Method for prediction of synchronous multifocal colorectal carcinoma
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely to oncology, and can be used for recognising synchronous multifocal colorectal carcinoma. Substance of the invention consists in measuring preoperative blood follicle-stimulating hormone both in male and female patients suffering from colorectal carcinoma. If its concentration falls within the range of 26.01 to 60.91 IU/l in the females and of 2.71 to 5.67 IU/ml in the males, a single tumour is diagnosed in the patients, and if the hormone concentration is from 2.70 to 5.50 IU/ml in the females and from 12.88 to 52.04 IU/l in the males, the presence of synchronous colorectal new growths are stated. The method can be implemented at the preoperative stage; it is easily reproducible in the oncology hospital environment.
EFFECT: stating the presence of synchronous multifocal colorectal carcinoma.
The invention relates to medicine, in particular to cancer, and can be used in the treatment of colon cancer.
Colon cancer is among the most common localizations of process, which in recent years in all developed countries of the world leading position in the structure of cancer development. For this pathology is characterized by a significant incidence of metastases, recurrence and primary multiple processes, the occurrence of which is one of the difficult problems of Oncology (Zimmerman J. C. Colorectal cancer: current status of the problem. Ross. Journe. gastroenterology, Hepatology and Coloproctology. 2012, No. 4, S. 5-14).
During preoperative examination of patients diagnosis primary multiple neoplasms of the colon is associated with a certain percentage of erroneous assessment process as solitary (Chiss Century. And., Trachtenberg, A. H. Primary multiple malignant tumors. M, Medicine, 2000). Identifying a second lesion on the stages of surgical intervention can complicate the course of the operation, and therefore the development of additional predictor tests on the patient synchronous tumor growth is one of the urgent tasks of the scientific-practical laboratory research.
The peculiarity of the influence of placecast is authorized tumor on the body of the patient is the fact that its development, usually associated with the emergence of numerous failures in the functional status of the various systems of the body, the frequency and severity of paraneoplastic disorders may be aggravated as the progression of the process, including the development of new foci of malignant growth. The neuroendocrine system, which is the leading regulatory structure of the organism, along with other systems are also involved in the complex mechanism of interaction of the tumor with the body of the host. This suggests the desirability of search among the indicators of hormonal status of patients with colon cancer biochemical parameters, the dynamics of which can be associated with the number of lesions synchronous tumor growth.
There is a method of diagnosing cancer based on the determination of the content in blood of free polyamines as biochemical markers of tumor growth (balicka O. C. et al. The matters. on Oncology., 1992, T. 38, No. 6, S. 674). The authors demonstrated the possibility to use the blood levels of two factors - polyamines of spermine and putrescine, are involved in the processes of proliferation and differentiation of cells, as indicators of tumor development. It is known that the growth of malignant tumors is accompanied by a violation of the metabolism of polyamines that Pref is the CIO to their intense output of cells in biological fluids (blood, urine). The authors found that when nephroblastoma children the content of free polyamines in plasma were above normal in 63% of cases, and uniform elements of blood - 92,4% of cases. This was the basis to consider that the definition of the level of free spermine and putrescine in uniform elements of blood sufficiently informative test of the presence in the body of a malignant neoplasm. The disadvantage of this method of diagnosis of cancer is the fact its development for use in nephroblastoma that it is not possible to use these indicators in other tumor localization.
There is a method of assessing the prevalence of disease in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (Sidorenko, Y. S. et al. RF patent №2319148. Bull. No. 7, 2008). The essence of the method consists in the evaluation of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the level of dopamine in the daily urine collected 8002000. With the development of the tumor content of dopamine in the urine is reduced in patients with stage I disease, its concentration varies in the range from 495 to 906 nmol/day, in patients with II-III stages, it ranges from 177 to 387 nmol/day, and further dissemination process is associated with a drop in dopamine levels in the urine to 43-173 nmol/day. The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of applying it in other malignant process is x, in particular for testing the distribution process in the colon or to determine the number of colonic neoplasms.
