Method and device to evaluate temperature of ignition spark plug

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: electric energy transferred to a spark plug (S) and the temperature of a combustion chamber are determined. The S temperature is forecast and the forecast S temperature is used to control the supply of electric energy to the S. The forecast S temperature is calculated basing on the numerical solution of the differential equation (DE) for the S temperature. The DE for the S temperature is non-linear one by the S temperature. The DE for the S temperature is deduced from the power balance equation comprising at least four members Pg, Pi, Pe, Pc, where Pg simulates the electric energy supplied to the S, Pi simulates the energy accumulated in the S per time unit, Pe simulates radiant energy per time unit, and Pc simulates heat energy per time unit, the heat energy is transferred by convection or thermal conductivity.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of temperature control.

14 cl, 5 dwg

 

Engines with compression ignition usually contain system ignition spark. System ignition spark provides General assistance for combustion during ignition of the engine, and during the warm-up phase of the engine. A key element of this system is igniting the candle, the end part which can be heated to high temperatures (above 900°C) in the conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy.

Each cylinder contains one spark-plug included if required on the basis of the States of the engine and the external environment, usually in cold conditions. Spark-plug function as electrical resistors. Their resistance varies with temperature. When the temperature increases, the internal resistance also increases.

For burning candles use different techniques. The spark plugs can be high or low voltage, and they can be made of different materials, for example metal or ceramic spark-plug. The spark plugs high voltage is normally supplied directly from the vehicle battery. In contrast, the spark plugs low voltage because they have a lower nominal voltage than battery voltage, typically require the power supply with pulse width modulation (PWM) to obtain a desired voltage. In particular, the ignition spark low voltage can be controlled easily by connecting the gates of the field MOS transistor PWM electronic control unit and control the duty cycle of the PWM.

According to the present invention created a way to control one or more spark spark in the engine with compression ignition, designed for implementation on a computer, microcontroller or similar device. Control of the firing candle includes predicting the temperature of a spark-plug to control the flow of electricity in the spark-plug. More specifically, the power supply can be controlled by controlling the pulse width of pulse-width modulation.

In accordance with the invention is determined by the electric power supplied to spark-plug, and the temperature of the combustion chamber. The definition supplied electricity involves reading the input values supplied electricity or reading input values from which is obtained the supplied electric power, as for example, pulse width, pulse-width modulation or voltage. Determining the temperature of the combustion chamber includes reading the input temperature of the combustion chamber or reading input values from which is obtained the temperature of the chamber share the Oia. Data input values may include, among others, the engine load, engine speed, cooling water temperature and intake air temperature.

Predicted temperature of the spark plugs, and the predicted temperature of the spark-plug is used to control the electricity supply to the spark-plug. Power supply can be controlled, for example, by opening, closing MOS field-effect transistors or other types of transistors or the opening and closing of the relay glow of candles.

The predicted temperature of the spark plugs is obtained from a numerical solution of the differential equation for the temperature of the spark plugs. The differential equation is non-linear in the temperature of the spark plugs in the sense that the differential equation contains the exponent of the temperature of a spark-plug, which is higher than unity. In particular, the differential equation that contains the fourth power of the temperature of a spark-plug for modeling radiation heat transfer. Obtaining a temperature of a spark-plug includes the introduction of output values or calculated values in the equation or system of equations that represents the numeric solution of differential equations.

In an alternative embodiment, the prediction t is mperature spark-plug includes reinstalling the predicted temperature of a spark-plug on the second assessment, if the second assessment differs more than a predetermined value from the first assessment, which is obtained from the numerical solution of the differential equation.

In accordance with this application of the differential equation for the temperature of the spark plugs is derived from the equation of balance of power - or the equivalent of the energy balance equation. The equation of power balance contains at least four members of Pg, Pi, Pe, Pc, and Pg models the electricity fed into the spark-plug, Pi simulates the energy accumulated in the ignition candle per unit of time, Pe simulates the radiation energy per unit time, Pc simulates thermal energy per unit time, whereby thermal energy is transferred by convection or conduction. "Derived" in this context means that there is an equation that is equivalent to the differential equation, which includes members of Pg, Pi, Pe, Pc.

