformation before underground work performing; marking out flat shifting basin bottom and zone characterized by maximal relief depression; forming pit in area of maximal relief depression; arranging water drain at shifting basin boundary; forming ground water removing wells. Pit volume, well depth and well pitch are determined from mathematical relations.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.