You know the level of follicle-stimulating hormone in the blood of cancer patients as a test for the sensitivity of the tumor to chemohormonal (the Method of determining the sensitivity of individual patients with ovarian cancer III-IV degree to chemohormonal. Moiseenko, T. I. et al. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 1827639. Bull. No. 26 from 15.07.93). The authors found that in patients with ovarian cancer stage III-IV the value of the coefficient of correlation of blood levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones before specific treatment determines the subsequent response of the tumor to chemohormonal. Individual values of the ratio less than one indicates that the holding of chemohormonal in such patients is highly effective in contrast to patients with its value exceeded the unit. The disadvantage of this method is the limitation of its use as an indicator of the effectiveness of anticancer therapy, but not of tumor.
The aim of the invention is the identification of patients with rectal cancer to preoperative stage primary multiple process with simultaneous foci of tumor growth is.
This goal is achieved by the fact that patients with colon cancer in both sexes in the preoperative period determine the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and its concentration in women range from 26,01 to 60,91 IU/l and for men in the range from 2.71 to 5,67 IU/l establish if patients solitary tumors, and when the concentration of the hormone in women range from 2.70 to 5,50 IU/l and in men range from 12,88 to 52,04 IU/l establish a presence in the colon synchronously developing tumors.
A method for predicting the presence of primary multiple synchronous colon cancer is as follows. In patients with colon cancer in both sexes with stage III disease in the preoperative period determined in the blood content of follicle-stimulating hormone, a study conducted by radioimmunoassay method using a standard test kit company Immunotech (Czech Republic) and radiometer Arian firm Vitaco (Russia). When the concentration of the hormone in the range from 26,01 IU/l to 60,91 IU/l in women and from 2.71 to 5,67 IU/l in men ascertain the patients with a single cancer of the colon, and when the content of the hormone in the range from 2.70 to 5,50 IU/l in women and in the range from 12,88 to 52,04 IU/l in men ascertain the patients with primary multiple process with simultaneous tumor growth.
How progressive is Osinovaya the availability of primary multiple synchronous cancers of the colon allows for preoperative stage to determine whether the patient single or primary multiple lesions of colon cancer with synchronous tumor growth.
It should be noted that when using the method in the hospital identify patients with hormone concentrations, intermediate in relation to presents, must call the greater vigilance in terms of their primary multiple process, the closer will be detected indicators of concentration of the hormone that is specified in the method for patients with synchronous tumor growth.
Here are clinical examples of the use of the method for predicting the presence of primary multiple synchronous colon cancer patients, male and female.
Example No. 1. Patient P., 1949 R., history of disease-16918/I. He enrolled in the Department of General Oncology 08.11.2010 g with a diagnosis of colorectal cancer T3N0M0, st III, class gr 2. Upon receipt complained of tenesmus, blood in the stool. Considers himself sick about 2 months when it first appeared the above complaints.
11.11.2010, in the blood of the patient will determine the content of follicle-stimulating hormone concentration was 49,18 IU/L.
11.11.2010 ultrasound: diffuse changes in the liver, pancreatitis, microlites both kidneys. When the FCC - cancer of the anal canal. Histological analysis (G. A.) - adenocarcinoma.
12.11.2010, the patient performed a laparotomy. 12.11.2010, made abdomino-perineal extirpation of the rectum, resection of thin Ki is Ki, atypical liver resection. Verification process: ,and. No. 74380-388/10 - rectum - moderately differencirovannoe adenocarcinoma with invasion of all layers of the colonic wall; No. 74391-401/10 lymph nodes (L. W.), liver metastases no.
30.11.2010 patient discharged from hospital with the recommendation of holding DHT. Final diagnosis: cancer of the rectum T3N0M0, st II, class gr. 2.
Thus, the patient with a single colon cancer is found in the blood has a high concentration of the hormone.
Example No. 2. Patient P., 1949 R., history of disease-13839/A. He enrolled in the Department of General Oncology 26.08.2010 diagnosed with primary multiple synchronous colon cancer: colon cancer T3N1M0 st III, cancer of the transverse colon T3N1M0 st III, class gr. 2.
Upon receipt complained of weight loss of 9 kg in 2 months, weakness, constipation. Considers himself sick about 2 months when it first appeared the above complaints.
When the FCC - rectal cancer and cancer of the transverse colon. The verification process, and. - adenocarcinoma.
29.08.2010, carried out research into patient blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone concentration was 4,90 IU/L.
