Method to manufacture construction products from foam concrete

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to manufacture construction products from foam concrete includes preparation of a foam concrete mix from portland cement, fractionated quartz sand, a foaming agent and water in a turbulent mixer, loading of the produced mix into moulds from dielectric material, on the side surfaces of which there are metal electrodes, exposure of the foam concrete mix to the AC electric field of specified frequency and intensity. Processing of the freshly moulded products with electric field is carried out at the field intensity of 1.5-4.5 V/cm for 0.5-5 min. Efficiency of foam concrete mix exposure to the AC electric field depends on grain-size composition of quartz sand and is maximum when sand fractions of 0.16-0.315 mm are used.

EFFECT: improvement of strength characteristics of foam concrete.

3 cl, 6 tbl

 

The invention relates to building materials and can be used in the production of insulating and structural thermal insulation foam.

Known method for improving the construction and properties of gypsum mortars and concretes by exposing them before setting the electric field current of industrial frequency (as the USSR # 131667, 80b, 609, 01.01.1960, publ. No. 17 of 1960). This plaster mortar or concrete in the forms placed between the metal electrodes to which is applied the voltage from 9 to 30 thousand volts. It is believed that arise in the interelectrode gap, the electric field affects the mortar or concrete and informs them when the solidification is more durable and dense structure. However, no quantitative results confirming this view, the description is not given.

The known method of electrophysical processing of concrete and concrete products, the purpose of which is to improve the physico-mechanical properties of cement paste as a consequence of more rapid and complete hydration of the binder (AC SU # 534444, C04B 41/30, C04B 15/13, publ. 05.11.1976, bull. No. 41). To achieve this goal svezheotformovannykh the product is placed between the flat metal electrodes, which fail voltage that generates an electric field voltage is asennettu 30-40 In/cm and at the same time between the flat poles of an electromagnet that generates a magnetic field of 2,000-2,500 A/see the result, according to the authors of the invention achieves a more rapid and complete hydration of binder, which has a positive effect on the strength characteristics of concrete products.

In a known method of manufacturing concrete products (patent RU №2072339, C04B 40/02, publ.31.01.1997) produced effects on hardened concrete alternating electric current of industrial frequency voltage of 1000 V and at the same time a constant magnetic eld of strength 100 E. For this purpose, the concrete mix was placed in the form of a Board which was to electrodes connected to an AC power source, and then the form was placed in the neck of the magnetic circuit of the electromagnet is connected to the constant current source. The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of the equipment used and the application of high voltage, which is a danger when servicing this equipment.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed invention is a method of activating mixes by processing the electric current (AC SU # 1511246, C04B 40/00, publ. 30.09.1989, bull. No. 36), by which construction the mixture prepared in getbuttonnameat poured into metal molds size of 3.1×1,5×0.6 m to the surface with whom thou lower plate electrode with a size of 10×10×0.2 cm, which include in the circuit a voltage source, the AC amplitude of 10 V and a frequency of 100 kHz, the modulated wave voltage of frequency 50 Hz. After 5-10 min of activation of electric shock the product is subjected to autoclave treatment. The resulting concrete has increased strength and resistance to frost.

However, the known method can be used only for preparation of concrete, as specified in the description.

The objective of the invention is to improve the strength characteristics of another class of cellular concrete - concrete natural setting.

The invention consists in that the method of manufacturing a foamed includes preparation of the concrete mix of Portland cement, graded quartz sand, foam and water in the mixer, loading the mixture in the form of a dielectric material, and the impact on the mix of electric alternating current field, and the preparation of the concrete mix is produced in a turbulent mixer, two opposite sides of the forms are metal electrodes, the frequency of the alternating current is chosen according to the maximum value of the active power component of current is used to generate fields of the electric circuit formed swietochowski product and generators the torus current.

Processing sizeofimage building products electric field produced by the field strength of 1.5-4.5 In/see

The exposure duration of the electric field on svezheotformovannykh the construction product is 0.5-5 minutes

The technical result of the invention is to improve the strength properties of products from foam concrete feedback on the microstructure of the mortar part of the concrete mix by the electric field of alternating current of a certain frequency, intensity and duration after molding products.

The choice of the method of manufacturing of building products of concrete by processing swietochowski products electric alternating current field based on the following provisions, which were not considered in any of the known methods of activation mixes, including the proposed invention is the closest equivalent.

1. All known methods are based on the influence of electric field on the rate of dissociation of minerals cement, the rate of saturation of the liquid phase, and, ultimately, on the strength characteristics of the cement stone. In our opinion, the alternative electric field effect on the mix is more dense and durable macrostructure mortar part of the concrete mix by the tavern the economic impact on the aggregate particles in order to achieve such a rearrangement of the particles of the filler in the liquid environment of the cement gel, as a result of which the aggregate particles will be more sustainable and compact relative positioning.

