Method of aerodynamic profiling of edges of open pits and coal strip mines

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method describes the selection of sections in the zone of wind currents, drilling of ledges by wells, charging them with explosive charges, blasting and excavation of the blasted mined rock. Meanwhile only upper ledges are drilled without subdrilling to the design outline of the edge profile, and charging and blasting of wells is performed stage by stage by blocks to the profile height. The correlation of the angle of incidence and profile of the open pit edge and the dominating wind speed under the mathematical formula is determined.

EFFECT: improvement of performance of ventilation of open pits and coal strip mines by ensuring of continuous streamlining of edges of open pits and coal strip mines by a natural air flow.

1 tbl, 3 dwg

 

The proposed method relates to the mining industry, in particular to the development of open way, and can be used in deep quarries and coal mines, where mining is impossible without artificial ventilation or enhance natural ventilation at the lower levels.

There are ways to ventilate mines and coal mines based on:

on the exhaust and fresh air in the area of mining operations, including in the lower part of the career carried out on mining with the help of source of traction and displacement of polluted air from the pit (ABT.mon. The USSR №901.560; patents of the Russian Federation№2.036.311, 2.066.769, 2.122.121, 2.169.369, 2.357.084; U.S. patent No. 3.747.503 and others);

- on the air exchange between the atmosphere of the quarry and the environment through the discharge of clean air and ingestion of contaminated air through the air ducts of ventilation systems (ed.mon. The USSR №1.361.34; RF patents №2.164.602, 2.215.157; Mashkovtsev I. L. et al. Aerology and labour protection in mining and quarrying. - M.: publishing house of peoples ' friendship University, 1986, S. 184, and others);

- on the supply of clean air into the space career in underground workings, located at different levels in the quarry, and enable them to work consistently with the deepening of the open pit (ABT.mon. The USSR №901.960; p is the tent of the Russian Federation No. 2.036.311; Ushakov, K. H., Mikhailov Century A. Aerology quarries. - M.: Nedra, 1975, S. 166, and others);

- on the interchange between work areas and surface mine through one or more flexible air ducts (ed.mon. The USSR№; 525.803, 608.947, 965.488, 1.335.711, 1.760.128, 1.767.193; patents of the Russian Federation No. 2.032.126, 2.066.769, 2.148.717 and others);

- on the selection in the active area of the impact of wind flows, drilling ledges, charged with charges of explosive, blasting, excavation of blasted rock (ed.mon. The USSR №919.415; Bakalov N. C and other Ventilation pits. - M.: Gosgortekhnadzor, 1963, S. 73-77; Boki B. C. the basic technology of mining. - M.: Nedra, 1964, S. 193-222, etc.).

Known methods closest to the proposed is a Method of profiling the pitwall" (ed.mon. The USSR №919.415, E21C 41/00, 1980), which is selected as the base object.

The known method is based on the fact that produce drilling only the upper ledges without perebor to the design of the contour profile of the Board, and the loading and blasting wells produce gradually to the height of the profile, and the profile radius is determined by the formula

where H is the height of the profile Board, m; V is the average wind speed, m/s; 0,823 - the estimated coefficient, which determines the opening angle of the wind flow.

This formula is obtained experimentally, based on the conditions of maintenance of the aircraft is separated flow past the profile of the wind flow, the obtained coefficient 0,823 determines the increase of the opening angle of the wind flow to 35-40°, which corresponds to the maximum corner of the pit during mining quarrying in the rocks.

However, the profile radius, calculated from the formula, does not always provide effective ventilation quarries and coal mines on the entire length of the Board and its height.

Career space as aerodynamic system is very imperfect, because the wind when it slipped from the top edge of the Board, causing the formation below the boundary of the recirculation zone with poor ventilation.

Field observations were conducted at several quarries of the country, show that the reduction in wind speed at the surface to 2 m/s causes a significant reduction in the active zone of influence of its energy in the career space, i.e., it increases the number and total volume of stagnant zones.

It is known that in close proximity to the Board career ambient air flow is slowed down, and there may be strong vortices. In hydrodynamics this layer is called the border. Experimental study of boundary layer showed that the surface of the streamlined body, the thread is not moving and as it "sticks" to the surface. Theorem the systematic study of the boundary layer around the bodies of complicated shape is difficult. While simplifying the task, you can imagine the wall of the open pit in the form of an inclined plate, a streamlined flow of air with a negative angle of attack β.

In connection with the above there is a necessity of determining the dependence of the angle of incidence and profile of the pit from the propagation velocity of the moving stream of air flow (natural or manmade), in order to ensure betterinet flow from the initial level of the pit to face the surface (the bottom of the quarry).

To solve this problem we will consider moving the flow in the boundary layer is laminar, because it assumes complete washing of the sides and the bottom of the quarry air flow (without separation of the jet and the formation of large eddies). Such a flow is formed at low values of Reynolds number (Re<2,0·103) defined by the formula:

where V is the flow velocity around the pit, m/s; l is the height of the laminar flow in the projection on the y axis, m; ν - kinematic viscosity of air, m2(in normal conditions ν=1,45·10-5m2/s).

Since the velocity of natural wind flow is not regulated, then the solution should be restricted to the definition of rational profile of the bead corresponding to a particular value of the wind speed close to the average (according to the wind rose).

Technical for the of acai invention is to improve the effectiveness of the ventilation quarries and coal mines by providing a steady airflow around the pit or coal mine air flow.

To solve this problem is proposed a method of aerodynamic profiling of pit walls or coal mines, which includes, in accordance with the closest analogue, the choice of sectors in the area of wind flows, drilling ledges wells, loading their charges of explosive, blasting them and excavation blasted rock mass, thus producing drilling only the upper ledges without perebor to the design of the contour profile of the Board, and the loading and blasting wells produce gradually blocks to a height profile that is different from the nearest similar topics the dependency of the angle of incidence and profile of the pit from the propagation velocity of the moving stream of air flow is determined by the formula:

where β is the angle of attack of the pit by an air stream; x - the current value of the length of the pit in the plan, m; lk- end length of a side in plan from the top edge to the bottom, m; (x≤lk); ƒais the coefficient of proportionality describing the aerodynamic resistance of the flow along the sides; g - acceleration of gravity.

The flow of air from the side of the pit shown in Fig.1. A fragment of the pit shown in Fig.2. The dependence of the desired angle of incidence of the pit on the initial velocity of the air flow shown in Fig.3.

PR is lagueny way aerodynamic profiling of the pitwall and coal mines implemented as follows.

Consider the flow of air incident on the surface of the pit wall with velocity V0(Fig.1). Scroll on the distance x is infinitely small section of the boundary layer length dx. Let its thickness is equal to δ. Thus we assume the external pressure increasing with increasing x-coordinates. This assumption is possible due to the constant fall velocity of flow (V<V0where V is the current speed value).

Consider the balance of power to strip a thread with some constant width along the pit wall, for example h=1 m Impulse acting on it forces must equal the change of momentum, and by the acting forces will be the difference of the pressures on the faces AB and CD and the friction force on the brink of HELL (Fig.1).

Take the distribution of traffic within a particular cross-section of the flow as uniform, changing its absolute value only with x-coordinate.

Let the section AB of the pressure of the air flow is equal to R, then in section DM this pressure becomes equalP+Pxdx. The pressure difference will be:

where the minus sign in the right part of expression (1) means that the force corresponding to the differential pressure acts against the direction of the active ingredient is in the supply air stream.

On the surface of the pit of HELL will be a force of friction of the air flow in the strip of width h=1 m, the Speed of air flow on an inclined surface, which is the wall of the open pit, conditioned only by the action of gravitational forces, disappearing at the bottom. Therefore, the elementary friction force on the section of side length dx will be added and the gravitational component (Fig.2):

where FTr- the friction force with the gravitational throughout the boundary layer on the wall of the open pit; µ is the mass flow rate of the air flow, kg/s;(Vy)y=0the velocity gradient normal to the surface of the pit.

Value dFTryou can define as ravnodeystvuiushchey between weight dQ strip the thread on the section of side length dx and normal pressure of this flow on the surface of the Board

where β is the angle of attack of the air flow pit; ƒais the coefficient of proportionality describing the aerodynamic resistance of the flow along the sides.

In turn,

where ρ is the density of air, kg/m3; g is the acceleration force t is tin; δ is the thickness of the boundary layer air flow on the section of length dx.

Thus, the forces acting on a section of length dx subject to (1)-(3) when the traffic flow within the band width of 1 m will be the sum of:

The total force according to the expression (4) must be balanced by the momentum of gravity flow, which is included in the scope of ASD on the strip of height dy:

where du is the change of air flow between sections of the MD and AB; V - flow velocity inside the boundary layer thickness δ; V0the flow velocity above the line of the sun, equal to the velocity of the air flow in front of the wall of the open pit on the surface.

In turn,

Then, taking into account expressions (4) to(6), after reduction for dx to write:

Expression (7) can be simplified by adopting the air pressure inside and outside the boundary layer is equal to atmospheric, i.e., constant, and then the thickness of the boundary layer, is equal to δ, we will havePx=0.

Next, after determining the functions U(V0) and δ(V, V0), the expressions for determining the angle of attack β Board career air flow and the initial velocity V0this thread is for ware the unseparated flow profile side boundary layer air (natural or artificial):

or

where x is the current value of the length of the pit in the plan; lk- end length of the sides horizontally from the top edge to the bottom {x≤lk).

At the limiting value Sin β=-1 (negative angle of attack side), we obtain the dependence to determine the maximum allowable flow rate, providing a steady airflow around the Board, as a synthesis of expressions(8)-(10):

Thus, the conditions (8)-(11) will provide a steady airflow around the air flow side and bottom of the career mode to maintain a laminar boundary layer.

Using the formula (8) can, asking for values of x (at a certain constant value of lk), to determine the desired profile of the pit to wrap it with some velocity V0(it is advisable to take V0the average axis of the quarry).

Consider a specific example. Calculate the change in the shape of the profile pit for lk=100 m around its air flow with velocity V0=4, 6, 7, 8 m/s will try to Answer the following values of x=5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 90 m the results of the calculation are presented in table 1.

Table 1
The flow velocity, m/sThe values of the angles of incidence of the aircraft, the degrees at a distance x m from the border of the Board
203040506070809095100
410°1315°15'16°30'16°13°30'8°30'4°40'0
615°40'23°20'30°20'26°20'39°41'38°30'31°50'19°20'10°35'0
721°30'32°50'43°45'54°10'60°30'58°20' 46°10'26°50'14°30'0
828035'44°45'64°30'The area of possible separation of the flow from the surface70°3619°0

As can be seen from Fig.3, the flow velocity close to the limit is the speed equal to V0=7 m/s; velocity V=8 m/s at a distance from the edge of the Board, a few more 40 m (the angle of 64°), the flow separates from the surface with the formation of turbulence. To avoid this, the profile of the Board, starting with x=40 m, bipolarity or reduce the flow velocity (in our case up to v0=7 m/s).

Therefore, to intensify the airing of quarries and coal mines may regulate the speed at certain distances, or giving the Board the appropriate profile, using calculations based on the above methodology at a constant wind speed of v0.

Thus, the study of the flow of air on Board a career was possible to obtain analytical dependence for the calculation and design of profile pit and thereby determined Teoreticheskie the e prerequisites to ensure in practice the continuous laminar flow around the pit as for all its length, and in some areas, for example, to combat local turbulization of the flow.

For the initial (at the entrance to the quarry) obtain a smooth steady airflow around the pit airflow top two or three ledges quarry should be given appropriate aerodynamic profile.

Then the development of the pit should be designed using the formula (8) that the end result will allow mining at great depths with sufficient natural ventilation with constant speed V0(wind rose).

Thus, the proposed method is compared with the reference object and other technical solutions for a similar purpose can improve the efficiency of ventilation quarries and coal mines. This is achieved by ensuring a steady airflow around the pit and coal mine air flow, which is determined by the dependence of the angle of incidence and profile of the pit and coal cut from the propagation velocity of the moving stream of air flow.

The method of aerodynamic profiling of the pitwall and coal sections, including the selection of sites in the area of wind flows, drilling ledges wells, loading their charges of explosive, blasting them and excavation blasted rock, at swagat hole drilling only the upper ledges without perebor to the design of the contour profile of the Board, and loading and blasting wells produce gradually blocks the height of the profile, wherein determine the dependence of the angle of incidence and profile of the pit away from the prevailing wind speed according to the formula:
,
where β is the angle of attack of the pit by an air stream; x - the current value of the length of the pit, m; lk- end length of the side from the top edge to the bottom, in m (x≤lk); ƒais the coefficient of proportionality describing the aerodynamic resistance of the flow along the sides; g - acceleration of gravity.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises removal of covering access rock at blast loosening by charges with air cushion in the charge lower end, mechanical loosening and push loading of rock, its piling and loading by excavator into carriers. Blast holes for access rock are drilled in mineral formation to the depth of air cushion at the charge bottom end. Single blasting is performed in well-by-well manner by the system of nonelectric initiation. Every second or third blast well is drilled in mineral formation of decreased hardness.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of destruction, power saving at mineral loosening.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

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EFFECT: provision of reliable prevention of landslide formation due to complete drainage of surface and underground waters from a landslide body.

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FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: improving parameters of quality and excavation of technological sorts of ores and mined rock for ore sorting.

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FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: improving ecological and energy efficiency of development of diamond-ore deposits.

FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: improving the efficiency of the development of deep-seated deposits.

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EFFECT: improving efficiency of mining.

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FIELD: mining.

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EFFECT: reduction of current stripping ratio in the initial period of development of the deposit.

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FIELD: mining.

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FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.

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EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.

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FIELD: mining industry.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

10 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

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FIELD: mining industry.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

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FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

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FIELD: mining industry.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.

SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

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