29.08.2010, the patient performed a laparotomy. During inspection of the abdominal cavity revealed a tumor in/ampullares Department rectum size 3×6 cm, distant metastases not detected, circular, and safety Deposit box is aktivna tumor of the transverse colon is about 8 cm in diameter. The patient underwent an operation in the amount of: anterior resection of the rectum with the formation of the G-shaped tank, obstructive resection of the transverse colon. Verification process: ,and. No. 55785-92 - well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with invasion of all layers of the rectum. G. A. No. 55793-802 - moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, plots slizeobrazujushchej places with the structure neuroendocrinology carcinoma, metastases in the mesentery of the transverse colon.
16.09.2011 patient discharged from hospital with the recommendation of chemotherapy. Final diagnosis: primary multiple synchronous colon cancer - colorectal cancer T3N0M0 st II and cancer of the transverse colon T3T1M0 st III, class gr. 2.
Thus, the patient with synchronous developing primary multiple process detected low concentrations of circulating hormone.
Example No. 3. Patient I., 1937, R., history of disease-18162/A. He enrolled in the Department of General Oncology 07.11.2011 g with a diagnosis of colorectal cancer T4N1M0, st III, class gr. 2. Upon receipt complained of General weakness, malaise, poor appetite, nausea, epigastric pain and mesogastric, the admixture of mucus and blood in the stool, weight loss. Considers himself sick about 5 months, when first appeared the above symptoms.
31.10.2011 was held FCC, the conclusion is that t is Mor rectum.
01.11.2011 - researched content in the blood follicle stimulating hormone, its level was 3,60 IU/L. Low FSH levels suggest the presence of the patient primary multiple simultaneous process.
01.11.2011 performed abdominal ultrasound revealed diffuse changes of a parenchyma of the liver, chronic calculous cholecystitis, hydronephrosis on the left, local calcification of the body of the uterus.
02.11.2011, implemented abdominal CT, conclusion, infiltrative tumor of the rectum for up to 8.7 cm with the transition to rectosigmoidal Department, expressed the infiltration of fiber pelvis.
Patient 10.11.2011 laparotomy was done. During inspection of the abdominal cavity in the rectum detected tumor 7×8 cm, densely welded together with the uterus, thick consistency. In the loops of intestine faeces. If further revisions are identified tumor hepatic angle of the colon up to 3 cm in diameter, dense consistency, distant metastasis was not detected. The patient underwent an operation in volume: front-upper resection of the rectum with extended lymph node dissection, right hemicolectomy with the formation of enterostomy. Verification process: Geest. analysis No. 68958-60/11 - poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with foci of necrosis, invasion of the entire thickness of the wall of the bowel (rectum); ,and. No. 68964-6/11 - poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with near endocrinology component, invasion of the entire thickness of the bowel wall (hepatic angle of the colon); No. 68968/11 in l/mesentery of mcadenville with neuroendocrinology component.
22.11.2011 patient discharged from hospital with the recommendation for chemotherapy and reconstruction of the colon. The final diagnosis of primary multiple synchronous colon cancer, rectal cancer T4N1M0 st III, cancer of the hepatic angle of the colon T4N1M0 st III, class gr. 2.
Example No. 4. Patient G., 1953 R., history of disease-11576/A. He enrolled in the Department of General Oncology 11.07.2011 diagnosed with colorectal cancer T3N0M0 st II, gr 2. Upon receipt complained of the presence of blood and mucus in the stool. From history revealed that he considered himself sick about 4 months, when first appeared the above complaints. SRCT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis from 19.07.2011, inflammatory cancer rectosigmoidal Department for up to 7 cm with infiltration of the surrounding tissue.
19.07.2011, in the blood of the patient investigated the content of follicle-stimulating hormone, its level reached 2.71 IU/L.
19.07.2011, patients received FCC, conclusion, exophytic colorectal cancer.
25.07.2011, the patient performed a laparotomy. During inspection of the abdominal cavity revealed a tumor medium ampullares division of the rectum up to 5×6 cm, distant metastases not detected. B is linoma performed surgery in the amount of: anterior resection of the rectum with the formation of the hardware anastomosis, extended lymph node dissection, preventive colostomy. Verification process: g/a 25.07.2011, No. 46868-870/11-G2 adenocarcinoma with invasion to the entire thickness of the bowel wall. 46871-876 - along the lines of resection, l/y mesenteric tumors and MTS no. 11.08.2011 the patient was discharged from hospital. Final diagnosis: cancer of the rectum T3N0M0 , gr.2.