In accordance with this application of the differential equation for the temperature of the spark plugs takes the form Pg(t)=A*d/dt Tg(t)+B*Tg(t)+C*Tg(t)4+D(t), where Pg is the power delivered in the spark-plug, Tg is the temperature of the spark-plug, a, b, C are derived from the pre-calibrated values, D(t) is a function of the temperature of the combustion chamber. A, b, C are derived from the pre-last calibrated the values in the sense of they are determined on the basis of input values and a pre-calibrated curves, or they are pre-calibrated constant.

In accordance with the invention, the electricity supply to the spark-plug can be controlled in various ways. For example, it can be controlled by controlling the opening time of the relay spark-plug or by controlling the opening time of the transistor. The opening time of the transistor can be controlled by pulse-width modulation (PWM). In particular, using PWM-controlled transistor, you can easily manage igniting a candle with a digital controller.

In addition, according to the invention a device for temperature control of a spark-plug of the above-mentioned method, which provides tools for predicting the temperature of a spark-plug, on the basis of at least the electric power supplied in the spark-plug, and the temperature of the combustion chamber. In one embodiment, the application of the mentioned funds is made through the block programming modes, logical block and control valves. The device further comprises a means for obtaining the temperature of the combustion chamber either by reading input values or by calculating the same time the temperature of the combustion chamber from the input values. In one embodiment, the application is referred to the tool is executed via input 26, which is connected to the engine control unit.

The device comprises a means for obtaining the number of the transferred thermal energy that is transferred by radiation transfer between the firing spark plug and combustion chamber. In one embodiment of the invention the said means is executed by programmable instructions in a logical block device. The device further comprises a means for obtaining values of temperature control for the temperature of the spark plugs from the predicted temperature of the spark plugs. In one embodiment of the invention the said means is executed by the controller in the logical block device. The controller uses the predicted temperature of the spark plugs and the desired temperature of the spark plugs as input quantities. The device also includes means for calculating the pulse width of pulse-width modulation of the magnitude of the temperature control. In one embodiment of the invention the said means is executed by the control unit gates.

Hereinafter, the invention will be described in more detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, on which:

Fig.1 is a control device of a spark and candles and managed the spark plugs;

Fig.2 is a schematic drawing that shows the energy flows in the combustion chamber;

Fig.3 - input and output values of a computational algorithm for the spark plugs;

Fig.4 is an equivalent circuit diagram of a computational algorithm, shown in Fig.3; and

Fig.5 is a diagram of a sequence of operations for a method of control of the firing line.

In the description below, details are provided to describe the embodiments of the invention. However, to a person skilled in the art it is obvious that this alternative implementation can be practically implemented without such details.

Fig.1 depicts the device 11 controls the firing candles for electric candles 12, which symbolically depicts the heating coils. Spark-plug 12 is connected to the source 13 of the electricity through the MOS transistor 14. The gate of each of the field MOS transistor 14 is connected with the corresponding output block 16 gate control device 11 controls the firing of the spark. Between the drain of each MOS transistor 14 and the corresponding ignition spark plug 12 are sensitive resistors 17. The input and output of each of the sensing resistor 17 is connected with the corresponding output and the corresponding input of the diagnostic unit 19 in the device 11 in the management of the firing candles.

The device 11 controls the firing candles also contains the logical unit 20, which, in turn, contains the logic of diagnosis and control logic. The output 22 of the diagnostic logical unit 20 is connected to the engine control unit (BUD), which is not shown. The entrance 23 of the control logic unit 20 is connected with BUD. In addition, the device 11 controls the firing of the spark contains the block 25 programming modes. Block 25 programming modes connected with outputs of the sensors through the entrance 26. The input 28 of the registration of the tension device 11 controls the firing of the spark is connected to the source 13 of the electricity, and the entrance 29 of the power supply device 11 controls the firing of the spark is connected to the supply voltage.

