Openworking with explosion effects on mineral bed
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises removal of covering access rock at blast loosening by charges with air cushion in the charge lower end, mechanical loosening and push loading of rock, its piling and loading by excavator into carriers. Blast holes for access rock are drilled in mineral formation to the depth of air cushion at the charge bottom end. Single blasting is performed in well-by-well manner by the system of nonelectric initiation. Every second or third blast well is drilled in mineral formation of decreased hardness.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of destruction, power saving at mineral loosening.
2 cl, 2 dwg
The invention relates to the field of mining industry, in particular to the development of rock with the use of mechanical loosening, for example, coal seams.
Widely known traditional methods of cultivation of different rocks: rock, half-rock, dense and frozen composing work on arrays, such as arrays of ledges ore quarries and coal mines. For loosening strong sedimentary rocks used bulldozer-loosening, for hard and semi-bedrocks - explosion method [1, 2].
Mechanical loosening facilitates separate the notch low horizontal and inclined (up to 20°) layers, effectively regulate kuskohast rock mass, reduce loss and ore minerals due to the absence of breakup and mixing of breeds, minimum perezmilesi and resiprocate rocks, improve work safety. Rippers are successfully applied in the development of coal, phosphate and Apatite ore, shale, Sandstone, half-rock limestone, and thin layers of rock strongly and extremely fractured ores and rocks. Good quality training and small power loosened layer allow for the excavation of rock mass by scrapers, bulldozers and loaders.
As the closest analogue accepted way open the second development lumpy and sandy-clayey rocks including the establishment of a work bench with a slope angle of 0-30° to the horizon, ripping and bulldozermovie rocks, stacking and loading of the vehicle by the excavator, in which the first face and loosen using bulldozer-Ripper, with additional teeth on the bulldozer blade, raise the blade to the height of his teeth, transported lumpy rock bulldozer in a stack with the following Chusovaya, bulldozer pile of lumpy rock overload in excavator pile and is shipped to the vehicle, then bulldozered in the stack melkokuskovoe and Sandstone-shale and subsequent shipment of the excavator in the vehicle .
The main drawback of this technology are significant energy consumption for mechanical loosening, which can reduce pre-weakening the strength of the layer mineral dynamic explosive impact.
This dynamic impact of the proposed blasting ledges under the shelter, including blasthole drilling, loading, placing on the ledge shelter in the form of a Mat composed of interconnected tires, pinning him for anchors installed in shallow boreholes, with the help of ropes or thin chains and blasting of rocks, to which the PRS shelter place only on the surface of the ledge and perform a double layer, this Mat from worn-out tires are offset adjacent rows of tires half their diameter, placing it on a metal grid, and borehole charges do with the air cushion at the bottom, for example, of foamed polystyrene . The use of air cushions in the lower part of the charge can improve the dynamic effect of the explosion on the bottom of the borehole and to enhance the destructive effect of the explosive charge in the area of perebor without accommodate explosives .
The development of the explosion and the movement of blasted rock with blasting charges with the air cushion in case of application schema contractor blowing from the slope in the rear of the ledge is so blasted rock mass is moved parallel to the plane of the working surface of the ledge, without lifting up, which significantly reduces the height of the collapse and the range of its garbage from the remaining slope of the escarpment.
In the case of the use of blasting through each well using, for example, nonelectrical blasting system SPARK, as shown by our experimental explosions in the section "Bureya-2" JSC Urgalugol", the collapse of the rock mass has a smaller garbage from the slope of the ledge and more height. However, increased dynamic load from the charge air cushion provides treatment of the foot of the escarpment at the full depth of borehole: e is escavator chooses the rock mass at the level of the bottom of blastholes. Therefore, the effect of dynamic impact air bags in the bottom hole charges when ripping overburden can be used to reduce the strength characteristics of the formation of minerals without housing the explosive charge. Industrial tests showed that in the lower layers of the fortress enough to incorporate air bag, each of the second well, and in some cases, and each third spatial parameters do not change, which is important in selective extraction of minerals.
The main result of the invention, including technical, is to increase the efficiency and reduce energy intensity of the mechanical loosening of the formation of minerals due to its pre-weakening the impact of the explosion caused by the loosening of the covering rock overburden.
This result is achieved by the fact that the method of public development with an explosive impact on the formation of minerals, including the removal of the covering rock overburden after explosive loosening charges with air cushion in the bottom of the charge, ripping and bulldozermovie of the formation, stacking and loading of the vehicle by the excavator according to the invention blastholes in the rock overburden rocks Saburova the t in the formation of minerals on the depth of the airbag in the lower end of the charge, and a massive explosion exercise pasqualino the nonelectric initiation system.