Thus, the low content in the patient's blood follicle stimulating hormone combined with the development of a single colon cancer.
Example No. 5. Patient A., 28.01.1941, R.., history-8854/a. He enrolled in the Department of General Oncology 07.06.2011 diagnosed with primary multiple synchronous colon cancer: cancer of the sigmoid colon T3N0M0, st II, cancer of the descending colon T3N0M0, st II, CL gr 2.
At admission the patient complained of frequent loose stools, pain in the lower abdomen. From history revealed that he considered himself sick about 10 months when he first came to the above complaints.
07.06.2011, in the blood of the patient determined the content of FSH concentration was 47,0 IU/L.
07.06.2011, patients received FCC, conclusion - synchronous cancer of the sigmoid colon and descending colon.
10.07.2011, the patient underwent laparotomy. During inspection of the abdominal cavity revealed 2 tumors: exophytic tumor 4×5 in the sigmoid and saucer-like tumor 5×6 cm in the descending colon, distant metastasis was not detected. B is linoma performed surgery in the amount of: resection of the sigmoid colon, resection of the descending colon with extended lymph node dissection. The verification process, and no 37086-087/11 saucer-like formation of the descending colon - usernotification adenocarcinoma, invasion entire thickness of the bowel wall. Verification process - g/a No. 37088-090/11 - exophytic cancer of the sigmoid colon - well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with invasion of the muscular layer.
23.06.2011 the patient was discharged from hospital. The final diagnosis of primary multiple synchronous colon cancer: cancer of the descending colon T3N0M0, st II, and cancer of the sigmoid colon T2N0M0 st II, CL gr 2.
Thus, the development of the patient primary multiple synchronous cancers combined with a high level of circulating hormone.
Example No. 6. Patient A., 1959 R. c-10274/a. He enrolled in the Department of General Oncology 27.06.2011 diagnosed with cancer of the rectum st III, class gr. 2, T3N1M0. Upon receipt complained of frequent false urge to defecate, the admixture of mucus and blood in the stool, weight loss, weakness, from history revealed that he considered himself sick about 6 months when it first appeared the above complaints. When the FCC identified colorectal cancer, ,and. No. 9672-73 - adenocarcinoma.
29.06.2011 the blood of the patient will determine the content of follicle-stimulating hormone, its level was 52,04 IU/L. High levels of the hormone allowed before ologit the patient has primary multiple simultaneous tumor growth.
01.07.2011 the patient underwent laparotomy. During inspection of the abdominal cavity revealed a tumor medium ampullares Department rectum sizes up to 12×15 cm, germinating serosa and second (synchronous) tumor rectosigmoidal Department 5×6 cm with invasion of serosa, distant metastasis was not detected. The patient underwent surgery in the amount of: low anterior resection of the rectum with the formation of the hardware anastomosis preventive ileostomy, mesorectal excision and extended aorta-iliac lymph node dissection. Verification process: ,and. No. 41781-94 - adenocarcinoma in places with the structure mucinous cancer with invasion of all layers of the colonic wall, metastases in lymph nodes.
05.08.2011 the patient was discharged from hospital with the recommendation of an ileostomy removal after 2 months. Final diagnosis: primary multiple synchronous colon cancer: colon cancer T3N1M0 st. III, cancer rectosigmoidal Department T3N1M0 st III, class gr. 2.
A method for predicting the presence of primary multiple synchronous colon cancer was used in 19 patients (10 women and 9 men). The method is easily reproducible in the hospital medical institution with cancer.