2. In our opinion, in the conditions when an alternating electric field will have a direct impact on grain filling, resulting in their oscillatory movement, the first phase of this process will be associated with thixotropic dilution of the cement gel, and then the main part of the oscillation energy will be spent on the rearrangement of the particles of the filler. When forced oscillations of the particles of the solid phase in cement energy absorption will be resonant in nature and should depend on the size (i.e. mass) of the particles of the filler. Thus, the frequency of the electric field on the mortar part of the concrete mix will be the main determinant of its seal.

The characteristics of the original materials

For the manufacture of concrete mixtures as a binder was used without additives Portland cement CEM I 42.5 N industrial holding "EUROCEMENT group" according to GOST 31108-2003 corresponding to the HRC 400-D0 according to GOST 10178-85. The determination of its properties produced according to the methods GOST 310.1-76 "Cements. Testing methods. General provisions", GOST 310.2-76 "Cements. Methods for determining the fineness of grind," GOST 310.3-76 "Cements. Methods of determination of normal consistency, time of setting and evenly the minute volume changes", GOST 310.4-81 "Cements. Methods for determination of ultimate strength in bending and compression," GOST 30744-2001 "Cements. Test methods using molefractions sand".

As the filler used quartz sand Erofeevsky field of the Rostov region. Properties of the sand were determined by the methods GOST 8735-88.

As the foaming agent used synthetic foaming agent Centripor SK 120 (Centripro SK 120) density of 1.03 g/cm3with foam from 13 to 20 (GOST 24211-2003, GOST 30459-2003, DIN EN ISO 9001).

The test results of the source materials are presented in table 1.

Table 1
Material namePropertiesConformity to requirements of normative documents
The Portland cement without additives CEM I 42.5 NActivity 42-43 MPa
Start setting 110 minComplies with GOST 31108-2003
Uniformity of change of volume of 8 mm
Quartz sand Erofeevsky field Module size (Mkr) 0,83
True density 2920 kg/m3Complies with GOST 8736-93
The bulk density of 1410 kg/m3

Production of concrete mixtures and samples of concrete

The parameters of the prepared concrete mixtures: volaterrae ratio a/T=0,45-0,54; the ratio of sand and cement P/C=0.3; the content of the foaming agent and 4.4-5.6 kg/m3.

Fractionation of sand produced by sieving through a standard set of sieves according to GOST 6613-86. For the manufacture of mixtures were selected following fractions: 0,05-0,16 mm; 0,16-0,315 mm; 0,315-0,63 mm

Occasioanly water, Portland cement and sand pre-loaded in laboratory turbulent mixer SA 400/500 with a capacity of 50 l with rotor speed of 10.3 with-1(620 rpm). After stirring the slurry for 2 min in a mixer stopped when the activator was poured occasioanly foaming and produced Polisario mixture for 4 minutes, the viscosity of the slurry, measured on a viscometer of Attard by the method of p. 4 GOST 23789-79 "gypsum Binders. Test methods" was 330-350 mm

After preparation of concrete mixtures was determined by the average density by the method of p. 5 GOST 1-181-2000. Average densely shall be concrete mix in a series of experiments varied within 610-670 kg/cm 3.

Then the mixture was poured into pre-lubricated with mineral oil forms size 7,07×7,07×7,07 cm, made of dielectric material (PCB) with a flat metal electrodes placed on two opposite sides of the form.

The processing of concrete mixtures by electric field conducted immediately after its installation. To do this, the electrodes were connected to the low-frequency oscillator GZ-109. The applied voltage was varied from 1 to 100 V, the processing time was changed in the range of 0.5-15 minutes

Next, the samples were verdeli in normal conditions, but after 3 days after fabrication, the samples were removed from the molds, and they continued to harden under normal conditions before reaching 28 days of age.

Defining properties of foam concrete

The basic properties of the foam were determined by testing prototypes or their fragments on techniques relevant regulatory documents on the tested equipment.

The average density of the foam in a series of samples was determined by the method GOST 12730.1-78 "Concretes. Methods of determination of density according to the results of measurements of each sample (length, width and height) and weighing subsequent refinement of its moisture by drying to constant weight cubes of foam selected from the samples. The average density of the foam in the ear condition was calculated by the formula

where ρwthe density of concrete by moisture Wmkg/m3; Wm- concrete moisture (%) at the time of testing, as defined by GOST 12730.2.

The humidity of the concrete was determined by the method GOST 12730.2 "Concretes. Methods for determination of moisture content by sampling from each tested sample weighing not less than 100 g

Determination of true density of concrete was carried out on absolutely dry fine powder passing through a sieve 0063 according to the method of p. 4.15.2 GOST 8269.0-97 "Crushed stone and gravel from dense rocks and construction waste production for construction works. Methods of physical-chemical testing".

The total porosity of concrete (in %) was determined by calculation according to the method GOST 12730.4-78 "Concretes. Methods of determination of parameters of porosity" by the formula

where ρ0- the average density of concrete in a completely dry condition, kg/m3; ρEastthe true density of the concrete, g/cm3.

Determination of ultimate strength in compression of samples produced by the method GOST 10180-90 "Concretes. Methods for determining the strength of the control samples".

The ultimate compressive strength of the individual sample was calculated by the formula

where Kw- correction factor for cellular concrete, taking into account the humidity clicks scow at the time of testing; F - breaking load, H (kN); a is the area of the working section of the specimen, mm2(cm2); α is a scale factor to bring the concrete strength to strength in the samples of the basic size and shape.

The value of the coefficient Kwfor cellular concrete was taken from table 2. Kwat intermediate values of the moisture content of the concrete was determined by linear interpolation.

Table 2
Humidity aerated concrete mass at the time of trial W %The correction factor KwHumidity aerated concrete mass at the time of trial W %The correction factor Kw
00,8151,05
50,9201,10
101,025 and over1,15

The scale factor α for samples-cubes with the size of the edge of the cube 7.0 cm was taken equal to 0.85 (according to the table.5 GOST 10180-90).

The average limit durable the particular compression in series (R SG) was determined in accordance with GOST 10180-90 as the arithmetic average of the test results of ten samples.

The results of the experiment and examples of implementation of the invention

1. To test the above assumptions about the nature of electric field effect on the mortar part of the concrete mix were investigated frequency characteristics of concrete mixtures with different fractions of quartz sand, namely 0,63-0,315 mm, 0,315-0.14 mm and 0.14 to 0.05 mm Mixtures were prepared in the same conditions and have the same initial density. For measurements of the mixture was loaded into a form made of a dielectric material (PCB), the size of 7.7×7,7×7.7 cm, on two opposite side surfaces of which was a metal electrode, which was connected to the generator low frequency GZ-109. The current strength through the form with concrete mixture was measured using a multimeter V7-21A. Table 3 shows the dependences of the active component of current, which determines the amount of electric power received from the generator in the circuit formed by the generator and swietochowski product, from the frequency of the current for different compositions of the mixes, differing grain size of the fill.

Table 3
Fraction, mmThe frequency of the electric field, Hz
6·1012·1026·1022·1036·1032·1046·1042·105
0,63-0,3150,801,151,702,402,602,452,201,95
0,315-0,141,051,452,052,903,353,503,052,40
0,14-0,051,301,902,903,754,354,704,854,60

As can be seen from the table, the value forces the current maximum at a certain frequency and dependent on the particle size of the filler, that allows you to choose the optimal mode of electrical field of alternating current on the mix, which is dependent on the particle size fractions of the aggregate.

2. To estimate the effect size of aggregate on strength characteristics of concrete products was a series of experiments in which the concrete mix was subjected to an electric field of alternating current at frequencies of 6·103Hz (for faction 0,63-0,315 mm), 2·104Hz (for faction 0,315-0.14 mm) and 6·104Hz (for a fraction of 0.14-0.05 mm). The exposure time of the field was 1 min, the field strength was equal to 3/see

Table 4 shows the indicators of durability of manufactured concrete with different grain size of the quartz sand used as a placeholder.

Table 4
Fraction, mmRSG, MPaThe KKK, MPa
0,63-0,3150,91,80
0,315-0,141,222,45
0,14-0,051,052,15

As can be seen from the tables is, the best strength characteristics has a foam made from a mixture containing as a filler of quartz sand fraction 0,315 to 0.14 mm

3. To determine the optimal value of the electric field strength acting on the mix, there was prepared a series of samples exposed to electric fields of varying intensity. As the filler used quartz sand fraction 0,315 to 0.14 mm Frequency electric field was optimal for this fraction of sand and was 2·104Hz. The results of determining the strength characteristics of concrete are given in table 5.

Table 5
The strength characteristics of concreteField strength, V/cm
01,01,53,04,56,07,0
RSG, MPa0,800,881,051,201,050,87 0,90
The KKK, MPa1,741,822,082,332,021,741,76

As can be seen from the table, the maximum impact on the mix provides an electric field of 1.5 to 4.5 In/see

4. To determine the optimal duration of the electric field was produced a series of samples of concrete mixtures containing a fraction of sand 0,315-0.14 mm, which was subjected to the electric field strength 3 V/see the Results of measuring the strength characteristics of the samples are shown in table 6.

Table 6
The strength characteristics of concreteThe exposure time field, min
00,250,51,03,05,010,0
RSG, MPa0,800,85 1,051,201,101,000,75
The KKK, MPa1,671,702,152,392,201,991,51

As can be seen from the table, the maximum effect on the strength characteristics of the concrete has an electric field then, if it is applied to the samples for 0.5-5 minutes

Thus, the processing of molded foam products electric field of alternating current of a given frequency and intensity increases their mechanical strength in compression by 25-40% and the coefficient of structural quality by 15-35%. This reduces the percentage of defects in the conduct of transport and erection works and reduces the cost of building production with the use of foamed concrete products.

1. The method of manufacturing of building products of concrete, comprising preparing a concrete mix of Portland cement, graded quartz sand, foam and water in the mixer, loading the mixture in the form of a dielectric material and the impact on the mix of electric field variable t is ka, characterized in that the preparation of the concrete mix is produced in a turbulent mixer, on the lateral surfaces of the forms of a dielectric material are metal electrodes, and the frequency of the alternating current is chosen according to the maximum value of the active power component of current is used to generate fields of the electric circuit formed swietochowski product and current generator.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the processing sizeofimage building products electric field produced by the field strength of 1.5-4.5 In/see

3. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the duration of the electric field on svezheotformovannykh the construction product is 0.5-5 minutes



 

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2 cl, 4 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: in method of obtaining porous heat-insulating material, which includes mixing one of components of expandable polyurethane with filling agent and further introduction into mixture of other component - polyisocyanate, as filling agent used is sawdust with dimensions 4±2 mm, which is preliminarily subjected to vapour processing at temperature, equal 250°C, after processing sawdust is supplied into diffuser of diffusor-confusor device, with supply into zone of transfer of diffuser into confusor of expandable polyurethane component, which includes polyether, based on propylene oxide, oxypropylethylenediamine, dimethylethanolamine, oxyalkylenemethylsiloxane block-copolymer, trichloroethylphosphate; then, obtained mixture is discharged into reactor, where mixture is mixed and vacuumed to residual pressure, equal 15-20 kPa, after which polyisocyanate is introduced into mixture with ratio of all mixture components, wt %: polyether based on propylene oxide 24.54-26.89, oxypropylethylenediamine 8.40-9.20, dimethylethanolamine 0.48-0.55, oxyalkylenemethylsiloxane block-copolymer 0.36-0.40, trichloroethylphosphate 6.80-7.47, polyisocyanate 33.33-35.56, sawdust 20-25, after mixing components, composite mass is supplied into heated to temperature 50-60°C mould and kept for 15-20 min.

EFFECT: obtaining heat-insulating material with lower density and heat-conductivity.

1 dwg, 2 tbl, 12 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: raw material mixture for the production of foam concrete includes, wt %: Portland cement 28.0-30.0, foaming agent FC-2000 0.4-0.5, TPP ash 17.5-21.6, milled and sifted through net No. 5 mica 20.0-26.0, water 26.0-30.0.

EFFECT: reduction of water requirement of the raw material mixture for the production of foam concrete.

1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: raw mix for making foam concrete includes, wt %: portland cement 35.0-37.0, foaming agent PB-2000 0.25-0.35, TPP ash 10.65-13.25, crushed foam glass of fraction 5-10 mm 20.0-25.0, mineral wool ground and sifted through sieve No. 2.5 1.0-1.5, haydite sand 5.0-7.0, water 21.0-23.0.

EFFECT: higher heat resistance of foam concrete produced from raw mix.

1 tbl

Cellular concrete // 2245866

FIELD: building materials, in particular superlight concrete.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of superlight cellular concrete with porosity of approximately 96 % by using fiber disperse reinforcing. Cellular concrete is obtained by agitation in turbulent blender of raw mixture containing (mass %) Portland cement 44.11-66.64; microsilica 15.57-29.42; disperse fiber (e.g. chopped glass bundle or basalt fiber or chrysotile-asbestos), pretreated with liquid glass in amount of 1.5-2.5 % in respect to raw mixture, 17.79-26.47; aqueous solution of foaming agent including tempering water over 100 % 0.80-2.50. Mixture is blended up to forming homogeneous colloidal solution.

EFFECT: cellular concrete with reduced density and low heat conductivity.

1 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

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