In the formation of minerals reduced the fortress Sabouraud every second or third blast hole.
The implementation of the method presented in the diagrams. In Fig.1 shows a series of blast holes; Fig.2 shows the section a-a in Fig.1.
The way an open design with an explosive impact on the formation of minerals is as follows.
Well 1 for explosive loosening rocks covering layer 2 of minerals, such as coal, drilled into the reservoir 2 to the height of the airbag 3 and produce their charge, placing in the bottom end part of wells 1 air cushion 3. The height of the airbag 3 and the method of its execution is chosen, for example, according to the recommendations outlined in , or based on practical experience of the company. After placing an air cushion 3 form the explosive charge 4 on the calculated height is installed in the upper part of the intermediate detonator 5 on the waveguide 6, and then form the stemming 7. Explosive ripping overburden produce blowing through each well using systems nonelectric blasting, for example a SPARK.
Loosened by the explosion of the overburden is removed by excavator and smooth out the bulldozer surface of the useful layer and the dig. After conducting layer mechanical loosening and bulldozermovie of the formation, stacking and loading of the vehicle by the excavator. The dynamic effects of a blast wave in the area of the air cushion reduces the strength of minerals and energy of its mechanical loosening.
Thus, the inventive method is an open design with an explosive impact on the formation of mineral provides the weakening of the formation of minerals without appreciably changing its position in space, thus allowing to solve the problem.
Sources of information
1. Open pit mining. The Handbook. M: Mining, 1994.
2. Rzhevsky centuries Processes of surface mining. M: "Nedra", 1978. 541 S.
3. The patent of Russian Federation №2039268 MKI 7 E21C 41/26.
4. The patent of Russian Federation №2317521 MKI 7 F42D 5/05.
5. Zhunusov K. Blasting rock charges with air cushion. Alma-ATA, Nauka, 1979. S. 33, 47-52, 80-81.
1. The way an open design with an explosive impact on the formation of minerals, including the removal of the rock overburden after explosive loosening charges with air cushion in the bottom of the charge, ripping and bulldozermovie hard rock of the formation of minerals, their stacking, loading in transport is the means by excavator, characterized in that when drilling rock overburden blastholes Sabouraud in the formation of minerals on the depth of the air cushion in the bottom of the charge and mass explosion exercise pasqualino the nonelectric initiation system.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the layer of minerals reduced the fortress Sabouraud every second or third blast hole.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises drilling parallel rows of wells or holes, placing in them of explosive charges in a staggered manner, distributed with filled gaps. The gap length is equal to the length of the charge. Simultaneous camouflage blasting of explosive charges with the central initiation. Filling the voids left after the explosion with the concrete solution. For forming the bridging array the radius of the explosive charge is defined, the length of the explosive charge. In the upper part at the contact the aquiferous stratum - an array form the locking charge. The gaps are filled with bridging material which is formed with the following composition: in aggressive non-pressure environments - bitumen or tar; in non-corrosive pressure environments - cement; in aggressive pressure environments - bitumen or tar, the radius of the resulting bridged area of crumpling from the charge is additionally determined, the radius of the formed bridged area in the gaps between charges, the distance between drilled wells or holes in the row, the length of the locking charge and radius of the bridged area of cracks.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the efficiency and safety of work.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: fill stemming of blast holes with elements of stone material comprises the lower fill part of inert bulk materials over the air gap and the upper combined part. The upper combined part of the stemming is divided into two sections: the lower section with length of up to three diameters of the well, filled with elements of stone material with size of 0.2-0.6 diameter of the well, interstratified with the inert bulk material with the size less than 5 mm, and the upper, filled to the top of the well with the same inert bulk material.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of locking the detonation products in the charging cavity by the combined shortened stemming and to reduce costs for its formation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, particularly, to ore breaking. Proposed method comprises drilling the wells, defining the location for live primer for charge direct and inverse initiation by calculations, formatting of elongated explosive charge, fitting the live primer in explosive charge to divide it into two parts, filling the well top with explosive and stemming material and blasting of the well. Explosive charge length is measured and live primer location in charge is defined from the well bottom with due allowance for preset live primer length and volume of explosive in 1 metre of the well by claimed formulae.
EFFECT: higher blast power and efficiency, decreased volume of drill works and specific consumption of explosives.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining, to drilling and blasting operations in mine rocks and can be used in different fields applying blasting operations in mine rock masses, and namely at open development of useful minerals. A suspension well stem is made from a piece of material that is bound with two ropes on the outer side; one end of the first rope is bound with a stiff knot, thus forming the first internal volume, inside which a support is arranged. A transverse support size is by 30-50% less than the well diameter. The other end of the first rope is passed inside through the centre of the material piece and attached to a crossbar at the well head. The second rope is bound with a free knot above the stiff knot, with possibility of its movement along the first rope, thus forming the second internal volume, the transverse diameter of which is by 15-20% larger than the well diameter and one third of which is filled with loose inert material; ends of the material piece are left free.
EFFECT: invention allows reducing specific explosive flow, improving crushing quality of mine rock due to long-term arrangement of detonation products in a charging cavity till complete destruction of mine rock, simplifying the structure and improving structure actuation reliability.
SUBSTANCE: method involves development and temporary workings, drilling of bore pits in the face of the mining slab, charging and explosion of bore pits, removal of crushed rock mass, hydraulic cleaning of the developed slab; bore pits are located in lower row at the distance of 2-3 diameters of the bore pit; every second one is charged with distributed charge; bore pits of each next row are oriented along one line in the ore deposit rise direction. Reduction of losses of crushed ore fine parts is achieved due to creation of chutes on bottom layer of ore deposit; at hydraulic cleaning of the extracted slab, movement of hydraulic mixture consisting of water and ore fine parts is performed along smooth surface of chutes.
EFFECT: improving development efficiency of ore bodies and reducing losses of enriched ore fine parts at hydraulic cleaning of extracted slab.
SUBSTANCE: method includes explosion of a rock mass above a coal bed and explosion of a coal bed. Drilling of wells is carried out with underdrilling to the coal bed soil. A decked charge is formed in wells. At the same time the air gap is arranged so that the distance from the contact of rock-coal to the charge arranged in the rock and coal parts of the massif is equal, more or equal to the radius of the crushing zone, accordingly.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce outages of mining transport equipment, to reduce number of blast-hole drilling operations, to eliminate damage of bed roof and dilution of coal in a contact zone.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used to perform explosive works with application of mixing-charging machines (MCM) for mechanised preparation of an emulsion explosive (EE) in process of charging of wells on opencast mining. The method includes EE preparation by injection of compressed air into an emulsion matrix, and then it is injected together with the emulsion matrix into a dynamic mixer-aerator. The mixer-aerator comprises at least two serially arranged mixing chambers, in which the EE is produced by aeration of the emulsion matrix with pressure increase in the mixer-aerator of at least 0.2 MPa. Aeration of the emulsion matrix is carried out to the value of distributed air gaps with size of 30-150 mcm at atmospheric pressure. The MCM is equipped with a compressor for air compression, and a mixer of components is made in the form of a coaxial, at least, double-stepped mixer-aerator of dynamic type, each stage of which comprises a rotor with axial blades and a stator with axial guide slots. On the manifold of finished EE supply downstream the mixer-aerator there is an accessory mounted to increase EE pressure in the mixer-aerator.
EFFECT: independence of sensitising process on emulsion temperature, cheapening of EE.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: impact wave reflector in case of thermal-gas-baric action at a bed in a well includes intercalated graphite in a damaged shell placed into a well in the area of thermal-gas-baric action. This zone together with a charge for thermal-gas-baric action are selected so that intercalated graphite as a result of actuation of the charge for thermal-gas-baric action is exposed to impact short-term thermal action with the possibility to convert into thermally expanded graphite in the volume providing for localisation of the impact wave in the bottomhole area of the well.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability of device operation.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preliminary drying of a wall, lowering of a hydraulic insulating sleeve into it with a closed lower end, fixation of an upper end of the sleeve, charging of a non-waterproof explosive into the sleeve. The part of the hydraulic insulation sleeve with the closed lower end is used, the length of which is by 30-40 cm exceeds the height of the water column in the well before drying. The upper end of this part of the sleeve is pre-reinforced and fixed inside the well with the help of a rope, one end of which is attached to the upper reinforced end of the hydraulic insulation sleeve part, and the other one is fixed on the day surface.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of a hydraulic insulation sleeve, its weight, simplified stemming.
SUBSTANCE: device includes container for explosive device and anchor assembly. Container is designed for filling with explosive substance from outside of the well. Anchor assembly is located at external surface of the container and is designed for fastening flexible container in the well and separating the container, when it is filled with explosive substance, and well walls.
EFFECT: increase of breakage efficiency.
17 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: engineering-geological and hydrogeological survey is carried out to detect available landslide bodies. Then biolocation survey is performed, using the results of which they detect underground watercourses and discover their characteristics for detection of quantity and location of through filters. Afterwards on the surface of a ledge or a slope or a hillside outside the landslide body a header is arranged for collection of surface waters and some shallow watercourses. Afterwards from the foot of the ledge or the slope or the hillside they arrange a drainage mine deep into the ledge or the slope or the hillside outside the landslide body, from the surface of the ledge or the slope or the hillside they drill vertical wells until coupling with the drainage mine for through filers, couplings are arranged with connection chambers, through filters are lowered into vertical wells from the surface, and through filters are made in the form of pipes with perforated sections of holes and filtering elements made at the coupling level with underground watercourses. The header and the drainage mine are arranged with an inclination of i=0.005 towards the drain for self-flow of captured water.
EFFECT: provision of reliable prevention of landslide formation due to complete drainage of surface and underground waters from a landslide body.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and can be used at formation and stabilisation of ore quality at a stage of mining operations. The method involves determination of coordinates of a bucket of a mining unit, content of a useful component in the mined rock in the bucket of the mining unit as a conditional mathematical expectation of content of the useful component at an excavation point, which is determined as per results of preliminary testing of a network of wells in vicinity of the excavation point with determined coordinates, loading of the transport vehicle and its addressing to unloading sites considering content of the useful component in the transported mined rock. Depending on position of the mining unit in relation to location zones of technological sorts of the mined rock in a working face, a possibility is established and a task is created for predominant excavation of a certain technological sort at loading of the transport vehicle, in compliance with which positioning of the bucket of the extraction unit is performed in the working face at excavation; besides, mining-out of the rocks of the working face is started from an outline between technological types of the mined rock, the position of which and location zone of technological types is specified by geophysical methods during excavation as per the analysis data of the mined rock in the bucket of the mining unit.
EFFECT: improving parameters of quality and excavation of technological sorts of ores and mined rock for ore sorting.
SUBSTANCE: method involves performance of hierarchically real structural deep differentiation of a massif, a deposit (or its section), thus, pointing out the following: different-scale and heterogeneous operational sections based on the most characteristic mining-and-geological peculiar features, including peculiar features of components of mine rocks, and within their limits - ore (mining), ore-porous and rock (overburden) horizons, in them - ore bodies or their parts, operating and rock units, in them - real heterogeneous excavation elements divided into thin and extremely thin layers presented with amenable, temporary non-amenable, non-amenable and low-grade diamond-containing ore, or with rocks; automated production of advance, current and operational express information using a complex method representing a combination of forecasting of probabilistic spatial distribution of diamonds in ore units and in their elements and further direct automated identification of availability, position, quality and quantity of diamonds in thin ore layers by means of an X-ray fluorescence method. With that, crystals of diamonds are automatically extracted from thin ore layers by means of annular hole drilling of each of the crystals separately, without any disturbance of their integrity, and separated from mini-massif of each developed thin layer.
EFFECT: improving ecological and energy efficiency of development of diamond-ore deposits.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises an extraction of overburden rocks by longitudinal stripping cuts with placement on their bottom of a free strip, handling of overburdens from working face of the longitudinal stripping cut and their storage in an internal dump. The extraction of overburdens by longitudinal stripping cuts with placement on their bottom of a free strip, handling of overburdens from working face of the longitudinal stripping cut and their storage in an internal dump at the edge of these stripping cuts are performed within the extraction block. Meanwhile along the bottom edge of the internal dump of the extraction block an additional free strip is placed, which is used for storage of overburdens, with forming of internal dump.
EFFECT: improvement of performance of direct mining method at the expense of increase of productivity by minimising of length and time of idle running of the stripping equipment.
SUBSTANCE: in an excavation method of a useful deposit at fan-like advance of scope of mining operations, which involves advancing of a permanent and working trench, installation of transport communications, excavation of a useful deposit and overburden rocks by treatment of wedge-shaped blocks, according to the invention, development of wedge-shaped blocks is performed at two stages as per a shuttle-type scheme without any shifting of transport communications with preliminary formation of an advancing recess at a turning point of transport communications in the direction of the open-pit field boundary on condition of parameters of the advancing recess L, B providing minimum development of a wedge-shaped block by value Bmin.
EFFECT: uninterrupted production of a useful mineral along the whole scope of mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises making ramps on the border of working and final pit edges for heavy-duty dump trucks, with the placement of the ramp part on its width on the subrepose remnant of rocks, and on the other part - on the final pit edge. On the working pit edge parallel to the formed ramp for heavy-duty dump trucks the ramp is made for light-duty dump trucks. When it is impossible to locate on the board the ramp for heavy-duty dump trucks under conditions of decreasing with depth career space, a part of this ramp, located on the subrepose remnant of the rocks, is developed with transportation of rock mass to the surface by light-duty dump trucks on the ramp on the working pit edge. On the part of the ramp for heavy-duty dump trucks, located at the final pit edge the ramp is formed for light-duty dump trucks. The ramp for light-duty dump trucks from the working edge is moved to the final pit edge, with the formation on it of the steep ramp for movement on it of dump trucks with articulated frame. The rock mass from the steep ramp is transported to the surface on the ramp for light-duty dump trucks on the final pit edge. At the lower part of the pit under conditions of confined space the steep ramp for dump trucks with articulated frame is formed in a known manner.
EFFECT: improving the efficiency of the development of deep-seated deposits.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises making a steep trench using a wheel loader and motor transport, capable to climb steep slopes. Making the trench is carried out in several stages, dividing the steep trench to steeply inclined-horizontal layers with height calculated by taking into account the motion trajectory of the loader bucket, which are mined successively downward. When mining each successive layer the rock mass is preliminary loosened, the loader carries out its withdrawal, delivery and unloading to the motor transport placed at horizontal areas as close as possible to the forehead.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of mining.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises formation of the working area, the technology of mining of overburden benches and ensuring of load-transport communication of working horizons with the surface, mining of the overburden benches of the working area is carried out with excavators with elongated work equipment, taking the height of the benches equal to a sesquialteral height of digging of the excavators. At that, to prevent the collapse of deflectors and hangers on the bench slope above the height of the excavator digging the pre-splitting of its upper part is made by a) contour blasting or b) preliminary slit-formation, formation of the working area is carried out with the use of a cascade scheme of mining of overburden benches, at that the scope of work of each bench is divided to the passive with minimal working areas with a width that provides two-way movement of technology vehicles and its manoeuvring, and an active, working platforms of which include minimum working platforms, and volumes of overburden rocks ready for extraction, the relative length of active edge of each overburden bench is determined by the mathematical formula. Blasting of volumes of overburden rocks ready for extraction of the bench is carried out from the calculation for the entire blasted amount can not be completely placed on the working platform of this bench and on the minimal working platform of the underlying bench adjacent to it, opening the working benches is carried out by steep sliding ramps with longitudinal slope to 12-15° with the condition of use of vehicles that can overcome such slope, and the width providing location of collapse of blasted rock mass during their expansion and simultaneously through pass of process of technology vehicles, the expansion of steep ramps is carried out using track and wheel loaders by dividing the collapse of the blasted rock mass to the horizontal and inclined layers with height determined by taking into account the path of movement of the loader bucket.
EFFECT: reduction of current stripping ratio in the initial period of development of the deposit.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the identification of operational field, mineral objects of extraction, inside them - operational blocks with standard, temporarily sub-standard and substandard and sub-standard mineral resources and separation of rocky ones, outstripping, current and realtime automated obtaining of express information, digging of uncovering "wells" or short trenches. The roboting automated extraction of a mineral from formations during their extraction using a mechanical method of separation of minerals and rocks of thin rocky interlayers, automated lifting of a mineral to the daylight area or its bypass to the receiving device arranged in an adit. At excavation of fields of upland type, a rock mass is left in a goaf after excavation of interlayers, the face area is temporarily kept using the automated and roboting ready-made fastening.
EFFECT: improvement of performance of development of non-rocky sheet deposits with medium and steep pitch.
SUBSTANCE: method includes the automated and real-time obtaining and processing of the express information on the structure of array of consistently worked-out parts of ledges, their differentiated separation on the basis of the obtained complex system information into multi-scale structural elements of rocks with natural and technogenic fracturing. Separation of the obtained complex system information into multi-scale structural elements of rocks includes strength, elasto-rheological, thermophysical, structural and mechanical characteristics. The automated combined destruction down of structural members comprises the blasting under a mobile engine driven shelter and subsequent disintegration using an electrophysical method in view of the obtained characteristics. Direct accommodation in temporary storage stockpiles and delivery of the obtained products to consumers is performed after the automated feeding of mined rock into a receiving device of the mobile sorting unit with the subsequent separation of mined rock into respective fractions by coarseness.
EFFECT: improvement of performance of development of fields of building rocks of rocky and semi-rocky types.
FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.
SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.
7 cl, 6 dwg