The way to establish the presence of primary multiple synchronous colon cancer, including biochemical, characterized in that cancer patients tol is the guts of both sexes in the preoperative period determine the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and its concentration in women range from 26,01 to 60,91 IU/l, and men - in the range from 2.71 to 5,67 IU/l establish if patients solitary tumors, and when the concentration of the hormone in women range from 2.70 to 5,50 IU/l and in men range from 12,88 to 52,04 IU/l establish a presence in the colon synchronously developing tumors.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of producing carbon-carbon composite materials for various purposes, and is intended for comparative characteristic of impregnation of carbon fibre (CF) braids with melts of pitches, and can be used in improvement of technologies of producing carbon-carbon composite materials, possessing various properties, by modification or replacement of pitch binder and/or carbon fibre, for instance, in research laboratories, in particular, in carrying out laboratory work. To determine degree of impregnation of carbon fibre braids with pitches, carbon fibre braid is placed into glass tube in such a way that the end of braid protrudes from glass tube, and carbon fibres in braid are oriented along glass tube axis, with braid thickness being selected in such a way that it tightly fits glass tube, protruding end of carbon fibre braid is brought in contact with melted pitch and keep in such position, after which carbon fibre braid is extracted from tube and height of impregnation of carbon fibre braid with pitch is determined.
EFFECT: simplification and acceleration of determination are achieved.
1 ex, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting a sample for analysis and analysing its chemical composition, from which the rubber brand is determined. The sample is cut such that it has pre-decomposition zones. Chemical composition is analysed from a fracture in the sample by X-ray spectral technique on a scanning electron microscope with an energy-dispersive spectrometer. The obtained data on chemical composition of the sample are compared with chemical composition of a known rubber brand or a rubber brand used as a reference.
EFFECT: high accuracy and objectivity of determining a rubber brand.
3 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves titration of a suspension with a solvent which is soluble in water and dissolves the suspended resin-like substance until reducing light scattering, which is determined either visually or using optical devices which enable to measure the amount of light passing through the liquid.
EFFECT: rapid estimation of the amount of resin-like substance suspended in water.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has a clamp mechanism for holding material, an indenter for loading with possibility of measuring its displacement and recording information into a processor. A sensor is built into the indenter, said sensor being sensitive to the spectrum of acoustic emission generated by a sample upon change of deformation characteristics thereof. The clamp mechanism is in form of two coaxially placed cups with built-in heating elements with a controlled temperature range and a sensor for said temperature.
EFFECT: broader technological capabilities of the apparatus and high measurement accuracy.
SUBSTANCE: before testing in a heat chamber, samples of polymer materials are activated with UV radiation in the 248-365 nm wavelength range for 3-30 minutes with radiation power density of 1-15 mW/cm2. Analysis of volatile organic compounds is carried out while comparing the obtained chromatograms of gas samples collected from the heat chamber when testing samples of polymer materials with selected additives based on nanostructured bentonite powder and nanostructured bentonite powder intercalated with metal ions - magnesium (Mg2+ ), scandium (Sc3+), chromium (Cr3+), manganese (Mn2+), iron (Fe2+), cobalt (Co2+), nickel (Ni2+), copper (Cu2+), zinc (Zn2+), tin (Sn2+), cerium (Ce3+) or a mixture of bentonite powders intercalated with ions of said metals. The results of comparing chromatograms of gas samples are used to evaluate the effect of nanocomponents on the predicted sanitary-chemical properties of the designed polymer materials.
EFFECT: realisation of the present invention widens technological capabilities and increases reliability of results of evaluating the effect of modifying mineral nanocomponents on predicted sanitary-chemical properties based on release of volatile organic compounds from the designed polymer materials.
8 cl, 7 ex, 2 tbl, 4 dwg
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: at the first stage the organoleptic analysis of tested samples is carried out. At the second stage the microscopic analysis of the material structure is carried out. At the third stage the chemical analysis of the tested samples is carried out by means of their treatment with an organic dissolvent selected from the group: butyl ether of acetic acid, dimethylketone, dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, furfural, cyclohexanol at the ratio of sample-dissolvent equal to 1:(10-15) at the boiling temperature of the selected dissolvent for 20-30 minutes. If a sample has dissolved fully, the conclusion is made that is pertains to leather-like materials, and if a sample has not dissolved, it is identified as leather.
EFFECT: accurate and reliable recognition of leather from leather-like materials.
2 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves pre-activation of surfaces of an article and a film. The article then pressed to the surface of the film made from non-light-stabilised polyethylene and then exposed to UV radiation until a brittle layer forms.