During operation, the logical unit 20 receives from BUD input control signal through the entrance 23 of the control, and the block 25 programming modes takes the values of the sensors through the entrance 26. Based on the values of the sensor unit 25 programming modes determines the mode of operation and passes the output value in the logical unit 20. The values of the sensors can include, among others, the temperature of the coolant or cooling water of the engine, the engine speed, injected fuel, the output torque of the engine. BUD uses the appropriate model is for obtaining the temperature of the combustion chamber of the values of the sensors and outputs the obtained temperature of the combustion chamber to the inlet 26. BUD can also throw in the device 11 controls the firing of the spark additional information such as the duration of the previous period of idling of the engine.

Logic control logic unit 20 calculates the desired effective voltage to each of the ignition spark 12, which is based on the input values are transmitted to the control device 11 of the firing candles. Block 16 gate control uses the desired effective voltage to calculate the duration of the working cycle of the pulse width modulation for each of the pilot candles 12 and controls the gates of the field MOS transistor 14 in accordance with the working cycle.

Through the inputs and outputs of the sensing resistors 17 diagnostic unit 19 receives the differential voltage for each of the sensitive resistors 17. From these power surges diagnostic unit receives supply currents for each of the glow of the candle 12. Diagnostic unit 19 generates values were obtained currents of the power unit 25 programming modes. In addition, the diagnostic unit 19 generates an error condition if the supply current is higher or lower than the specified limit values.

Fig.2 depicts the processes of energy conversion in the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine, which in this document is not shown. The tip 32 Zap the school candles 12 continues into the chamber 34 of the combustion. Inside of the tip 32 of the spark plugs 12 are located a heating coil and a control coil, which is not shown. At the upper end of the spark plugs 12 a terminal 33 for the current supply. The camera 34 combustion contains the air-fuel mixture 35, which is supplied into the chamber 34 of the combustion chamber through the injection valve, not shown. In the chamber 34 of the combustion chamber on the opposite side of the spark plugs 12 is movable piston 37.

During operation of the spark plugs 12, the electrical energy is fed into the spark-plug 12 with a capacity of Pg accumulation through the output 33. Power Pg accumulation is converted into power Pi accumulation of the spark plugs 12, the heat output of the RS, which takes into account heat transfer by convection and conduction, and power Re-heating, which takes into account heat transfer by radiation. This leads to the following equation of power balance:

Pg=Pi+Pc+Pe(1)

At this level of modeling of heat losses to the environment, as well as loss/increase of energy by the action of the piston 37 are negligible. Arrows in Fig.2 symbolically represent the four members of Pg, Pi, Pc, Pe equation of balance of power.

Fig.3 shows input values 38 on the left side of the block 39, and the n indicates the predicted value of 40 on the right side of the block 39. Block 39 symbolically depicts the conversion of the data. The input variable 38 include input electric power Pg, temperature TSScombustion chamber, which usually calculates the BUD, and the temperature Tcoolant coolant or refrigerant). The predicted output values 40 include temperature Tg of a spark-plug, power Re, transmitted through radiation, power PC heat transferred by convection and conduction, internal power Pi accumulation.

Fig.4 depicts an equivalent circuit diagram 42, which provides an analog model of the four elements of Pg, Pi, Pc, Pe mentioned equation (1) balance of power to one of the glow of the candle 12. The parameters RthCthand F models are shown in blocks. Within the scope of this model, elements of power are modeled in the form of electric currents, and temperature are modeled in the form of electrical voltages relative to the level 47 of the earth. More specifically, the power source of a spark-plug is modeled by the source 43 current. Internal accumulation of heat in the glow of the candle is modeled by a capacitor 44 with a capacity of Cth. The heat transfer from the spark plugs by convection and heat conduction is modeled by a resistor 45 with resistance Rth. Transfer rejected the I of the spark plugs in the combustion chamber is modelled by a controlled source 46 current which is managed in the same sense as the source 43 current. The output of the controlled source 46 current depends on the parameter F model. The temperature of the combustion chamber is modelled by a controlled source 48 voltage.

