Diesel engine operation at starting and post-starting

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: measured ambient air and coolant temperatures are used to define air heater operating interval to correct it by fuel mix temperature in combustion chamber at compression stroke end while fuel in nozzle is heated to maximum possible value. After engine start, fuel heating intensity is decreased while nozzle operating heat conditions are kept up with the help of thermal pickup built in the nozzle, heater and control unit and maintained at said level during the entire cycle of post-starting interval with allowance for engine heat conditions and ambient air temperature. Inlet fuel and air controlled heating subject to engine and ambient air temperature allows maintenance of optimum temperature of combustion mix in the engine combustion chamber at whatever operating conditions.

EFFECT: decreased time and power consumption by diesel preparation for starting.

3 dwg

 

The present invention relates to the field of engineering, namely the engine, and can be used in internal combustion engines.

Operation of vehicles with diesel engines in winter on the territory of the Russian Federation is a big problem, which lies mainly in the fact that the cold start of the engine is difficult, and in some cases impossible. In addition, the engine operation in the post-launch period is characterized by incomplete combustion of the fuel, heavy wear of the parts of the cylinder-piston group, a significant increase in harmful emissions into the atmosphere and, as a consequence, a large fuel consumption. Currently, the existing problem is solved by the organization-working machines, storage machines in Pismenny period in heated premises, storage in open areas using energy from other sources, use stand-alone heaters and energy storage, as well as the use of starting fluids.

The above methods are of preparedness of the engine for starting and subsequent work have a number of disadvantages:

- the high cost of energy to maintain optimal thermal regime, which is guaranteed reliable engine start;

large capital investments;

- significant loss of time to prepare the machine to start;

- increased fuel consumption;

- environmental pollution by harmful emissions during start-up and post warm-up.

Obviously, the preference should be given to those methods that require minimal energy costs in pre-training and contribute to the quality of the combustion process of fuel during the start-up and post warm-up.

It is known that modern engines have a powerful trigger system, and lubrication systems are used high quality oil with high viscosity index, resulting in scrolling the crankshaft of the engine at start-up with the necessary frequency in a wide range of ambient temperatures. Therefore, the reliability of the start in this case will be determined only by the temperature of the air in the combustion chamber at the end of the compression stroke and the fuel temperature at the exit of the nozzles of the nozzle. It is obvious that the cost of energy in this case compared to the other options in the heat of preparation for the start can be minimal.

During cold start of a diesel engine the fuel is injected by the injector into the combustion chamber in the form of fuel jets (Fig.1), which are poorly raspisyvayutsya. With most not evaporated fuel reaches the cold walls of the cylinder and not to participate in the t in the combustion process, washing away oil from the surface of the cylinder, enters the engine sump, which contributes to the intensification of wear of engine parts. Another part of the cold fuel (finely pulverized) supplied to the combustion chamber of the injector is heated, vaporized and superheated by the heat of the air layers of the charge adjacent to the fuel torch. The result is a significant reduction in air temperature along the axis of the fuel torches (according to some sources up to 150...200C) (workflow and calorific automotive diesel engines / D. Chernyshev, and others, - M.:Mashinostroenie, 1986). This is due to the transience of the process of evaporation and lack of air flow turbulization. As a result, the engine does not start and when it starts, when the warm-up will work with the excessive fuel consumption and emissions of large quantities of hazardous substances. The presence of significant temperature difference along the axis of the fuel torches requires an increase in the temperature of the end of the compression stroke. This temperature can be increased by increasing the degree of compression or by using heated air. If in the first case, the possibilities are practically exhausted, in the second case requires a powerful air heater, which is difficult to provide energy from onboard sources of power.

Research performed by the authors showed that if the fuel located in the nozzle, before it is fed into the combustion chamber to be heated, the fact remains that part of the energy of the air charge, which was previously spent on heating and evaporation of fuel coming out of injector nozzles. Activity fuel torches in this case increases (Fig.2) and the temperature in the combustion chamber decreases less significantly than the non-heated fuel, especially on the boundaries of fuel torches and air in the combustion chamber during the initial period of the fuel. Therefore, the required temperature of the air in the combustion chamber at the end of the compression stroke, which ensures a reliable start, can be significantly lower. Below will be the cost of energy required for preheating the air during pre-training.

The fuel, being in the form of fine particles, is mixed with air and forms throughout the volume of the combustion chamber of a homogeneous mixture which will be more prepared for the beginning of the oxidation process. In this case the energy of the air charge is spent only on overheating fuel vapors to a temperature at which begins the process of oxidation.

Preheating of the fuel in the nozzle creates an opportunity to increase the total heat content of the air-fuel mixture at the end of the compression stroke, to increase di is percnet fuel torches and reduce the ignition delay period.

Thus, by changing the energy supply of the air charge and the activity of the fuel torches depending on the ambient temperature and thermal condition of the engine can affect the starting of the diesel engine and the combustion efficiency in the post-launch period of heating.

There is a method of starting the engine using glow plugs (internal combustion Engines. Low-temperature starting of diesel engines. Review, Niiinformtyazhmash. 4 - 77-30. Moscow. 1977, page 34). In accordance with this method, the air supplied to the cylinders of the engine at the start, heated electric spiral bulbs that are powered by rechargeable batteries.

The disadvantage of this method is that the spiral bulbs consume a significant amount of energy rechargeable batteries, providing heat a small amount of air charge, which does not allow for reliable starting of the engine. In addition, the lack of heating fuel during start-up and post warm-up does not allow for high-quality mixing at low ambient temperatures.

There is also known a method of starting an internal combustion engine by preheating intake air by flame heater (patent 2162160 EN, IPC F02N 17/00, publ. 20.01.2001). Things the ity of the invention is that the crankshaft rotated from an external source of energy, the intake air is heated in the flame of the heater, and fed into the cylinders of the engine, and fuel begin to apply from the beginning of the rotating crankshaft. The inlet air is additionally heated by an electric heater. Electric heater include before rotating the crankshaft and carry out the heating of the air in the intake tract of the engine when stationary crankshaft. The period of time from the switching on of the electric heater before rotating the crankshaft is 1-5 minutes

By spinning the crankshaft cold fuel using nozzle is injected into the heated air charge is heated and evaporates, thus improving the starting quality of the engine.

As in the previous case, the lack of control of the temperature of the mixture at the end of the compression stroke, as well as the lack of heating fuel during start-up and post warm-up does not allow to optimize the process of mixing depending on the ambient temperature and thermal condition of the engine.

The closest solution adopted for the prototype is a way to improve the starting of the qualities of a diesel engine by preheating the fuel supplied by the injector into the combustion chamber (A. C. SU # 126785, F02N 17/02, F02M 53/06). Before starting the engine under negative ambient temperatures include an electric heater mounted on the body of the nozzle. Diesel fuel held in the fuel channel of the dispenser is heated to a temperature of 180 to 200C. by spinning the crankshaft from the starter heated fuel is injected into the combustion chamber, vaporized and ignited, providing start-up of the engine. This device turns on before you start and shuts down immediately after starting the engine.

The disadvantage of this technical solution is that before you start is heated only a small amount of fuel to improve engine starting at low ambient temperatures. In the process of post-launch heating fuel heating is not performed, which leads to the worsening economy, the increase in the cost of warm-up time, and the deterioration of environmental indicators.

The technical object of the present invention is a significant reduction in time and energy costs in the preparation of the diesel engine to start in a wide range of ambient temperatures, reduced fuel consumption, wear of the cylinder-piston group and emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere during its post-launch warm.

The specified task is in the proposed method is solved by the reliability of starting a diesel engine and its subsequent operation post heating is provided by maintaining an appropriate level of energy potential of the working mixture in the combustion chamber. For this purpose, the measured values of ambient temperature and coolant temperature to determine the operating time of the air heater in the pre-launch period, the operating time of the air heater adjust the temperature of the working mixture in the combustion chamber at the end of the compression stroke; a fuel injector in a pre-launch period is warmed up to the maximum possible value, and after starting the engine size fuel heating is reduced to the optimal value, the desired thermal conditions nozzles provide with built-in atomizer temperature sensor, heater and control unit and support at a given level throughout the post-launch period based on a thermal condition of the engine and the ambient temperature.

In Fig.1 and Fig.2 shows the process of injection, respectively cold and heated diesel fuel into the combustion chamber of Fig.3 schematic diagram of the device with which you can implement the proposed method.

Conventionally, the operation of the device can be divided into three modes: "pre-training", "post-launch warming up" and "work". Lane is the first mode enables the operator, and the transition to the subsequent modes occurs automatically via the control unit and signals from the respective sensors.

Consider that the engine is "hot" when the coolant temperature is 80C or more, heated from 80C to 40C and cold - less than 40C.

Before you start a cold engine include mode "pre-training". The control unit polls the sensors and includes a heated fuel injector. The temperature of the fuel in the fuel channel of the nozzle before the start reaches 180-200C (provided the mode terraformirovaniya). According to several studies, the temperature of the fuel above 200-230C can lead to crash needle spray.

Simultaneously with the fuel heating provide heating of the intake air. The amount of electrical energy that must be expended to heat the air to ensure reliable starting at the specified temperature range depends on the ambient temperature and the coolant temperature in the engine. Because the voltage is known, the amount of current is determined by the design of the heating element, the installation site, the volume of the combustion chamber and for a particular brand of engine is constant, the required amount of electrical energy for pre-preparation will be determined by odnovremenno operation of the heater. Therefore, the duration of the heating of the air in the pre-period depends on the ambient temperature and the coolant temperature in the engine and is counted by the control unit according to its algorithm. After the set time the control unit on the starter relay control signal. Motor is activated and begins to rotate the crankshaft with the starting frequency.

To conserve electrical energy and eliminate heat loss to the environment surface of the intake manifold is covered by insulation material.

The temperature sensor of the working mixture constantly monitors its current temperature. If the maximum temperature of the working mixture in the combustion chamber at the end of the compression stroke less than the threshold value, the intensity of heating of the air is increased.

The threshold temperature of the mixture in the combustion chamber, which ensures a reliable start, determined experimentally for each brand of engine separately and recorded in the memory of the control unit.

The start of the engine is considered valid if the rotational speed of a crankshaft of the engine exceeds the starting frequency and the angular acceleration increases to a steady value. System start-up automatically shut off by the control unit on the plot time is it at a given angular acceleration of the crankshaft. If the engine start is finished, the engine automatically switches to the mode of post-launch warming up.

In the post-launch mode warm-up turn off the air heater and reduce the intensity of heating of fuel in the nozzle to a working value. According to the authors and other sources of fuel temperature (operating temperature) in the jet engine operating at rated load and optimal thermal conditions is in the range of 95-110C

In the period post-launch heating increases the temperature of the coolant in the engine cooling system from the ambient temperature to the optimal value, which causes a corresponding increase in fuel temperature in the fuel channel of the nozzle. The temperature of the fuel in the injector is controlled by the sensor. If the fuel temperature becomes higher than the specified limits, the intensity of heating of fuel decrease. When the temperature of the coolant in the engine cooling system 80C and more fuel heater is turned off. The engine goes into "run"mode.

When you stop the engine (engine speed is equal to zero) air heaters and fuel regardless of the ambient temperature, fuel temperature, coolant temperature shut off.

Re-start is possible without automatic activation mode"pre-training", if the engine is "hot" or "warm" and use the activation, if the engine is "cold".

The device for implementing the method of operation of the diesel engine at launch and post-launch period includes: a combustion chamber 1 of the diesel engine 2, the heater air intake manifold 3, the control unit 4, the sensor ambient temperature 5 temperature sensor fuel in the fuel channel of the nozzle 6, the temperature sensor of the working mixture in the combustion chamber 7, the temperature sensor coolant in the engine 8, the gauge of frequency of rotation of the crankshaft of the engine 9, the heater fuel injector 10, the relay of the starter 11. Sensors ambient temperature, and 5, the fuel temperature in the fuel channel nozzle (atomizer) 6, the temperature of the mixture in the fuel channel 7 and the temperature of the coolant in the cooling system of the engine 8 may be resistive, semiconductive or generator (thermocouple). Special requirements for temperature sensors fuel injector and the temperature of the mixture in the combustion chamber. Temperature sensors fuel injector and the working mixture in the combustion chamber must be compact (compact), reliable and quick.

The air heater may be of the open type (in the form of a spiral) or closed (T Is N). The heater can also be made in the form of a film which is applied on the inner surface of the intake manifold and teploizolirovat from its body.

The temperature sensor of the working mixture is placed directly in the combustion chamber (fire surface of the cylinder head or the swirl chamber).

The device operates as follows.

The magnitude of the signal from the sensor 8 is determined by thermal state of the engine. If the engine is "cold", the control unit 4 applies a voltage to the heater of the fuel injector 10 and the air heater 3. Air heater can be installed in the intake manifold or directly into the combustion chamber 1 of the engine 2, or in both the manifold and the combustion chamber.

During the "pre-training" fuel in the nozzle is heated to 180-200C and maintained at this level until the completion of the engine start. The heating element preferably be placed directly in the nozzle body or the fuel channel of the nozzle. This may be accomplished, for example, in the form of a tubular element, which is thermally insulated from the housing of the spray or nozzle to avoid loss of heat, or have any other design.

Signals from the temperature sensor ambient air 5 and a temperature sensor engine coolant 8 will SHS in the control unit 4 and processed. The control unit 4 is energized on heating the air element 3 and a timer is started, which after a certain period of time delivers the control signal to starter relay 11. The engine is started. The measured values of the acceleration of the crankshaft, the starter is switched off. The engine goes into the post-launch mode warm-up. The magnitude of the signal from the speed sensor engine crankshaft 9, the control unit 4 turns off the air heater 3 and reduces the temperature of the fuel in the nozzle to normal values (95-110C). The rotational speed of the crankshaft must be greater than or equal to the frequency of idling.

In the post-launch period of warm-up temperature of the fuel in the injector is maintained at optimum level (95-110C) with the assistance of the fuel temperature sensor 6, the control unit 4 and heater fuel 10.

When "hot" or "warm start is enabled only fuel heater, which heats the fuel in the nozzle to an optimum level (95-110C) and maintains the temperature in the post-launch period of heating.

When the temperature of the coolant in the engine cooling system 80C and more, all heaters are turned off, and the engine goes into "run"mode.

The method of operation of the internal combustion engine at launch and post-launch periods by prevar the tion of the heated air in the air manifold and the fuel nozzle, time limit of the heating elements is controlled by a timer, wherein the measured values of ambient temperature and coolant temperature to determine the operating time of the air heater in the pre-launch period, the operating time of the air heater adjust the temperature of the working mixture in the combustion chamber at the end of the compression stroke, the fuel in the injector is in pre-launch period is warmed up to the maximum possible value, and after starting the engine, the intensity of heating of fuel reduces the required thermal conditions nozzles provide with built-in atomizer sensor, heater and control unit and support at a given level throughout the post-launch period based on a thermal condition of the engine and the ambient temperature.



 

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8 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to engine manufacturing, in particular, to fuel supply equipment in internal combustion engines. The invention increases fuel burning efficiency, reduces toxicity, and facilitates and accelerates start-up and heating stages of gasoline and diesel internal combustion engines. The steam accumulator-ramp of high pressure for internal combustion engines comprises high pressure accumulator, connected via a pipeline to a high pressure pump, sprayers, connected through pipelines to the accumulator, at that the pipeline of high pressure inside the accumulator has apertures, the number of which is equal to a doubled number of cylinders. The apertures are arranged in couples in a horizontal or near horizontal plane and they are diametrically opposite. The diameters of apertures are made with increments along the path of the high pressure pipeline, and there are tubular heating elements assembled above the said pipeline, the sum of diameters of which constitutes from 0.2 to 0.8 of accumulator width.

EFFECT: increase of fuel efficiency, reduction of toxicity, facilitating of start-up and heating of gasoline and diesel internal combustion engines.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: engine building.

SUBSTANCE: device refers to the engine-building, in particular to the heating devices of the combustion engines. Oil burner discharging with pressure contains the main body frame containing fluid channel with fluid's inlet and outlet. The indicated main body frame contains ceramic material with positive temperature coefficient. The main body frame, exposed to the electric current, is used for the fluid evaporation, which is inlet in the fluid channel by heating. Fluid outlet is done accordingly for the fluid to be ejected in the form of a current. Injector contains the oil burner. A valve is placed in front of the oil burner's fluid inlet, so that this valve controls the fluid inlet in the oil burner's fluid channel.

EFFECT: increased fuel evaporation speed.

24 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: measured ambient air and coolant temperatures are used to define air heater operating interval to correct it by fuel mix temperature in combustion chamber at compression stroke end while fuel in nozzle is heated to maximum possible value. After engine start, fuel heating intensity is decreased while nozzle operating heat conditions are kept up with the help of thermal pickup built in the nozzle, heater and control unit and maintained at said level during the entire cycle of post-starting interval with allowance for engine heat conditions and ambient air temperature. Inlet fuel and air controlled heating subject to engine and ambient air temperature allows maintenance of optimum temperature of combustion mix in the engine combustion chamber at whatever operating conditions.

EFFECT: decreased time and power consumption by diesel preparation for starting.

3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in internal combustion engines. The invention proposes an electrically heated injection nozzle containing a ceramic rod, in which a provision is made for flow passage (2) having at least one hole (3) for spraying of a fluid medium, with that, the above ceramic rod includes internal ceramic conductor (4) and external ceramic conductor (5), between which an arrangement is made for ceramic insulator (6), with that, in the above hole (3) the external ceramic heating conductor (5) has catalytically active coating (7).

EFFECT: simpler design of a nozzle and simplification of its production process.

9 cl, 4 dwg

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