EFFECT: formation of a coating on an article, which is adhesively bonded to the surface of the article.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing a specimen, irradiating the specimen with a predetermined spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, recording the interaction between the specimen and the electromagnetic radiation in a data packet and determining at least one characteristic parameter in the recorded data packet. Radiation intensity values assigned to different areas of the surface of the specimen, where said radiation interacts with said surface areas, are recorded in the data packet. The determined characteristic parameter describes air content in the specimen and/or resin content in the specimen. The assigned intensity values coinciding with a predetermined intensity range are added together to determine the air content and/or the resin content in the specimen. Analysis can also be performed to determine resin distribution and/or air distribution in the sample and homogeneity of distribution of assigned intensity values coinciding with the predetermined intensity range with respect to different areas of the surface.
EFFECT: possibility of analysing specific characteristic parameters.
6 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: when boiling collagen, linear dimensions of leather tissue are measured before and after collagen boiling. The structure-to-structure distance is determined using difference of the sample thickness after boiling and the rated thickness of the sample before boiling, which is produced as a product of the sample thickness before boiling and a coefficient of layers number defined as a quotient from division of a lengthy sample length into the length of the sample after boiling. Invention makes it possible to realise the specified method objective.
EFFECT: method improvement.
4 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: sorption of pharmacy drug derinate, representing sodium deoxyribonucleate in micropanel holes is carried out. After that analysed sample, which contains component C1q with unknown activity, is introduced into holes. Incubation is carried out and after washing and drying of panel into holes introduced are conjugate of enzyme with antibodies against component C1q and substrate of said enzyme. Activity of component C1q is calculated by amount of formed product of enzymatic reaction. Set contains flat-bottom micropanel with sorbed derinate, conjugate of enzyme with antibodies to human complement component C1q, substrate buffer and standard with known C1q activity.
EFFECT: method application makes it possible to increase reliability of determination C1q component with application as activator of available and stable preparation derinate.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing testing on parallel groups of fur sheepskin after pickling on three topographic portions of sheep skin surface: skirt, spine and neck portions; processing samples of each group with acid-salt solution for 24 hours; withdrawing sheepskins of each group from acid-salt solution in predetermined time intervals; removing excessive liquid; placing said samples into tensile testing machine and stretching lengthwise of spine line by 40% relative to initial length thereof; holding samples in stretched state for 1 min and withdrawing from tensile-testing machine; leaving samples in free state for 10 min; determining residual elongation value in mm.
EFFECT: reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.
2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining quantitative pickling characteristic of leather web of semi-finished product by using time of solving thereof in alkaline solutions, said time depending on number and kind of intermolecular bindings destructed during pickling. Solving of collagen in alkaline solutions depends upon nature of preliminary acidic preparing procedure. Solving is provided in aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide having concentration of 150 g/l and temperature of 18-20 C. Derma solving time is found after preliminary thermal processing at temperature of 60-65 C during 1.5 hours. Method may be employed both in production of fur and sheepskin products and in fur processing.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: methods and devices for determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions (versions) and a device for its realization (versions). The first version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measuring and introduction into the memory of the computation unit of intensity of the light absorption by the reference solutions, measuring of the intensity of the light absorption of radiation of the investigated solution, processing the data of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers. Simultaneously with the measurement of the light absorption by the investigated solution measure the concentration of alcohol in it. In compliance with the received values determine a concentration of alcohol in the investigated solution. The second version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference solutions and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measurement and introduction into the memory of the calculation device of intensity of the light absorption of radiation by the investigated solution, processing of the received values of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers, measure the values of density of the reference solutions and the investigated solution, using which determine the concentrations of alcohol and sugar in the investigated solution. The device for the first version contains a computation unit, a conjunction unit, optically coupled a radiating unit, a bath for solution, a measuring photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit and the input of which is optically connected through the bath with the radiating unit. The device for measurement of a concentration of sugar in a solution consists of a beam splitter plate and an additional photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The input of which is optically connected through the beam splitter plate mounted at Brewster's angle to a axis of radiation and the bath with by a radiation unit. And the radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range of 1250-1350 nanometers. The device for determination of a concentration of alcohol in the solutions consists of the computation unit, the conjugation unit, the optically connected radiation unit, the bath for solution, the measuring photoreceiving device, output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit, the density gage connected with the bath by means of the pipe duct. The output of the density gage is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range from 1250 to 1350 nanometers. The invention allows to improve accuracy of measurements.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an improved accuracy of measurements.