Temperature Tg of a spark-plug is modeled as a voltage, which is measured at an anchor point between the source 43 and voltage inputs of capacitor 44 and resistor 45 relative to the level 47 of the earth. The resistor 45 and a controlled source 46 current connected in parallel between the source 43 current and a controlled source 48 voltage. Capacitor 44 is connected between the source 43 current and earth 47.

This analog model can be implemented through a scheme, which in this document is not shown. Sources 46, 48 current can be accomplished through custom items.

In accordance with the equivalent wiring diagram 42 digital computing model is defined by equations (1) and

Pg=Vpeak*Ipeak*D(2)

Pi=Cth*d/dt Tg(3)

Pc =(Tg-TSS)/Rth(4)

Pe=kB*F*(Tg4-TSS4)(5)

According the equation (2) power Pg, which is supplied to the glow of the candle 12 is determined by the voltage Vpeak, multiplied by the current Ipeak and the duration of the operating cycle. Here Vpeak and Ipeak is the voltage and current in the ignition spark during the rectangular pulse of the business cycle pulse-width modulation. D is the length of the business cycle relative to the duration of the period of pulse width modulation. Voltage Vpeak and current Ipeak in igniting the spark evaluated by measuring the current in the sensing resistor 17 and the voltage MOS transistor 14, respectively.

For the variable duration of the period, the average power is defined as

Pg=1T0TV(t)*I(t)dt(2A)

where T is respectively selected averaging time.

In accordance with equation (3) internal power Pi accumulation, which is not converted directly into heat power, is determined by the heat capacity Cthmultiplied by the time derivative of the temperature Tg the spark plugs.

In accordance with equation (4) heat m is mnost Pc, which is transmitted to the air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber by convection and conduction, is determined by the temperature difference between the temperature Tg the spark plugs and the temperature TSSthe combustion chamber divided by thermal resistance Rthheat transfer by conduction and convection.

In accordance with equation (5) thermal power PE, which is transmitted to the air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber by means of radiation, is determined by the Boltzmann constant kBmultiplied by the factor F and the difference of the fourth degree temperature Tg the spark plugs and the temperature of the combustion chamber. Equation (5) determines the difference between the radiated energy the spark plugs and combustion chamber in accordance with the equation Stefan-Boltzmann.

The parameters Cth, Rth, F can be obtained through the calibration procedure is almost sold the spark plugs at the production facility or in the repair shop. In accordance with this application the spark plugs are modeled separately, and for each spark-plug defines its parameters Cth, Rth, F. In an alternative embodiment, only a portion of the firing of the spark is modeled separately, and the other part of the ignition spark is modeled through the use of pregnen the x values.

The system of equations (1)-(5) can be solved, for example, through the introduction of right-hand sides of equations (3), (4) and (5) in equation (1) balance. Whence is obtained a differential equation in the form

Pg(t)=A*d/dt Tg(t)+B*Tg(t)+C*Tg(t)4+D(t)(6)

for temperature Tg the spark plugs.

The parameters a, b, C and D are known on the basis of the parameters RthCthand F and the time-dependent temperature of the combustion chamber TSS. Pg is known from equation (2) or equation (2A), respectively. Thus, equation (6) can be solved numerically. Then, from the calculated temperature Tg the spark plugs you can get the elements Pi, Pe, Pc.

For example, the temperature T(t2) at time t2can be computed from the values at an earlier time t1through the use of the Euler method for solving the equation (6). You can also use other algorithms such as Runge-Kutta method or linear multistep methods. In particular, the use of the Euler method leads to a predicted temperature of the spark plugs:

Tg(t2)=Tg(t1)+ΔtA*(P (t1)-B*Tg(t1)-C*Tg(t1)4+D(t1))or

Tg(t2)=Tg(t1)+ΔtCth*(I*V*DPWM(t1)-1Rth*Tg(t1)-kBF*Tg(t1)4)

+ΔtCth(1RthTCC (t1)+kBF*TCC(t1)4)

Here I is the current through the spark-plug during the working cycle, V - valued differential voltage ignition spark during the working cycle and DPWM(t) is the length of the business cycle at time t working cycle in a transistor through which is supplied the firing line. TSS(t) is the estimation of the temperature of the combustion chamber, which is obtained by using a BUD or using the device 11 controls the firing candles, using the temperature of the engine coolant and/or engine load. The engine load can be obtained, for example, from a fuel supply, the engine speed and output torque.

The heat capacity Cthand a thermal resistance of Rthand, therefore, the parameters a and b can depend on time. In particular, thermal resistance Rthdepends on combustion conditions. Thus, a more accurate model of thermal resistance of Rthsimulating a thermal resistance of Rthas a function of engine speed and engine load.

Zavisaet temperature resistance spark-plug provides a second estimate of the temperature of a spark-plug, which can be used as the initial estimate of the temperature of the spark plugs. The second assessment can also be used for correcting the calculated temperature of the spark plugs in situations in which the solution of the equation (6) deviates from the actual temperature of a spark-plug. This can be done by reinstalling the estimated temperature of a spark-plug on the second assessment, if the difference between the estimated temperature of the spark plugs and the second score exceeds a pre-set limit.

If the evaluation of the resistance of the spark-plug is available, it can be used to eliminate either current or voltage in equation (2).

Equation (6) can also be used to predict the required energy input to achieve the required difference T(t2)-T(t1) temperatures during the period of time t2- t1.

One way of evaluating the temperature in accordance with the above mentioned models is to use logical block 20 for the calculation. In this case, the temperature can be controlled as follows. First, the logical unit 20 generates an error signal by subtracting the estimated temperature Tg spark-plug of the desired temperature of a spark-plug, which is supplied by the engine control unit on the ml 23. Secondly, the error signal is used as input to the controller, for example, proportional-differential (PD), proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller or similar controller to generate the control signal. Block 16 gate control uses the control signal to generate the input signal for the MOS transistor 14 with the corresponding work cycle.

Another way of using the above-mentioned equations (1)-(5) by means of the stored temperature and lookup tables, which allow to read the predicted temperature as a function of the previous temperature and values of input parameters, such as temperature of the combustion chamber. Such a lookup table can be implemented in the form of a table, which contains the predicted temperature depending on all possible combinations of input parameters and previous temperatures.

Fig.5 depicts, as an example, a block diagram of the sequence control method of a spark plug in which is used a method of estimating the temperature of the spark plugs in accordance with this application. The method of controlling ignition spark plug in accordance with Fig.5 can be implemented using a native program or also by using a hard wired circuit. Furthermore, the method of temperature estimation in the accordance with this application can also be used for other ways to control the firing of the spark, different from the method that is illustrated in Fig.5.

On the stage 50 is activated by the heating of the spark plugs, for example, by turning the car key. At the step 51 of the output values of the sensor readings or calculations obtained input values for the estimation algorithm temperature. Receiving input data includes the determination of electricity supplied in the spark-plug, and the temperature of the combustion chamber. In the next step 52 is predicted temperature of the spark plugs through the scores are calculated Tg of the temperature of the spark plugs in accordance with the above estimation algorithm temperature. On the stage 53 is calculated required temperature Trefthe spark plugs. At step 54 it turns out the second assessment Tg2 temperature of a spark-plug on the basis of the resistance of the spark plugs. If at step 55, the decision found that the difference between the Tg and the second rating temperature Tg2 spark-plug exceeds a predetermined limit, then at step 56 the evaluation of Tg is reset to the second assessment Tg2. Otherwise, the evaluation of Tg is used as an estimate for the temperature of the spark plugs. At step 57, the decision is checked whether the desired temperatures Tref the spark plugs estimated temperature Tg spark-plug. If Yes, then igniting the candle is activated the and stage 58, otherwise it is deactivated at step 59. Then the method of controlling ignition spark plug in accordance with Fig.5 is returned back to step 51 to obtain input values for the next time step.

The method of controlling the electricity supply to the spark-plug in accordance with the steps 58, 59 can be further improved. For example, the temperature difference can be used as input to a PD controller to determine the duty cycle of pulse-width modulation. In an alternative method of controlling the firing of the spark, which provides only a direct link, stages 55, 56 are excluded.

The method of temperature estimation in accordance with the invention provides several advantages. Calculating the temperature of the spark plugs in accordance with the invention eliminates the use of a separate temperature sensor for each spark-plug. Due to this decrease the cost and complexity of the spark plugs.

The algorithm requires only a few, easily adaptable parameters and input values. In addition, it provides a more accurate estimate compared with the assessment, which is based only on the energy consumption of the spark plugs.

In accordance with the invention, each of the firing of the spark plug can be modeled separately by providing individual parameters Cth , RthF for each spark-plug. Can also be used to separate the estimation of the temperature TCCcombustion chamber, for example, depending on certain provisions of the pistons. Thus, it is possible to compensate for variations in temperature, due to the range of variation in the production of spark plugs and different dynamics of the fluid cylinder.

Improved temperature evaluation provides a number of advantages. For example, the temperature of the igniter can be achieved faster, this prevents overheating, which ensures long service life of the ignition spark. In addition, a more accurate estimate of the temperature of the firing of the spark allows more efficient use of energy supply and to control the combustion process with higher accuracy, to reduce fuel consumption and emissions.

An improved estimate of the temperature of the spark plugs can also be used for diagnostic purposes. It is possible to detect the malfunction of the spark plugs by comparing the predicted temperature of the spark plugs with an independent assessment of the temperature of the spark plugs.

Shows a variant implementation of the firing candle low voltage, which is driven by a PWM method. In another embodiment that is not shown in this document is e, are the spark plugs high voltage, and power management are Pg is exactly the same as shown above, for example, by controlling the intermittent opening relay spark-plug. In addition, the power management can also be accomplished by regulating the supply of current to the spark plugs, for example, using a resistor of variable resistance. In the latter case, the electricity supply to the spark-plug can be assessed by measuring the current and/or voltage instead of using the duration of time periods of opening and closing of the transistors or switches.

Particularly preferred use of the method in accordance with the invention for an engine with compression ignition with electronic fuel injection to provide precise control of the combustion process. However, this method can also be used for engines with compression ignition with mechanical fuel injection or no injection.

1. The method of controlling one or more spark spark engine with compression ignition, characterized in that:
determine the electric power supplied to spark-plug, and the temperature of the combustion chamber;
predict the temperature of the spark plugs; and
use the predicted temperature pilot light and to control the electricity supply to the spark-plug,
while the predicted temperature of the spark plugs is obtained from a numerical solution of the differential equation for the temperature of the spark plugs, and a differential equation for the temperature of the spark plugs is non-linear in the temperature of the spark plugs.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the differential equation for the temperature of the spark plugs is obtained from the equation of balance of power, containing at least four members of Pg, Pi, Pe, Pc,
where Pg simulates the electricity fed into the spark-plug, Pi simulates the energy accumulated in the ignition candle per unit of time, Pe simulates the radiation energy per unit time, and the Pc simulates thermal energy per unit time, whereby thermal energy is transferred by convection or conduction.

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the differential equation takes the form
Pg(t)=A*d/dt Tg(t)+B*Tg(t)+C*Tg(t)4+D(t)
where Pg is the power supplied to spark-plug, Tg is the temperature of the spark-plug, A, B, C is derived from the pre-calibrated values, and D(t) is a function of the temperature of the combustion chamber.

4. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the control of electric power supplied to spark-plug, carried out by controlling the opening time of the relay spark-plug.

5. The method according to p. 1 or 2, featuring the the action scene, the management of the electricity supplied in the spark-plug, carried out by controlling the opening time of the transistor.

6. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the temperature of the combustion chamber is obtained from the coolant temperature of the engine.

7. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the temperature of the combustion chamber also get of load of the engine.

8. Device for temperature control of a spark-plug method according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that it comprises means for predicting the temperature of a spark-plug, on the basis of at least the electric power supplied in the spark-plug, and the temperature of the combustion chamber, where the device contains a means for obtaining the temperature of the combustion chamber.

9. The device under item 8, characterized in that it further comprises means for determining the amount of the transferred thermal energy, and thermal energy is transferred by radiation transfer between the firing spark plug and combustion chamber.

10. The device under item 8 or 9, characterized in that it comprises means for obtaining the magnitude of the temperature control for the temperature of the spark plugs from the predicted temperature of the spark plugs.

11. The device under item 8 or 9, characterized in that it comprises means for vicis the program pulse width of pulse-width modulation of the magnitude of the temperature control.

12. Engine with compression ignition, containing a spark-plug, characterized in that the control of one or more spark spark is carried out using a device according to any one of paragraphs.8-11.

13. The vehicle, characterized in that it contains an engine with compression ignition under item 12.

14. Machine-readable medium, characterized in that it contains a machine-readable code for implementing the method according to any one of paragraphs.1-7.



 

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Gas turbine engine // 2516773

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gas turbines. Gas turbine combustion device comprises air intake, first measuring device to measure amount of gas in air intake, at least one combustion chamber and multiple lines to feed fuel into combustion chamber. It comprises exhaust pipe, second measuring device to measure amount of gas in air intake and control device to vary fuel feed fuel into multiple lines and to control gas amount in exhaust pipe. Note here that said variation is executed subject to both gas amount in air intake and gas amount in exhaust pipe.

EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency.

16 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: method is designed for hot-water and steam boilers, on which at least two boilers with different characteristics are installed. During operation of a boiler house it is possible to switch on any combination of the existing boilers and to distribute a load between the boilers in operation. The boiler combination that must work at every moment is determined based on a condition of minimum fuel consumption per the specified period of time considering losses for lighting-up of the boilers that were not involved in the operation before.

EFFECT: reduction of annual fuel consumption in a boiler house.

1 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method to control combustion in a gas turbine and the appropriate device includes stages, where they measure, by means of one or two calorimeters, temperature, calorific power and relative density of gaseous fuel, in order to detect Wobbe number, the measured value of the Wobbe number is compared with the specified value of the Wobbe number for gaseous fuel, and temperature of gaseous fuel is controlled by at least one heat exchanger, in order to achieve the specified value of the Wobbe number. They may also include the stage, when the second gaseous fuel is used, with the Wobbe number differing from the gaseous fuel, or fuel received by mixing of the gaseous fuel and the second gaseous fuel, according to arbitrary proportions, and varying in time.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve efficiency of gas turbine operation.

8 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: method involves measurement performed by means of one or more sensors located in compliance with combustion chamber; amplitudes of pressure fluctuations inside combustion chamber and time of duration or cycle of those fluctuations; evaluation of combustion chamber behaviour at endurance operating mode by building up Wehler curve for some material that forms combustion chamber, for the specified combustion frequency and for values of amplitude and cycle of measured pressure fluctuations; measurement of accumulated damage to combustion chamber during its operation at endurance operating mode of the turbine by means of Palmgren-Miner hypothesis; implementation of protective actions in the turbine if the measured value of accumulated damage exceeds limit value.

EFFECT: invention allows improving control reliability and optimising intervals of maintenance of combustion chamber components.

4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: in device for thermal neutralisation of liquid wastes, which involves horizontal flame burners, for example two of them, gas header, gas inlet branch pipe, with flame arrester arranged at the edge, liquid waste header, liquid waste inlet branch pipe, at that, gas and liquid waste headers are connected to flame burners, the device is equipped with a spreader in the form of Coanda body, which is arranged on the header, parallel to horizontal flame burners there installed is pilot burner, and in the housings made in the form of tubes there arranged is ignition burner and flame scanner. Recirculation station made of two coaxial tubes is installed opposite the outlet of gas-liquid mixture from flame burners; besides, inner tube is shorter than outer one; convergent branch pipe is arranged at the recirculation station inlet and divergent branch pipe is installed at recirculation station outlet so that annular space is formed between edges of inner tube and internal surfaces of convergent branch pipe and divergent branch pipe, as well as between inner tube and outer tube.

EFFECT: higher liquid waste neutralisation quality.

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: low-head straight-flow swirl burner includes air inlet chamber (1), vane swirlers with rotary vanes (6) on axes (9), which form vortex chambers (8) at Venturi nozzle (7) inlet, and are kinematically connected with control pins (5) and end disks (4) to fuel supply pipeline (10) on the inlet part of which there arranged is cylindrical plunger of slot-type fuel supply control (12), and on the outlet part of fuel supply hole to constricted Venturi nozzle (7) section. Swivel arms (11) with tension springs (16) kinematically connect wedge-shaped projections (13) arranged on axial stock (14) kinematically connected to lever (17), with steam pressure control (18) equipped with membrane (19), stock (20) and power spring (21). Load is controlled in operation as to boiler steam pressure acting by means of steam pressure control (18) on axial stock (14) with wedge-shaped projections (13) turning the levers (11). At that, fuel flow through control (12) and flow swirling degree in swirl chambers (8) with the appropriate air flow through Venturi nozzles (7) changes. Fuel-air mixture is supplied to combustion stabiliser (24) where recirculation of combustion products is performed in zone of backflows between Venturi nozzles and external wall (25).

EFFECT: improving operating economy of the boiler within the whole range of loads, and providing ease of use.

3 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gas-regulating accessories. Gas-regulating accessories is outfitted by sensor, by means of which it is accepted operating mode of main burner. Additionally sensor is connected to thermoelectric valve of safe ignition so that at changing of operation mode of main burner with "in" to "off" thermoelectric valve of safe ignition takes closed position under action of signal, send from sensor.

EFFECT: invention provides reduction of power consumption of gas heating furnace up to possible minimum.

4 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating, burning.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heating engineering and can be applied at heat power plants using thermal open-cut brown coals. Method of steam-generating plant burning mode control implies at least three sequential stages of preliminary thermal treatment of fuel in the steam-generating plant: at the first stage moisture is removed from the fuel, at the second one - ballast volatile substances (for example, CO2), at the third one - low-calorie volatile substances (for example, CO). The mode of thermal treatment process (temperature and time) at each stage is controlled by a complex thermal analysis involving sampling of vapour-gas and non-volatile products of the fuel thermal treatment, after their quantity and quality characteristics are defined the relation of the fuel and air is precisely distributed with the help of a control device.

EFFECT: method of burning mode control.

4 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry, particularly, to diesels and can be used for control over diesel running on alternative fuels. Diesel runs on liquid hydrocarbon fuel and incorporates glow plug in combustion chamber of every cylinder. For its operation fuel is selected with cetane ratio of 22-45 and glow plug supply voltage is maintained with due allowance for selected fuel cetane ratio in compliance with linear relation: U=29-0.24×CR, where U is glow plug supply voltage, V, CR is selected fuel cetane ratio.

EFFECT: higher engine efficiency.

4 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl

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