Method to increase resolving capacity of measurement of angular coordinate of glowing reference point, multi-element photodetector and sensor of angular coordinate of glowing reference point that implement it

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods and devices for measurement of angles in machine building, and also to devices of spacecraft navigation. The method to increase resolving capacity of measurement of angular coordinates of a glowing reference point by values of signals and serial numbers of photosensitive elements arranged symmetrically with the specified angular pitch relative to a certain axis, consists in increased speed of signal variation by the angle of the specified photosensitive elements. The multi-element receiver of optical radiation consists from at least three photosensitive elements arranged symmetrically with the specified angular pitch relative to a certain axis, at the same time photosensitive elements have devices that increase speed of their signal variation by the angle.

EFFECT: provision of the possibility to increase resolving capacity of measurement of an angular coordinate of a glowing reference point.

3 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to measurement techniques and, in particular, to methods and devices for measuring angles in mechanical engineering, and instruments of navigation spacecraft.

Famous panoramic sensor [1], comprising a multi-element receiver of optical radiation and a signal processing unit, which allows to determine the angular coordinate of the light guide.

A luminous reference point may be the Sun, for example, in the case of the use of the sensor as a device orientation for solving navigation tasks spacecraft. When using the sensor as a transducer angle code (absolute or incremental encoder) to determine the angle of rotation of the shaft luminous reference point can be led.

Multi-element receiver of optical radiation consists of not less than three photosensitive elements arranged with a given pitch on the circumference.

The angular coordinate α of the light guide in one case is determined by the ordinal numbers of the photosensitive elements in the group lit that begin and end as follows:

α=(n1+n2)2γ,n1mo> <2α=(n1+n2+N)2γ,n1>n2and(n1+n2+N)2<N(1)α=(n1+n2-N)2γ,n1>n2and(n1+n2+N)2N

where γ is the angular spacing of photosensitive elements; n1 is the sequence number of the first photosensitive element in the group lit photosensitive elements at the origin of the coordinate axes, the signal which exceeds the specified threshold; n2 is the sequence number of the last of the photosensitive element in the group lit photosensitive is the ways in counting from the coordinate axes the signal which exceeds the specified threshold; N is the total number of photosensitive elements.

In another case, the angular coordinate of the light guide is defined as the ratio of two arbitrary signals, in particular adjacent photosensitive elements in the group covered:

α=nγ+arctan[U(n+1)/U(n)sinγ-ctgγ],U(n)<U(n+1)α=nγ-arctan[U(n)/U(n+1)sinγ-ctgγ],U(n)>U(n+2)(2)

where γ is the angular spacing of photosensitive elements; U(n) is the signal value of the n-th lit photosensitive element; U(n+1) is the signal value (n+1)-what about the lighted photosensitive element.

In the first case, the resolution with which you can measure angles, determined by the angular spacing of photosensitive elements:

γ=360N(3)

where N is the total number of photosensitive elements.

Assuming that the diameter of the circle on which are photosensitive elements - 10 mm, and the length of the photosensitive element on the circumference is 15 μm, it is easy to calculate that at the circumference areN=10π1510-32094elements. Thus, the angular step location will have the value ofγ=36020940,17.

The result is a measure of resolution panoramic sensor of the light guide, in which the multi-element receiver has a diameter of 10 mm and consists of a photosensitive e the cops with a length of 15 μm, and means that using such a sensor can register the angular deflection of the luminous reference point only to the value of more than 0,17°.

In the second case, as it follows from (2), for determining the angular coordinates used sequence number of the photosensitive element and the value of its signal. Almost used to calculate the magnitude of the signal subjected to the procedure of analog-to-digital conversion. As a consequence, the values of U(n} and U(n+1) are discrete and integer, i.e. we can assume values in the range 0 to 2P-1, where p - bit analog-to-digital Converter. Obviously, to register the change in angular coordinates of the luminous landmark - α can be only if U(n) or U{n+1), either or both of these values will change at least 1.

The magnitude of the signal of the photosensitive element depends on the angle φ between the direction of a luminous landmark in the instrument coordinate system and the axis of the directivity diagram of this photosensitive element (assuming the chart axis direction coincides with the direction of the light source in the coordinate system of the photosensitive element, and this element is located so that its signal had the highest value) in the plane of the circle, which includes photo is obsticale elements:

U(n)=Acosφ,-π2<φ<π2U(n)=0,φ-π2,φπ2(4)

where a is the maximum value of the signal.

Whereas analog-to-digital conversion:

A=2P-1(5)

Therefore:

U(n)=(2P-1)cosφ(6)

When the angular displacement of the reference point on the Δφ value of the signal will change to ΔU(n):

ΔU(n)=ddφ[(2P-1)cosφ] Δφ(7)

|ΔU(n)|=[(2P-1)sinφ]Δφ(8)

We have already mentioned that for registration of the change of the angular coordinates and you want the value of U(n) has changed by at least 1, that is, the increment value |ΔU(n)|=1, therefore:

1[(2P-1)sinφ]ΔφandlandΔφ1(2P-1)sinφ(9)

If we assume that the signals of the photosensitive elements exposed to 10-bit analog-to-digital conversion, in the best case, sinφ=1:

Δφ1(210-1)1 =9.77510-4pandd=0,056

Thus, only when the offset angle is greater than 0,056°, the digital code at the output of analog-to-digital Converter will change to 1 and, consequently, will change the result of the calculation of the angular coordinate α.

As can be seen, in both considered cases, the resolution of the panoramic sensor glowing reference [1] is high enough, but to solve some applications may not be sufficient.

The aim of the invention is to increase measurement resolution angular coordinates of the light guide. To achieve this goal refers to the increase in the rate of change of the signal in the corner of the photosensitive elements used for determining the angular coordinates.

The increase in the rate of change of the signal on the corner of photosensitive elements is either due to design features of the multi-element photodetector formed by these elements, or by changing the angular aperture of the beam of radiation with a glowing reference.

Under design features, means the following:

megalame the fair photodetector consists of not less than three photosensitive elements, located symmetrically with a given angular pitch relative to some axis (axis of symmetry), and photosensitive elements have a device to increase the rate of change of the signal in the corner.

As a device to increase the rate of change of the signal in the corner you can use the hole in an opaque screen located at a distance opposite the sensitive surface of the photosensitive element, as in Fig.1. Numbers denote: 1 - photosensitive element, 2 - opaque screen, 3 - direction on a light guide, 4 - axis beam, 5 - hole in the screen, 6 - lighted portion of the photosensitive element 7 is part of the photosensitive element in shadows.

Assume that the distance between the opaque screen and the sensitive surface of the photosensitive element h, and the sensitive surface of the photosensitive element as well as a transparent window on the screen has a rectangular shape with dimensions x and y.

The factor a, which is expression (4), depends on the area that receives light radiation, and physical properties of the substance, which is made of a photosensitive element, so:

A=Kxy(10)

where-To - value, allowing to take into account the physical properties of the substance.

As can be seen from Fig.1, the area on which falls the light beam depends on the angle between the direction of a luminous compass and chart axis direction of the photosensitive element. If the angle is 0, the square has the maximum possible value of x·y. If a glowing reference point will be displaced by the angle φ, then the area will be reduced by Δx·y, that is,A=K(x-Δx)y.

Since Δx=htgφ, then:

A=K(x-htgφ)y(11)

and, therefore,

U(n)=K(x-htgφ)ycosφ=Ky(xcosφ-htgφcosφ)(12)

The ratio of xh=tgθis a design parameter and defines the "field of view" of the photosensitive element through the hole in the screen, so the expression (12) can be rewritten:

U(n)=Ky(xcosφ-xtgθtgφcosφ)=Kxy(cosφ-sinφcosφcosφ1tgθ)(13)

Taking into account expressions (10) and (5) we get:

U(n)=(2P-1)(cosφ-sinφ1tgθ)(14)

It is important to remember that the expression (14) has a physical meaning only ifcosφ>sin/mi> φ1tgθ, i.e. up until fotochuvstvitelen element lit. Ifcosφsinφ1tgθthe light does not fall on the photosensitive element and the signal value of this element is conventionally equal to 0.

When the angle φ on the Δφ value of the signal U(n) will change ΔU(n), with:

ΔU(n)=ddφ[(2P-1)(cosφ-sinφ1tgθ)]Δφ(15)

|ΔU(n)|=(2P-1)(sinφ+cosφ1tgθ)Δφ(16)

Expression:

|ΔU(n)|Δφ=(2P-1)(sinφ+cosφ1tgθ)(17)

is the magnitude of the rate of change of the signal in the corner.

For the prototype [1] from the expression (8) implies that the magnitude of the rate of change of the signal in the corner:

|ΔU(n)|Δφ=(2P-1)sinφ(18)

Compare the expressions (17) and (18). Obviously, for φ in the range of-π2toπ2:

(2P-1)(sinmi> φ+cosφ1tgθ)>(2P-1)sinφ(19)

The rate of change of the signal in the corner for the inventive sensor is higher than for the prototype. Therefore, when rotating at the same angle value signal of the photosensitive element of the inventive sensor will change more than the value of the signal of the photosensitive element prototype. On the other hand, when equal amounts of signal change of the angle of rotation of the photosensitive element of the inventive sensor should be less than for the prototype.

By analogy with the expression (9) we have:

Δφ1(2P-1)(sinφ+cosφ1tgθ)(20)

Suppose p=10, φ=γ=0,17° and θ=1°, then:

Δφ1(210-1)(2 ,9710-3+0,99134,910-3)3.410-5pandd0,002

The result means that the digital equivalent signal of the photosensitive element, in which the axis of the beam deflected from the direction of the luminous point on the angular step - γ, will change to 1 when the offset of the reference point by 0.002°. Thus, for the considered case resolution 28 times (0,0560,002) higher resolution of the prototype.

To increase the rate of change of the signal on the corner of the photosensitive element, let's call it basic, you can also, if the signal magnitude of this element of U(n) is subtracted the sum or difference signals U1(n) and U2(n) additional photosensitive elements.

the additional photosensitive elements are arranged so that that the axis of the chart orientation perpendicular to the axis of the directivity diagram of the main photosensitive element to which they are attached, are directed in opposite sides of and parallel to the plane perpendicular to the symmetry axis of the photosensitive elements forming a multi-element receiver, as in Fig.2. Numbers denote: 1 - multi-element photodetector, 2 - main photosensitive element, 3 - axis pattern of the main photosensitive element, 4 - direction on a light guide 5 is the first additional photosensitive element, 6 - axis pattern of the first additional photosensitive element, 7 - second photosensitive element, 8 - axis direction diagram of a second photosensitive element.

In the case when the direction of the luminous reference point coincides with the axis of the directivity diagram of the main photosensitive element, a differential signalU(n)has the highest value, because additional light on photosensitive elements misses and their signals U1(n) and U2(n) conditionally equal to 0. When the deviation directions of the luminous reference point from the axis dia the scheme direction of the photosensitive element at some angle φ of the signal U(n) of this item will be deducted the additional signal of the photosensitive element, which will be lit, as another additional photosensitive element will be in the shade and its signal can be considered conditionally equal to 0.

For the main photosensitive element of a fair expression: (4), (5), (10). Additional photosensitive elements are made such that their area exceeding the area of the main, for example, M times, then their signals in the same measure will be greater than the main signal, so:

U(n)=Acosφ-|MAcos(φ-π2)|=Acosφ-MAsinφ(21)

orU(n)=Acosφ-|MAcos(φ+π2)|=Acosφ-MAsinφ(22)

The resulting expression (23) is identical to expression (14), if we impose the exhaust gas is anichini:

U(n)=0,U(n)U1(n)+U2(n)(24)

Similar results will be obtained if the area of additional photosensitive elements equal to the square of the principal, but the additional signals of the photosensitive elements before subtraction strengthened in M times.

When using gain of each photosensitive element can simultaneously perform the functions of both the basic and additional. For example, if an n-th photosensitive element is considered as an essential additional to it will be elementary photodetectors, separated from it by an equal amount k of the angular steps γ clockwise and counter.

Such multi-element receiver shown in Fig.3. Numbers denote: 1 - multi-element photodetector, 2 - n-th photosensitive element, 3 - axis pattern of the n-th photosensitive element, 4 - (n-k)-th photosensitive element, 5 - axis pattern (n-k)-th photosensitive element, 6 - (n+k)-th photosensitive element, 7 - axis of a chart such is lennosti (n+k)-th photosensitive element.

If for some n-th photosensitive element value of the signal U(n)=Acosφ, then (n+k)-th photosensitive element value of the signal U(n+k)=Acos(φ+kγ), and (n-k)-th photosensitive element value of the signal U(n-k)=Acos(φ-kγ). The difference signal (n+k) th and (n-k)-th photosensitive elements:

U(n+k)-U(n-k)=Acos(φ+kγ)-Acos(φ-kγ)(25)

After the well-known trigonometric transformations:

U(n+k)-U(n-k)=-2Asinφsin(kγ)(26)

Therefore, if the signal of the n-th photosensitive element to add increased to M times the difference signal (n+k) th and (n-k)-th photosensitive elements (or subtract increased to M times the difference), we obtain:

U(n)=Acosφ-M2Asin(kγ)sinφ(27)

Taking into account expression (5):

U(n)=(2P-1)[cosφ-sinφ2Msin(kγ)](28)

Expression (28) is equivalent to the expression (14) with the constraint:

U(n)=0,U(n)|U(n+k)-U(n-k)|(29)

and applicable to a multi-element receiver, represented as in Fig.2, and in Fig.3.

Amplification of the difference signal (n+k) th and (n-k)-th photosensitive elements can for init by summing the differences for k ∈ {1...L}, then:

U(n)=(2P-1)[cosφ-sinφ2k=1Lsin(kγ)](30)

Thus, subtraction of the signal of the main photosensitive element of the additional signals of the photosensitive elements, as well as the shading of the main photosensitive element, can increase the rate of change of the signal on the corner and accordingly the resolution.

Photosensitive elements in multielement receiver can be done which consists of two parts, as shown in Fig.4. Numbers denote: 1 - multi-element photodetector, 2 - left part of the n-th photosensitive element, 3 - right part of the n-th photosensitive element, 4 - axis, the resulting pattern.

Such organization of the multi-element photodetector signal of the n-th photosensitive element is the sum of the signals of the left and right parts, and subtracts the amplified difference signal of the left and rights of the th parts:

U(n)=Acos(φ+ε)+Acos(φ-ε)-M|Acos(φ+ε)-Acos(φ-ε)|(31)

U(n)=2Acosφcosε-M|2Asinφsinε|(32)

U(n)=(2P-1)[cosφ-M|sinφtgε|]2cosε(33)

When selecting the angle ε such that 2cosε≥1, the resulting expression (33) is equivalent to the expression (14), and SC is the rate of change of the signal in a corner and as a consequence, the resolution will be higher than that of the prototype.

Another option - Fig.5 is a multi-element photodetector, a photosensitive elements which consist of two parts. Numbers denote: 1 - multi-element photodetector, 2 - radial part of the n-th photosensitive element 3 is inclined portion of the n-th photosensitive element.

Chart axis direction of the radial part of the photosensitive element is tangent to a circle centered on the axis about which are photosensitive elements. Chart axis direction of the inclined portion of the photosensitive element is located at a selected angle to the axis of the directivity diagram of the radial part.

The radial part performs the function of the additional photosensitive element and the inclined portion performs the function of the main photosensitive element. In this case you can use and the shading of the main photosensitive element additional and subtraction of the signal of the main signal of the photosensitive element.

The specific implementation of the multi-element photodetectors may vary depending on tasks. A fundamental point is the fact that increasing the rate of change of the signal in the corner, using the what if another device is optically or electrically connected with the photosensitive element, allows you to increase resolution determining the angular coordinates.

Multi-element photodetectors in Fig.2-5 depicts in cross section by a plane perpendicular to the axis of symmetry. Chart axis direction of the photosensitive elements may be parallel to this plane, and can be at any arbitrary angle to it. In the latter case, all the above arguments remain valid, it is only necessary to consider the projection of the axes of the directional diagrams on this plane. Moreover, since the main photosensitive element together with an additional, as well as a photosensitive element consisting of parts, can be considered one photosensitive element having a device increase the rate of change of the signal in the corner, then we must consider the projection of the axis of the directivity diagram of such a photosensitive element, which is determined by the superposition of the diagrams of the constituent elements or parts.

Be made multi-element receiver of optical radiation may be in the form of an integrated circuit of the known semiconductor materials technology APS (Active Pixel Sensor), deep, liquid and plasma-chemical etching.

Another approach to increasing the rate of change of the photosensitive signal e is of amenta based on the change in the angular aperture of the beam of the light guide. The expression (4) applies if the energy flux density of radiation for any location in the plane perpendicular to the direction of the reference point is the constant value. Such a case occurs when the target is spatially extended and remote, such as the Sun. For a point source of light dependence of the signal of the photosensitive element from its angular position relative to the reference point will be different.

The magnitude of the signal of the photosensitive element depends on the number of photons that fall on its photosensitive surface. When using a point light source, as shown in Fig.6, the number of such photons is determined by the angle δ1. Numbers denote: 1 - the axis of symmetry of the multi-element photodetector, 2 - point light source, 3 is the radiation from a point source of light falling on one photosensitive element 4 to the photosensitive element 5 is a chart axis direction of the photosensitive element. In addition, the value of L is the distance between the axis of symmetry of the multi-element photodetector and a point light source and the value R is the distance to the symmetry axis where the photosensitive elements forming the multi-element photodetector. If the chart axis direction of the photosensitive element is danaida at some angle φ from the line which includes a point light source and the center of symmetry of the multichannel receiver, the number of photons is determined by the angle δ2that is shown in Fig.7. Numbers denote: 1 - the axis of symmetry of the multi-element photodetector, 2 - point light source, 3 is the radiation from a point source of light falling on one photosensitive element 4 to the photosensitive element 5 is a chart axis direction of the photosensitive element.

Let the signal of the photosensitive element when matching its axis pattern with a line which includes a point light source and the center of symmetry of the multichannel receiver, has a value A, then the signal value of the n-th photosensitive element:

U(n)=Aδ2δ1(34)

The angle δ1you can determine from the triangles ACD and CDB in Fig.6, and the angle δ2from triangles AFJ, FGH, FGJ, BHJ, BFK and line FGJK in Fig.7:

δ1=2arctg[sin(γ2) (k-cos(γ2))](35)

δ2=arctg[2sin(γ2)[(1+k2)-ksinφ-2kcosφcos(γ2)-sin2(γ2)](1+k2)-2kcosφcos(γ2)-2sin2(γ2)],k=LR(36)

Consider, how will it change the magnitude of the signal U(n) of the photosensitive element and the increment value of the signal U(n)| depending on were the ins angle φ between the direction of the reference point and the axis of the beam in one case for extended light source, what is described by the expression (4), and in another case, a point source of light that is described by the expression (34). The number of photosensitive elements in multielement receiver - 2094, i.e., the angular spacing of the elements -γ=36020940,17. Let us choose k=1,2. As before, we assume that the signal of the photosensitive element is exposed to a 10-bit analog-to-digital conversion, so A=210-1, and all values of the signals and their increments an integer that can take values in the range from 0 to 1023. The results of calculations for 0<φ<3γ presented in table 1.

Table 1
φ0γ
U1(n)=Acosφ10231023 (1022,99)1023 (1022,99)1023 (1022,99)
|ΔU1(n)|-0 (0,01)0 (0,01 0(0,01)
U2(n)=Aδ2δ110231000 (999,68)976 (975,76)951 (951,2)
|ΔU2(n)|-23 (23,3)24 (23,9)25 (24,6)

The values of table 1, in brackets, is the exact values obtained by way of calculation, serve only to demonstrate small changes in values.

From table 1 it is evident that the rate of change of the signal on the corner of the photosensitive element by using a point source as a reference point 3 order(23,30,01)higher than the rate of change of the signal on the corner of the photosensitive element, which is illuminated with an extended source of light. The specified value is saved and for angles φ>3γ. This means that changes in 1 digital equivalent signal photoacustic the high element, illuminated by a point source of light, it must be rotated by an angle substantially less than in the case of lighting extended light source.

In Fig.6 and Fig.7 shows the case when the multi-element receiver can be inscribed in a circle of radius R with center at the point a And the light guide are emitted from point C. However, the expressions (34), (35) and (36) is applicable for the case when the multi-element receiver has a hole of radius R with center at point a on the boundary which are photosensitive elements, and the light rays landmark converge at the point C.

Thus, increasing the resolution angular measurements will be obtained if the radiation of the reference shape in the form of a divergent beam, provided that the photosensitive surface of photosensitive elements form the surface of the polyhedron (straight or conical prism, cylinder, or cone, or a shape in the form of a converging beam, provided that the photosensitive surface of photosensitive elements form a multifaceted surface, cylindrical or conical holes.

The formation of the desired angular aperture of the light beam of the reference point can be accomplished through a lens or aperture or mirror optical elements.

For the practical implementation of the proposed method increased the I resolution enough to offer multi-element photodetector to complement the signal processing unit, which will allow for the values of the signals of the photosensitive elements and their serial numbers to calculate the angular coordinate of the light guide. You can create sensors (angular coordinates) direction to the Sun for spacecraft with higher resolution only through the use of multi-element receiver, photosensitive elements which are equipped with devices increase the speed signal changes in a corner.

Unlike sensors the direction toward the Sun converters angle - code have a glowing reference in its composition, which gives the possibility to change the properties of its radiation. Therefore, high resolution is achieved through the use of multi-element receiver, photosensitive elements which are equipped with devices increase the speed signal changes by angle and by changing the angular aperture of the light beam of the reference point.

The above-mentioned signal processing unit permits the use of different computational algorithms. The angular coordinate α can be determined, in particular, by finding the centroid:

α=γk1k2nU(n) k1k2U(n)(37)

where γ is the angular spacing of photosensitive elements; U(n) is the signal value of the n-th lit photosensitive element, n is chosen in the range from k1 to k2; k1 is the sequence number of the first and k2 is the sequence number of the last of the photosensitive element in the group lit photosensitive elements at the origin of the coordinate axes, the signals which exceed a specified threshold;

If, for example, the signal of the photosensitive element is described by the expression (28), then the angular coordinate α can be defined as the ratio of the signals of the photosensitive elements in the group covered:

α=nγ+arctg(cos(kγ)+Qsin(kγ)-U(n+k)U(n)Qcos(kγ) -QU(n+k)U(n)-sin(kγ)),U(n)<U(n+k)α=nγ-arctg(cos(kγ)-Qsin(kγ)-U(n)U(n+k)Qcos(kγ)+QU(n)U(n+k)-sin(kγ)),U(n)>U(n+k)(38)

where γ is the angular spacing of photosensitive elements; U(n) is the signal value of the n-th photocaster the th element in the group lit; U(n+k) is the signal value (n+A-)-th photosensitive element in the lit group; k is the distance in angular steps between the nth and (n+k)-th photosensitive elements; Q=2Msin(kγ) is a value determined by the design of multi-element photodetector or by the least squares method:

α=arctg(P+Q1-QP),P=k1k2U(n)cosnγk1k2cosnγsinnγ-k1k2U(n)sinnγk1k2cos2nγk1k2U(n)sinnγk1k 2cosnγsinnγ-k1k2U(n)cosnγk1k2sin2nγ(39)

where γ is the angular spacing of photosensitive elements; U(n) is the signal value of the n-th lit photosensitive element, n is chosen in the range from k1 to k2; k1 and k2 is the sequence number of the photosensitive elements in the group lit; Q=2Msin(kγ) is a value determined by the design of multi-element photodetector.

Sources of information

1. Patent of the Russian Federation No. 2327952, IPC G01B 11/26, 2006.

1. The way to increase measurement resolution angular coordinates of the light guide according to the signal values and ordinal photosensitive elements arranged symmetrically with a given angular increments with respect to some axis, which consists in increasing the rate of change of the signal on the corner of these photosensitive elements.

2. Multielement receiver optical irradiation is Oia, which consists of not less than three photosensitive elements arranged symmetrically with a given angular increments with respect to some axis, characterized in that the solar cells are devices that increase the speed of the changes of the signal in the corner.

3. The sensor of angular coordinates of the light guide containing multi-element photodetector, the signal processing unit and a glowing reference point, wherein the photosensitive elements of the specified sensor have a device that increases the speed change signal on the corner, which forms a diverging light beam of a specified reference point, if the photosensitive surface of photosensitive elements that make up the multi-element photodetector, form the surface of the polyhedron, cylinder, or cone and forms a converging light beam, if the photosensitive surface of photosensitive elements form a multifaceted surface, cylindrical or conical holes.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: personal use articles.

SUBSTANCE: proposed in this invention are window louvers for collection of solar energy with adjustable position. Used in the window louvers is an ammeter sensor for determination of the dependence between sunlight light incidence angle and optimal positioning of the solar sensor. The dependence may be further used for adjustment of multiple solar cells position. Additionally, the window louvers contain a light sensor for determination of light intensity within the target region which may be additionally used for regulation of multiple solar cells position.

EFFECT: proposed louvers must ensure effective collection of solar energy.

9 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics, photography.

SUBSTANCE: photovoltaic device includes: a set of at least two photovoltaic cells (160, 260), an intermediate sheet material (300) placed between each photovoltaic cell, each photovoltaic cell comprising: two current terminals (185, 185'), at least one photovoltaic junction (150, 250), a current-collecting bus (180, 180'), and connecting strips (190, 190') which extend from the current-collecting bus to the current terminals, all the current terminals being located on the same side.

EFFECT: photovoltaic device according to the invention enables to meet the need for a multiple-junction and multiple-terminal photovoltaic device, in which the risk of short-circuiting between current-collecting strips of each cell is minimised and in which control can be performed using only one junction box, and also meets the need for a method of making a multiple-junction photovoltaic device which facilitates connection of current terminals of each photovoltaic cell to a junction box.

26 cl, 14 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: solar battery module, where the following components are installed by-turn: the first solar element, comprising a substrate of the first type of conductivity, having a light-receiving surface and a non-light-receiving surface, and electrodes of mutually opposite polarity, accordingly shaped on the light-receiving and non-light-receiving surfaces, and the second solar element, containing the substrate of the second type of conductivity, having the light-receiving surface and the non-light-receiving surface and electrodes of mutually opposite polarity, accordingly shaped on the light-receiving and non-light-receiving surfaces, at the same time solar elements are adjusted during manufacturing so that the difference in the short circuit current density between the first and second solar elements makes up to 20%.

EFFECT: module of solar elements according to the invention has improved efficiency of conversion by increased density of solar elements arrangement in respect to area of a module of solar elements.

6 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: flexible photoelectric module consists of series-arranged bottom carrier film, bottom reinforcing layer, bottom fastening film, solar cells electrically connected to each other, top fastening film, top reinforcing layer and top carrier film, wherein the top and bottom carrier and fastening films are made of material which is transparent for sunlight. The reinforcing layers used are opaque perforated films made of anti-adhesive material, perforations of which are in form of regularly arranged square openings with size ranging from 0.8×0.8 mm to 10.0×10.0 mm, lying at a distance of 0.5-0.8 mm from each other.

EFFECT: providing reversible deformation of the plane of the photoelectric module simultaneously in two or more directions while reducing the weight and thickness of the module.

2 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: result is achieved by increasing strength of connection of shunting diodes and solar elements, increased repeatability of the process of manufacturing of the solar battery of spacecrafts due to optimisation of the technology of manufacturing of shunting diodes and solar elements of the solar battery, and also switching buses that connect the solar elements and shunting diodes, which are made as multi-layer. The solar battery for small-size spacecrafts comprises the following: panels with modules with solar elements (SE) adhered to them, a shunting diode; switching buses that connect the face and reverse sides of the shunting diodes with solar elements, at the same time the shunting diode is installed in the cut in the corner of the solar element, at the same time switching buses are made as multi-layer, made of molybdenum foil, at two sides of which there are serial layers of vanadium or titanium, a layer of nickel and a layer of silver, accordingly.

EFFECT: increased resistance of solar batteries to thermal shocks, to impact of mechanical and thermomechanical loads, increased manufacturability of design, extended active life of a solar battery of spacecrafts, increased functional capabilities due to expansion of temperature range of functioning and optimisation of design of a solar battery, simplification of a switching system.

7 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: polyaniline is doped with a heteropolyanionic complex of the 2-18 series, having chemical formula [P2W18O62]6-. A doped polyaniline film 1 is deposited on a thin transparent conducting layer which may consist of indium (III) oxide or tin (IV) oxide 2, which in turn is sputtered onto a material 3, having high transmission capacity for electromagnetic waves in the range from 3·10-2 to 4·10-6 cm. Said material with the sputtered conducting layer and the polyaniline film forms one of the electrodes of the photovoltaic module, and a second counter electrode, which also serves as back wall of the article, can be made of conducting material 4, on the outer side of which are attached thermogenerators 5 with air or water radiators for removing heat 6, connected to each other by series-parallel electrical circuits 7, and the electrodes held with each other by side walls, which can be made of any non-aggressive dielectric material 8, and an aqueous electrolyte is poured between the electrodes, where pH of the electrolyte 9 may vary from 5 to 3; current terminals are respectively attached to the conducting material with the polymer film and to the conducting back wall of the article, and to output terminals of the thermogenerators 10 to form two independent electrical circuits. The invention also relates to a method of producing said module.

EFFECT: photovoltaic module has high efficiency of converting electromagnetic energy to electrical energy.

2 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: energy industry.

SUBSTANCE: use: to implement solar generators panels to ensure electricity supply of spacecrafts, in particular satellites. Essence of invention consists in the fact that each photogalvanic element of the grate is mounted on the substrate using the soft and self-adhesive and easily detachable fastening device, at that the rear side of each cell and the front side of the substrate are coated with a layer that improves their properties of heat radiation.

EFFECT: reduction of mechanical connection of photogalvanic grate of solar generator relative to its supporting substrate while simultaneous providing sufficient radiation communication of the cell with the substrate, to avoid its heating in flight and the loss of its effectiveness.

5 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to silicon multi-junction photoelectric converters of solar cell panels. The structure of an "inclined" silicon monocrystalline multi-junction photoelectric converter according to the invention includes diode cells with n+-p--p+ (p+-n--n+) junctions which are parallel to a horizontal light-receiving surface; the diode cells include n+(p+) and p+(n+) regions of n+-p--p+(p+-n--n+) junctions through which they are connected into a single structure by metal cathodes and anodes placed on the surface of n+(p+) and p+(n+) regions to form corresponding ohmic contacts - connections, wherein the n+(p+) and p+(n+) regions and corresponding cathodes and anodes are placed at an angle in the range of 30-60 degrees to the light-receiving surface; the metal cathodes and anodes are placed on their surface partially, and partially lie on the surface of an optically transparent dielectric which is placed on the surface of n+(p+) and p+(n+) regions, wherein they form an optical reflector with the metal electrodes and the optically transparent dielectric. Also disclosed is a method of making the described structure of an "inclined" silicon monocrystalline multi-junction photoelectric converter.

EFFECT: high efficiency of photoconverters.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance with the invention claimed solar-powered generator (100) contains thermoelectric elements adjoining solar elements and located below solar elements. Concentrated flow of solar energy is provided. Heat sink (104), with changeable temperature and efficiency, contacts with cold soldered seam (108) of thermoelectric device (103). Thermal resistance is calculated with respect to energy flow, which results in creation in thermoelectrical device (103) of temperature gradient equal to several hundreds of Kelvin degrees. Solar element preferably contains semiconductor with large width of prohibited energy zone. Generator (100) preserves relatively suitable efficiency (efficiency factor) in some range of cold seam (108) temperature. System of hot water can serve as heat sink (104). High values of efficiency factor are obtained due to application of nanocomposite thermoelectrical materials. One-piece construction of solar element and thermoelectrical elements provides additional advantages.

EFFECT: uniformly but sparsely distributed thermoelectrical segments in matrix from material with high heat-insulating properties reduces quantity of material required for segments without impairment of working characteristics.

17 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: multipurpose solar power plant (hereinafter referred to as MSPP) refers to renewable power sources, and namely to use of solar radiation to generate electric power, provide hot water supply and natural illumination of rooms of different applications, which contains the following: an optically active transparent dome representing a rectangular biconvex lens, a photovoltaic panel, a solar collector, round flat horizontal dampers of hollow light guides, hollow light guide tubes, a heat-receiving copper plate of the solar collector, a solar light dissipator, micromotors of round flat horizontal dampers of hollow light guide tubes, round light-emitting-diode lamps, storage batteries, light and temperature sensors, an electronic control unit, a control panel, a storage tank, a heat exchanger, a pump, a check valve, six-sided copper pipelines, an inverter and a support with support racks to support MSPP structure.

EFFECT: reduction of financial costs for conventional electric power, conversion of the solar power to electric and thermal power, for natural illumination of rooms of different applications and as energy-active roofs of different buildings.

10 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus for detecting luminescence in a sample includes an optical system for illuminating a sample with a linear beam, having a light source (24), having an asymmetric intensity distribution, a beam shaper (30) which transforms the light beam from the light source into an intermediate astigmatic image, and an image forming system (L1, 26) for transforming the intermediate astigmatic image into a final astigmatic image. The beam shaper is arranged such that the beam at the output of the optical system is focused into a linear beam. The beam shaper (30) provides non-identical magnification in the lateral plane and in the transversal plane and comprises a toroidal input surface and a toroidal output surface, each having a finite radius of curvature and capable of making intensity distribution in the cone of light emitted by the light source more symmetrical.

EFFECT: reduced dimensions, high reliability of the device and simple design.

12 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: objective lens has a housing, a drive for rotating the housing about an axis, an objective lens mounted on a stand on two bearings, and three lenses, the first of which a negative spherical fixed lens which expands a parallel laser beam entering the objective lens, a second lens and a third lens which are positive and cylindrical with mutually perpendicular edges which define dimensions of the oval laser spot focused on a substrate independent of each other. The second lens controls the value of the larger axis of the oval spot during operation and the third fixed lens defines the value of the smaller axis of the oval spot through preliminary setting of the distance from the objective lens to the substrate. The objective lens has two mini-motors. One mini-motor provides the spatial position of the larger axis of the oval laser spot at a tangent to outline of the cut component and the second mini-motor varies the length of that axis during processing by moving the second lens along the optical axis of the objective lens.

EFFECT: controlling the shape of the spot of focused laser beam during operation.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method of varying neck diameter of an output laser beam at a fixed distance from the laser is realised by a device having a laser which emits a beam with neck diameter 2hp1 and a confocality parameter zk1, a two-component optical system which forms, in the initial position of components, an output neck with diameter 2hp20' at a distance L0 from the laser, each component of the optical system being capable of moving along an optical axis. Matched displacement of components is carried out along the optical axis according to the law s2(s1)=a·y(s1)-Δ0+s1, where: s1 and s2 are displacements of the first and second components of the optical system; a=f1'2/zk1; Δ0 is the distance between the rear focus F2 of the first component and the front focus F2 of the second component in the initial position. Parameter y is determined by solving the cubic equation a2(x2+1)y3+a[2axb(x2+1)]y2+[a(a2bx)+f2'2(x2+1)]y+xf2'2ab=0, where x=zp10s1zk1;b=zp20'+Δ0s1; zp10 is the position of the neck of the input beam relative the front focus F1 of the first component in the initial position; zp20' is the position of the output neck relative the rear focus F2' of the second component in the initial position; f1' and f2' are the back focal distances of the components.

EFFECT: enabling formation of a laser beam with a variable neck diameter at a fixed distance from the laser.

4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: collimating optical system has a lens and two rectangular prisms arranged in series on a beam path. The edges of the refracting dihedral angles of the prisms are directed perpendicular to the plane of the semiconductor junction. The refracting angles of the prism are the same and are selected in the range of 20…42°, α is the angle of incidence of radiation beams on the prism and β is the refracting angles of the prism, selected based on the relationship: where n is the refraction index of the material of the prism. The focal distance of the lens F is selected based on the relationship where φ is the required radiation divergence; a|| is the size of the emitting region of the semiconductor laser in a plane which is parallel to the plane of the semiconductor junction.

EFFECT: reduced size of optical-electronic devices using semiconductor laser radiation while preserving quality.

5 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: matching laser optical system is configured to ensure constancy of the size and position of the output waist during variation of the size of the input waist and comprises a laser, the beam of which, with a confocal parameter Zk, has an initial waist with radius varying in the range [hp,min; hp,max] with nominal value hp0, as well as an optical system consisting of first and second mobile components configured to form in the plane of the irradiated object, the output waist of the laser beam with constant size hp and at a constant distance L from the initial waist.

EFFECT: ensuring constant size and position of the output waist relative the initial waist.

5 dwg

FIELD: physics, optics.

SUBSTANCE: method involves formation of an initial converging laser beam and converting it to a beam with polarisation mode distributed on the aperture using a birefringent element, polarisation filtering of the beam with a polariser, adjustment of the spatial profile of intensity of the beam by rotating the birefringent element, or the polarisation vector of the initial converging beam, or polariser. The birefringent element is a birefringent plate lying between telescopic lenses and enables creation of a non-identical angle between the axis of the birefringent plane and the wave vector of an extraordinary ray for identical angles of deviation of the rays from the axis of the beam, which enables formation of a parabolic spatial profile of intensity after polarisation filtering, identical in one of the planes along the direction of propagation and all planes parallel to the said plane on the entire aperture of the beam.

EFFECT: formation of a laser beam with a parabolic spatial profile of intensity with controlled level of intensity of radiation at the centre of the parabola, as well as controlled position of the parabola on the aperture of the beam.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: device has a laser beam source, a transmitting element in form of a tube placed on the path of beam and filled with air at atmospheric pressure, and a recording unit. On both ends of the tube there are optically transparent end caps which reduce uncertainty of the spatial coordinates of the axis of the beam at the output of the tube. The tube with end caps acts as a high-Q cavity resonator and under the effect of external broad-band (white) noise, a standing wave having natural frequency and overtones is initiated in the tube, under the effect of which equalisation of optical refraction coefficients of air inside the tube takes place.

EFFECT: maximum spatial localisation of the laser beam to enable its use as an extended coordinate axis.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: optical system includes two channels, each of which consists of a collimating lens 1 and a refracting component 2, and a summation component 3, fitted behind refracting components 2 of both channels and having a surface with a polarisation coating. The channels are turned such that, the radiation polarisation planes of the lasers are mutually orthogonal and their optical axes intersect on the surface of the summation component with polarisation coating and coincide behind the summation component. The polarisation coating completely transmits radiation polarised in the plane of incidence on the given surface, and completely reflects radiation polarised in the perpendicular plane. Focal distances of the lenses, size of the illumination body in the semiconductor junction plane and angular divergence of the beam collimated by the lens are linked by expressions given in the formula of invention.

EFFECT: increased power density and uniformity of angular distribution of radiation intensity with minimum energy losses on components of the optical system and minimal overall dimensions.

9 cl, 6 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: optics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method aims at producing light homogenisation device comprising at least one substrate (1) that features at least one optically functional surface with large amount of lens elements (2) that, in their turn, feature systematic surface irregularities. At the first stage aforesaid lens elements (2) are formed in at least one optically functional surface of at least one substrate (1). At the second stage at least one substrate (1) is divided into at least two parts (3, 4). Then at least two aforesaid parts of substrate (1) are jointed together again, provided there is a different orientation of at least one of aforesaid parts (4). The said different orientation of one of at least two parts allows preventing addition of light deflections caused by aforesaid systematic surface irregularities after light passage through separate lens elements.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of light homogenisation.

16 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: physics; optics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method for control of partially coherent or incoherent optical radiation wave or waves field intensity distribution at final distance from its source or in far-field region and device that realises the stated method. At that in realisation of the stated method, optical element is used, which is installed in mentioned field and comprises diffraction grid arranged as periodical by one or two coordinates x, y that are orthogonal in relation to direction of falling optical radiation distribution, with the possibility to separate the mentioned field into partially colliding beams aligned in relation to directions of diffraction order directions.

EFFECT: even distribution of intensity in multimode laser beam with the help of diffraction element.

11 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: autocollimator may be used for measurement of rotation angles relative to two axes orthogonal to autocollimator lens axis using one CCD-ruler. Autocollimator includes optical system of autocollimating mark image formation based on source of radiation, located in sequence condenser, mark, beam splitter and lens, photodetector in the form of CCD-ruler with control system including sync-pulse generator, and system for processing of videosignals from low-pass filter, video pulse former and video pulse fronts former, and unit of data processing. Mark and photodetector are installed in lens focal plane. Introduced series-connected are selector, peak detector, subtractor and power amplifier. Selector input is connected to low-pass filter output, and power amplifier output is connected to radiation source. Mark is designed as a set of continuous bars forming three horizontal zones, medium of which is designed from at least one vertical bar and at least one inclined side bar. Bars height is equal to zone height, horizontal sections of mark in various zones differ by quantity of bars sections or their mutual arrangement.

EFFECT: improving accuracy, compactness and reliability.

5 cl, 3 dwg

Up!