12 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, dairy farming.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining tightening of teat cup liner before it is inserted into teat cup; acting upon teat cup liner by suspending weight for determining tightening of teat cup liner; providing expansion by introducing internal gauge into teat cup liner which is positioned within teat cup casing. Method allows extent of teat cup liner tightening to be visually detected at any time of machine milking process. Tightening of teat cup liner manufactured integral with milk pipe as well as separately therefrom is determined during operation of milking units.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reduced milking time.
FIELD: technologies for researching durability properties of packing washer materials for collapsible oil pipelines.
SUBSTANCE: in the method for determining remaining resource of rubber compacting curves utilized in oil pipeline junctions, preparation of samples of given geometrical shape is performed, measurement of source hardness conditions for stretching, relative elongation during tearing, Shore hardness, temperature fragility limit, comparison of aforementioned values to given values, culling of washers, sample coefficients of which do not correspond to given values. Remaining samples are exposed to oil product after extraction from oil product samples are thermostatted, cooled down to normal room temperature, and then the same physical-mechanical coefficients are measured again with limit values. Before preparation of samples with given geometrical shape, washers are organized in batches of same manufacturing plant and production year, additionally measured are external d1 and internal d2 washer diameters for each batch, relative compression Ecp deformation of same washers. Their deviation from standard is calculated and culling of aforementioned washer batches is performed on basis of allowed values Δd1, Δd2 and Ecp, while as allowed values Δd1, Δd2 ≤ 3%; 25% ≤ Ecp ≤ 70%. After that remaining rings with least values of relative compression deformation Ecp are utilized to prepare geometrical samples of given geometrical shape. Remaining resource ΔT is determined from following formula: years, where ki - coefficient, characterizing alteration of remaining resource ΔT dependently on climatic zone input of operation of rubber packing washers, is taken as i - climatic zones I1 - II12, additional information, T - average lifetime of rubber packing washers until removal from operation in accordance to technological characteristics provided by manufacturing plant and/or operation instructions, in years, Tn - period of operation of rubber packing washers since production year - marking of manufacturing plant, until moment of determining ΔT, years, fpδ=9,4 MPa - minimally allowed value of conditional hardness for stretching after thermostatting of sample, MPa.
EFFECT: reliable trustworthiness of results of estimation of remaining resource under dynamic conditions of rubber packing washers in oil pipeline junctions with simultaneous increase of ecological safety due to decreased risk of emergency spilling of oil products.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparing specimens of polymeric materials of specified mass, exposing the specimens to the hostile fluid at a given temperature, and determining informative characteristic from a formula proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
2 dwg, 7 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: weighing equipment; chemical mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for measuring content of binder in reel-up composite material produced by preliminary soaked thread. Method is based upon weighing. The constant values are determined according to the method as length of thread for specific type of items and value of linear density averaged for any reel before and after soaking by binder and reeling it up onto frame. Weighing is performed for item before reeling it up with soaked thread and after reeling-up and final polymerization of composite material to determine mass of composite. Basing upon the data received, content of thread is determined which value is subsequently used for finding mass content of binder in composite from relation of C=(M-LxT/M)x100%, where C is content of binder in composite, in mass percent; M is mass of composite, g; L is length of thread consumed for item, km; T is average arithmetic meaning of values of linear density of thread and its rests at any reel before and after impregnation, g/km.
EFFECT: higher stability of performance measures.
FIELD: light industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises recording response of the material to be tested that represents an amplitude-frequency characteristic, calculating deformation characteristics, and determining the value of distributed mass of the vibrating part of the material. The response representing two amplitude-frequency characteristics is recorded for the same part of the material to be tested for various masses of two bodies that cause deformation. The deformation characteristics are calculated from equations of vibration theory for viscoelastic bodies.
EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises investigating threshold capabilities of the multi-layer polymeric material and determining maximum permeability of oil product and time period required for reaching the maximum permeability.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary conditioning of rubber specimens in paraffin hydrocarbon with 12-16 atoms of carbon in the atmosphere of neutral gas and in the fuel to be tested at a temperature of 130-150°C for 3-5 hours.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex