Early diagnostic technique for cardiovascular diseases by multichannel spectral analysis of slow waves of heart signals
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely to non-invasive techniques for qualitative-quantitative analysis of the cardiovascular functional state. A pulse signal and an electric heart signal are recorded for 2-3 minutes. The slow waves are recovered from two heart signals; slow-wave spectra are detected in two channels. The windowed Fourier transform is used to calculate spectral ratio powers of the slow waves of the heart signal in the second-order slow-term within the range of 0.01 to 0.05 Hz, in the first-order slow-term within the range of 0.05 to 0.15 Hz, in the respiratory component within the range of 0.15 to 0.5 Hz. The derived data are used to form six informative criteria X…X6. As the heart signal recorded in one of the channels, a heart rate is calculated and used as the seventh informative criterion. The generated seven-element vector of the informative criteria is supplied to an input of a trained neuron network, outputs of which correspond to the allocated classes of the cardiovascular diseases.
EFFECT: technique enables early diagnosing aiming at preventing the disease progression, thereby preventing an increase of the primary hypertension incidence by analysing two heart signals.
3 cl, 9 dwg, 2 ex
The invention relates to the field of medical diagnostics, and in particular to methods of diagnosis, based on the study of the vibrational structure of the cardiac signal.
The method allows to improve the diagnosis of early stages of hypertension, including in childhood and adolescence in individuals with no apparent increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and can be used in intelligent decision support in the appointment of antihypertensive therapy.
Known way to assess cardiovascular risk, according to which all patients depending on pulse blood pressure risk are divided into four groups (see Benetos a, Safar M, Rudnichi A. et al. Pulse pressure: a predictor of long-term cardiovascular mortality in a French male population. / / Hypertension. - 1997. - Vol.30. - P. 1410-1415).
However, this diagnostic method is not effective enough due to the fact that the cardiovascular risk in addition to the pulse pressure is influenced by many not modifiable and modifiable factors are not considered in this method.
A known method of differential diagnosis based on mathematical processing of rhythmic patterns of peripheral pulse. The method is implemented for the differential diagnosis of cancer is benign lung diseases by calculating the criterion P, due to the amplitude and frequency parameters of the oscillatory components of the analyzed signal (RF patent No. 2100009, IPC7A61B 5/08 "Method of differential diagnostics of lung diseases", published 27.12.1997[Text] / Desove A. A., and others).
Diagnosis by this method has the following disadvantages: 1) uses the index only mechanical activity of the heart, whereas for the reliable diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases it is necessary to investigate both the direct measure of the electrical activity of the heart, and the ratio between the mechanical and electrical performance of the heart in the time and/or frequency domains; 2) the amplitude indicators sigmoidal upon which to build decision rules, is not allowed to commit their time coordinates with the required accuracy, due to the significant dependence of these coordinates from the sensors and filters in the amplifying path; 3) the decision rules propose to use a threshold characteristic values that are defined on the basis of statistical data, the adequacy of which is problematic in view of the shortcomings referred to in paragraph (2; 4) every informative symptom characterized by a weight coefficient determined by its information content, which is also defined is as the basis for statistical studies, when there are problems associated with an abnormal distribution of signs for classes of diseases or megamodules statistical distributions.
Closest to the claimed method is a method of early diagnosis of hypertension, according to which register of the pulse signal of the radial artery for 2...3 min, emit this signal characteristic point of a single oscillation for systolic and discretional waves, determine the duration of the phases between the peak systolic wave and the top of dicrotism wave form dynamic range, reflecting the dependence of this parameter from the rooms of the period, carry out the spectral analysis of the generated number in the frequency range of 0.01-0.5 Hz, divided into 3 frequency domain, and calculates the probability of the presence of the disease on the proposed mathematical formula (RF patent No. 2195160, IPC7A61B 5/02, A61B 5/04 "Method of early diagnosis of hypertension" published 27.12.2002 [Text] / Brezgunov I. P. and others).
The disadvantages of this method include all of the disadvantages listed for the previous version.
The objective of the invention is the reduction of cardiovascular risk in patients at an early stage of development of cardiovascular diseases.
For this purpose, in the known method for early diagnosis of cardiovascular Zab the diseases, consisting of reception of the pulse signal through photoelectric conversion in the area of the ball of the thumb of the left hand for 2...3 min and subsequent spectral analysis in three frequency bands of the frequency range of 0.01-0.5 Hz, synchronously with the pulse signal register electrocardiogram (EX), produce slow waves of two kardiosignalas determine the spectra of slow waves of these two signals, calculate the power spectral coefficients of slow waves two kardiosignalas in the field of the slow component of the 2nd order from 0.01 to 0.05 Hz, in the field of the slow component of the 1st order is from 0.05 to 0.15 Hz, in the field of respiratory component from 0.15 to 0.5 Hz, on the basis of these calculation results form six informative features X1...X6, on account of cardiomegaly in one of the channels calculate heart rate (HR), which is used as the seventh informative sign X7, and serves formed semielemental vector informative signs at the entrance of the neural network, trained on the separation of specified classes of cardiovascular risk, the outputs of which correspond to the partial classes of cardiovascular diseases.
To highlight the slow waves of the digitized pulse signal (the first channel) Z specify the amount which the structure-forming element, equal to 1.3...1.6 the average period of cardiomegaly (1/HR), perform a morphological dilation operation signal Z with the selected structural element and receive dynamic range Z1, perform morphological erosion operation signal Z with the selected structural element and receive dynamic range Z2, calculate the dynamic range Z3=Z1-Z2 and then subtract the DC component from the received signal, and then determine the windowed Fourier transform of the received dynamic range.
To highlight the slow waves of the digitized electrocardiogram (second channel) Y determine the absolute value of the signal in the second channel, |Y|, specify the size of the structural element, equal to 1.3...1.6 the average period of cardiomegaly (1/HR), perform a morphological dilation operation with the selected structural element and subtract the DC component from the received dynamic range, and then determine the windowed Fourier transform of the received dynamic range.
In Fig.1 shows a structural diagram of a device implementing this method.
In Fig.2 shows a plot of the signals taken from the sensor pulse sensor EX.
In Fig.3 shows a plot of the amplitude of the Fourier spectra of the signals shown in Fig.2.
In Fig.4 shows the algorithm implementing method.
In Fig.5 pok is Zan the allocation algorithm of the slow waves in the first channel.
In Fig.6 shows the plot corresponding to the sequence of signal processing in the first channel.
In Fig.7 shows the allocation algorithm is slow waves in the second channel.
In Fig.8 shows the plot corresponding to the sequence of signal processing in the second channel.
In Fig.9 shows the spectra of slow waves received in the first and second channels.
The method is carried out with the help of the device block diagram is shown in Fig.1. The device consists of a sensor pulse 1 - photoelectric sensor (mounted on the pad of the thumb of the left hand), sensor EX 2, dual-channel analog-to-digital interface 3, the two inputs of which are connected the outputs of the sensors 1 and 2, computer 4, to system bus that is connected to the analog interface 3, keyboard 5, is connected to a port of the computer 4, and a monitor 6 connected to the output of the computer 4.
The method is carried out in accordance with the scheme of the algorithm is shown in Fig.4. On the pad of the thumb of the left hand impose a photoelectric transducer. Sensor (amplifier) the FORMER is attached to the wrist of the right hand and left hand. The indifferent electrode is connected to the right leg. Sensors connected to the two-channel analog-to-digital Converter that digitizes signals from sensors, and enters them into a computer (see Fig.1). Ozimok the signals from the sensors is carried out synchronously within 2 to 3 min (blocks 1 and 2 of Fig.4). An example of the resulting signals is shown in Fig.2. In Fig.2, and shows a portion of the recording signal in the first channel, and Fig.2, b - synchronous him the fragment in the second channel. Amplitude windowed Fourier transform (BPA) photoplethysmograph and electrocardiogram (synchronous writes) is shown in Fig.3. The markers in Fig.3, and placed in the area of 1 Hz and 2 Hz, and the FIH.2, b - 1 Hz and 0.15 Hz. Analysis of these spectra shows that the energy of BPA in the channels are concentrated in different frequency regions: photoplethysmograph it is concentrated in the range of frequencies that are multiples of the frequency of the cardiac cycle, and electrocardiogram in the field of zero harmonics. This distribution of the spectra is not possible to localize the spectra of the respiratory component and the slow waves and, therefore, not possible to construct the space of informative features based on the spectrum of BPA.
After recording the signals on the two channels in the block 3 is determined by the heart rate (HR), and then the received signals are allocated slow waves (blocks 4 and 5) and evaluated them (blocks 6 and 7) of BPA. Then calculate the power spectral coefficients of slow waves in the first and second channels in the area of the slow component of the 2nd order from 0.01 to 0.05 Hz, in the region of the slow component of the 1st order is from 0.05 to 0.15 Hz, in the field of respiratory with the bringing - from 0.15 to 0.5 Hz (block 8). Spectra of slow waves in the two channels shown in Fig.9.
On the basis of the obtained results form six informative features X1...X6 curves are used as the seventh informative sign X7 and serves formed semielemental vector informative signs at the entrance to the training of the neural network, the outputs of which correspond to the partial classes of cardiovascular disease (section 9).
The configuration of the neural network (block 9) carried out by known algorithms, such as back-propagation algorithm errors [osowski, S. Neural networks for information processing [Text] // C. osowski / Lane. Polish I. D. Rudinsky. - M.: Finance and statistics, 2004. - 344].
Diagram of the algorithm for allocation of slow waves in the first channel shown in Fig.5. To highlight the slow waves of the pulse signal (the first channel) Z specify the length of the structural element (block 1). The length of the structural element is defined as
where f∂the sampling frequency of the signal (selected equal to 100 Hz), perform a morphological dilation operation signal Z with many zero elements, defined structural element of W (block 2), and get a dynamic range of Z1=Z⊕W. In Fig.6, and the plot of the signal Z1 obtained after morphological operations dilation of the original signal Z and many zero elements, formed by the backbone W. Then perform morphological erosion operation signal Z with many zero elements, formed by the backbone W, and receives the signal Z2=ZΘW (block 3). Plot of this signal is shown in Fig.6, b. After calculation of the signals Z1 and Z2 receive dynamic range Z3=Z1-Z2 (block 4) and then subtract the DC component from the received signal (blocks 5 and 6). In Fig.6, and in Fig.6, d shows the corresponding signals resulting from operation of block 4 and block 6.
Diagram of the algorithm for allocation of slow waves in the second channel is shown in Fig.7. To highlight the slow waves from electrocardiograma Y determine the absolute value of the signal in the second channel |Y|. Plot of this signal is shown in Fig.8, and. In unit 2 set the length of the structural element according to the forms of the Le (1).
In unit 3 perform morphological dilation operation signal |Y| with many zero elements, defined structural element W. In Fig.8, 6 shows a plot of the signal obtained at the output of block 3. In unit 4 calculates the DC component of the signal obtained by morphological operations dilation, and in block 5 this component is subtracted from the signal obtained at the output of block 3. Plot of the signal obtained at the output of block 5 shown in Fig.8, century
After separation of slow waves in both channels are defined by their BPA. Examples of BPA slow waves in the two channels shown in Fig.9.
After calculation of BPA calculates the energy of slow waves in three frequency bands (block 8), which identify informative features X1...X6. The calculated vector informative features served to the inputs of the training of the neural network (block 9 of Fig.4).
The state of the outputs of the neural network determines the class of the analyzed vector (X1...X7), that is, determine a diagnosis.
The proposed method was tested on more than 300 patients with diseases of arterial hypertension of various degrees of severity and different ages. When forming the training sample assessment of risk of development of cardiovascular complications was conducted in accordance with the methodology set out in the recommendations of the WHO-ISH (see World Health Organization-. Society of Hypertension. 1999 WHO-ISH guidelines for the management of hypertension // J. Hypertension. - 1999. - Vol.17. - P. 151-183). While patients with a low risk of complications was assigned a score of 1 point, medium - 2 points, with high - 3 points, with a very high - 4 points.
Example 1. Patient B., 61, came to the clinic with complaints raising HELL (150/95 mm RT.cent.), palpitations, headaches, sometimes hot flushes, increased sweating, irritability, anxiety, dry skin, weight gain.
From the anamnesis it is known that in the last two years were marked episodes of elevated BP, and therefore appealed to the cardiologist, but practically is not treated. In the past year joined the episodes of palpitations, irritability, anxiety, dry skin. Menopause with 56 years. At the same time notes the gradual increase of body weight (at the time 18 kg), hot flushes, increased sweating. In the survey by place of residence once the blood glucose level was 5.8 mmol/L.
The patient smokes for 6 years (1/2 packs a day). The early development of CVD in next of kin was not detected.
Upon physical examination: the patient is in satisfactory condition. Height 168 cm, weight 91 kg (BMI 33,09 kg/m2the index of FROM ABOUT 0,93). The skin is clean, no edema. Respiratory rate 18 in 1 min. Auscultatory to the rtina in the lungs and heart without features. Heart rate 82 / min, BP 130/80 mm RT.art., abdomen palpation soft, painless, the liver is not enlarged.
According to the results of clinical blood analysis and General analysis of urine pathological changes it is not revealed. ECG: sinus rhythm with heart rate of 80 in 1 min. Deviation of the electric axis of the heart to the left.
According to Echocardiography: significant abnormalities not detected.
Research through multi-channel spectral analysis of slow waves cardiomegaly: photoelectric sensor pulse was placed on the pads of the thumb of the left hand, the FORMER is removed in the second abstraction. Is synchronous recording of these signals for 2.5 min on the hard disk of a personal computer with a sampling interval of 0.01 s and analyzed in accordance with the above-described processing algorithm.
Neural network model that is configured into four classes of risk of cardiovascular complications, showed the third class of the level of risk of cardiovascular complications.
The patient was given detailed advice on lifestyle modification, dietary guidelines, explained the importance of controlling blood pressure, blood glucose level.
After the examination the patient was assigned moxonidine (Physiotens, Solvay Pharma) at a daily dose of 0.4 mg, which it took over 12 weeks.
The analysis of the obtained results it can be noted, is that, in addition to the target pressure according to the Smad, decreased the severity of vasomotor, psychological and emotional disorders. The patient subjectively reported improvement in General condition, decreased the body weight of 6 kg, decreased headaches. In addition, decreased the index of FROM ABOUT 4.1%, and BMI by 6.77% from the original. The levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides decreased 5.92 and 11.4%, respectively. The hungry (on empty stomach level of glucose in the background of treatment with moxonidine 0.4 mg/day also decreased by 12.7% from the original figures, in addition, improved oral glucose tolerance test.
Example 2. Patient E., age 14. Was in hospital for treatment for youth basophilism, arterial hypertension. The size of the GARDEN and DBP (mm RT.article.) - 160, 60; 140, 80 (while the norm in this age group GARDEN: 99-122, DBP: 54-75 mm RT.CT.) Research through multi-channel spectral analysis of slow waves cardiomegaly: photoelectric sensor pulse was placed on the pads of the thumb of the left hand, the FORMER is removed in the second abstraction. Is synchronous recording of these signals for 2.5 min on the hard disk of a personal computer with a sampling interval of 0.01 s and analyzed in accordance with the above-described processing algorithm.
Neural network model is configured on the diagnosis of hypertension. The diagnosis is a mini-assessment indicates the presence of an early stage of hypertension.
During the follow-up inspection (after 3 years) patient A. has remained a persistent increase in blood pressure.
This method is simple, economical for estimating the risk of developing hypertension. It can be used in medical examination and preventive examinations of persons from 20 to 76 years in outpatient and residential settings.
Obtained using this method results allow us to help the General practitioner, therapist for early prevention, aimed at preventing the development of disease, thereby helping to reduce cases of primary morbidity of hypertension.
The positive effect is that the method allows to predict the risk of developing hypertension and other cardiovascular complications. With sufficient accessibility and simplicity, the method has a high degree of information content and can be used in medical examination of the population.
1. Method for early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, in which registracii pulse signal through photoelectric conversion in the area of the ball of the thumb of the left hand for over 2...3 min and subsequent spectral analysis in three frequency bands of the frequency range of 0.01-0.5 Hz, wherein synchronously with the pulse signal register electrocardiogram, emit ment the nnye waves from these two kardiosignalas, determine the spectra of slow waves of these signals, calculate the power spectral coefficients of slow waves of kardiosignalas in the field of the slow component of the 2nd order from 0.01 to 0.05 Hz, in the region of the slow component of the 1st order is from 0.05 to 0.15 Hz, in the field of respiratory component from 0.15 to 0.5 Hz, on the basis of these results form six informative features X1...X6, on account of cardiomegaly in one of the channels calculate the heart rate, which is used as the seventh informative sign X7, and serves formed semielemental vector informative signs at the entrance to the training of the neural network, the outputs of which correspond to the partial classes of cardiovascular diseases.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the allocation of slow waves of the pulse signal (the first channel), presents a dynamic near Z digital samples of photoplethysmogram, specify the size of the structuring element equal to 1.3...1.6 the average period of cardiomegaly, perform morphological dilation operation signal Z with many zero elements received through the selected structural element, and receive dynamic range Z1, perform morphological erosion operation signal Z with many zero elements, obtained posredstvennoj backbone, and receive dynamic range Z2, calculate the dynamic range Z3=Z1-Z2 and then subtract the DC component from the received signal.
3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the allocation of slow waves from electrocardiogram (second channel), presents a dynamic near Y digital counts electrocardiograma determine the absolute value of the signal in the second channel, |Y|, specify the size of the structural element, equal to 1.3...1.6 the average period of cardiomegaly, perform morphological dilation operation signal |Y| with many zero elements received through the selected structural element, and subtract the DC component from the received dynamic range.
SUBSTANCE: recording ECG is followed by a perianal block with an anaesthetic solution in an amount of 10.0-15.0 ml. Then 60-90 min later ECG is recorded once again, and this recording is compared to the pre-block recording. If observing a positive dynamics of the ECG results, ischemia caused by the anorectal cardioinhibitory reflex is diagnosed. No positive dynamics observed enables diagnosing cardiogenic myocardial ischemia.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to perform the more accurate differential diagnosis of the above pathologies by following a specific procedure in case of pain syndrome in the given category of patients.
SUBSTANCE: recording ECG is followed by a bilateral translumbar block with an anaesthetic solution in an amount of 120-140 ml from each side. Then 60-90 min later ECG is recorded once again, and this recording is compared to the pre-block recording. If observing a positive dynamics of the ECG results, ischemia caused by the enteral cardioinhibitory reflex with underlying intraluminal intestinal hypertension is diagnosed. No positive dynamics observed enables diagnosing myocardial ischemia caused by a cardiac pathology.
EFFECT: enabling performing the more accurate differential diagnosis of the above pathologies by following a specific procedure in case of pain syndrome in the given category of patients.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to medical equipment. In the method realisation ECG graphs and graphs of tracks of coordinates of the heart electric activity source are built in the system of coordinates, connected to electrodes on the patient's body. After that, the time "zone of beginning" of a P/Q impulse is identified. In the "zone of beginning" a time ECG track is approximated and an intersection of an approximated curve with an isoline is found to determine the time moment of the point of P/Q "beginning". The determined time moments of the "beginning" points are transferred onto an initial track of impulses. The origin of the myocardium coordinate system is transferred into the determined point P of the track. Coordinates of the sinus node of the myocardium SU are tied to the track origin for the complex P, and those of the interventricular septum IVS - to the track origin for the impulse Q. The device for the method realisation contains an electrocardiograph, a unit for the identification of the time area of the "beginning" of the impulse P/Q, a unit of fixation of the "beginning" point on the graph of the tracks and a unit of transfer of the primary system of coordinates into the myocardium coordinate system.
EFFECT: group of inventions makes it possible to increase the efficiency of electrocardiographic examination due to an increased accuracy in the measurement of coordinates of the heart electric activity source.
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SUBSTANCE: patient is tested to determine clinical characteristics, each of which is scored to calculate a diagnostic index. The following clinical characteristics are determined: arterial hypertension taking into account its stage and length; diabetes mellitus, its length taking into account the patient's age and complications; ischemic heart disease and its length, cardiac angina, myocardial infarction and its length; the patient's age; compliance; smoking. The absence of any of the above characteristics is scored as 0 points. That is followed by calculating the total score; depending on the derived value, a high, moderate or low probability of the suffered silent stroke is predicted.
EFFECT: method enables establishing the presence of the suffered silent stroke reliably.
3 dwg, 4 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely to physiology and dermatovenerology, to diagnostic technique for a risk of developing pitted keratolysis accompanied by stress as an uncurable element of the professional environment for the purpose of the goal-oriented prevention of the above disease in the individuals having hazardous occupations. A heart rate variability is examined twice - before and 15 minutes after a hot test on a plantar surface. If observing no decrease of the LF/HF value as compared to the reference, a risk of developing stress-induced pitted keratolysis is diagnosed.
EFFECT: technique provides more accurate diagnosis of a risk of developing stress-induced pitted keratolysis by examining the heart rate variability and using the hot test.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment. A device for suppressing a power-frequency noise effect on an electric cardiosignal comprises a TR-segment time domain selection unit (2), a key element (8), a filter (14), an amplifier (15), a delay unit (16) and a subtract unit (17). An input of the device is connected to the first input of the key element and an input of the delay unit; an output of the device is an output of the subtract unit. The device comprises an electric cardiosignal second derivative forming unit (1), a comparator (3), an RS-trigger (4), an AND circuit (5), a binary counter (6), a decoder (7), second (9), third (10), fourth (11) and fifth (12) key elements and a scaling amplifier (13).
EFFECT: using the invention enables the higher noise resistance of the analysed electric cardiosignal without misrepresenting information components.
SUBSTANCE: diagnostic technique for the ischemic heart disease is implemented by stating risk factors, symptoms and ECG findings, diagnostic characters (DC) of which are distributed into groups and assigned with certain numerical scores. Conditional probabilities of the presence or absence of IHD in a specific patient are calculated. The findings are used to establish the diagnosis of IHD or not.
EFFECT: technique enables providing establishing the more accurate diagnosis of IHD by taking into account a complex of various DCs, the records of which are processed by a mathematical model.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely to diagnostics and physiology. The RR intervals are recorded, and the derived sequence is processed. The RR sequence length is specified not less than 300 sec. That is followed by dividing the RR sequence into data windows A1…An of the length of 75 sec≤A≤300 sec at a window shift pitch B of 1 sec≤B≤10 sec. Further, for each data window: the frequency Fourier transform is used to derive power distribution of the initial window; the derived power distributions are integrated at all frequencies within not less than 0.015-0.6 Hz to produce total power TP of the heart rate variability; low frequency power PLF is calculated by not less than 0.04-0.15 Hz; high frequency power PHF is calculated by not less than 0,15-0.6 Hz; the relation PLF/PHF is calculated; the derived TP sets and PLF/PHF relations are normalised to produce standard values X1…n of the derived TP sets and standard values Y1…n of the PLF/PHF set. That is followed by calculating a synchronism analysis function of each data window f1…n=(sinX1…n-sinY1…n)/|sinX1…n-sinY1…n|. The presence or absence of the stress condition is stated by analysing the derived values f1…n.
EFFECT: method enables providing more reliable diagnosis of the beginning individual's stress condition by analysing the RR interval.
2 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: treating bronchial asthma (BA) in a child suffering from a mild, moderate or severe episode involves measuring a peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). The child's age, height and sex are stated. The derived data are used to determine the adequate peak expiratory flow rate. That is followed by calculating the peak expiratory flow rate coefficient by specific formula. The following data of the past medical history are taken into account: the child's duration of the disease, the length of basic therapy, completed months, for one year preceding the acute period of the disease, as well as the presence of allergic diseases in immediate maternal and paternal relatives. A severity of the BA episodes is assessed. Each value derived from the past medical history is assigned with numerical values reflecting their prognostic significance. Heart rates are measured. Cardiointervalography is performed, and a vagosympathetic balance coefficient is determined. That is followed by calculating a risk of cardiohaemodynamic disorders (CHD) taking into account the above criteria by specific formula. If CHD<0.34, Fenoterol selective β2-adrenoceptor agonist is selected as a bronchial spasmolytic in the acute period of the disease. If 0.34≤CHD≤0.46, ipratropium bromide m-cholinoblocker is selected as the bronchial spasmolytic. If CHD>0.46, combined ipratropium bromide + Fenoterol is used as the bronchial spasmolytic.
EFFECT: reduced number of cardiovascular complications in the above category of children.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods and devices of identifying reasons of cardiac rhythm disturbance. Method consists in perception of signals of heart excitation in multitude of locations with application of multitude of sensors, collection of data from multitude of sensors. Collected data include sensor location for each sensor and time of heart excitation origination in each sensor location, so multitude of times of excitation origination in multitude of locations of sensors are collected, and then their sequence is formed. Obtained data are then analysed and approximate central areas, connected with excitation pathway, pointing to reasons of said cardiac rhythm disturbance, are determined.
EFFECT: application of invention makes it possible to determine location of reasons of cardiac rhythm disturbance for the following treatment with minimally invasive, surgical and other methods.
37 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medical equipment. An arterial blood pulsation recorder comprises a pulse generator, a light source, a photoelectric receiver, a current-to-voltage converter, an AC voltage amplifier, a synchronous decoder, and a band-pass filter. The device additionally comprises an accelerometer, an analogue-to-digital converter, a microcontroller, an adaptive filter, a subtracting unit. An output of the band-pass filter is connected to the first input of the analogue-to-digital converter; an output of the accelerometer is connected to the second input of the analogue-to-digital converter; an output of the analogue-to-digital converter is connected to an input of the microcontroller; the first output of the microcontroller is connected to the first input of the subtracting unit; the second output of the microcontroller is connected to the first input of the adaptive filter; an output of the subtracting unit is connected to the second input of the adaptive filter; an output of the adaptive filter is connected to the second input of the subtracting unit.
EFFECT: using the invention enables higher noise resistance of the individual's arterial blood pulsation recording signal with underlying motion artefacts caused by random motions of the person being tested.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, namely pulmonology, allergology, cardiology, functional diagnostics. Elastic and functional properties of the aorta are assessed by analysing the pulse wave characteristics recorded by non-invasive arteriography. The derived data provide a basis to calculate the principal characteristics of an arterial rigidity: the aortal pulse wave velocity - APWV and the augmentation index - AI. If observing the APWV value of 7 m/s and more and the AI value of 30% and more, the diastolic dysfunction of both ventricles is predicted.
EFFECT: method enables the timely diagnosing to begin corrective therapy in the patients suffering from bronchial asthma by assessing the pulse wave velocity in the aorta and the augmentation index.
1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: apparatus (1) for detecting pulse wave and breathing cycle signals of a person has two current-conducting electrodes (2, 3) to be attached to the human body, a first (4) and a second (6) operational amplifier, an amplitude detector (5), a switched frequency-dependent voltage divider (8) and a microcontroller (7). The electrodes (2, 3) are connected in the negative feedback circuit of the first operational amplifier (4). The microcontroller (7) is configured to generate a high-frequency carrier signal at the output of a first input/output port (L). The upper (10) and lower (11) arms of the voltage divider (8) are formed by two circuits, having a common end at the mid-point of the voltage divider and two separate ends. The second operational amplifier (6) and the voltage divider (8) form an active band-pass filter with upper and lower cut-off frequencies defined by parameters of the upper (10) and lower (11) arms of the voltage divider (8), respectively. The frequency response of such a filter when the second input/output port (M) of the microcontroller (7) is connected to zero potential enables signal detection in a frequency band which corresponds to the frequency band the pulse wave signal, and enables signal detection in the frequency band corresponding to the frequency band of the breathing cycle signal when the third input/output port (N) of the microcontroller (7) is connected to zero potential.
EFFECT: detecting pulse wave and breathing cycle signals of a person based on measuring the impedance of a body area using a simple non-adjustable electrical circuit.
14 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, specifically cardiology, cardiosurgery and functional diagnostics. Two transmitting and two measuring electrodes are applied on specific parts of body. A rheogram and a differential rheogram are recorded. Areas between an isoline and a rheogram curve on the left and on the right from a rheogram point falling on a systole end and a diastole start of the left ventricle. Blood haemoglobin is measured. A stroke volume is measured by a calibration characteristic of the related areas between the isoline and the rheogram curve with the rated volume function from blood haemoglobin.
EFFECT: method provides accuracy 3 times higher within the adaptive range specified a priori by the rated haemoglobin of two patients with the known stroke volume.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: rheoencephalography (REG) is performed to measure a cerebrovascular reactivity index during hypercapnia, to record audio and cognitive induced potentials, to measure N2 spike amplitude of the audio induced potentials, length of latency P300, and blood plasma noradrenaline. A canonical variate (Cv) is calculated including the derived values. If Cv is equal to or more than a constant, the presence of the early manifestations of mercurial intoxication is stated; Cv being less than a constant enables diagnosing first degree of chronic mercurial intoxication.
EFFECT: method provides more reliable assessment that is ensured by selecting more informative values.
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SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to physiology and rehabilitation science. Analysis of heart rhythm variability (HRV) before and after test, modelling load in case of fire is performed with identification of disadaptable indices, and rate of pulse wave spreading (RPWS) in vessels of muscular type is determined. If RPWS value remains higher or equal 12 m/s and disadaptive changes of HRV indices remain unchanged for 3 days after test, risk of development of post-stress disorders is identified.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to objectivise and optimise preparation of people having dangerous jobs, monitor efficiency of rehabilitative measures individually for a particular person, realize professional prediction for training and following service, dose intensity of impact of stressogenic factors during training.
3 ex, 3 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: mechanical work of a frog's isolated heart is recorded by impedance cardiogram curve characterising contractive activity of the isolated heart in Ringer's solution for cold-blooded animals. The record is bipolar by means of "RheoSpectrum" rheographic system. In this case, one electrode is placed on a heart area to be examined, and the second one - into Ringer's solution surrounding the heart.
EFFECT: enabled simple and easy data acquisition on the mechanical work of the various departments of the isolated non-fixed heart with no risk of a myocardium damage; enabled continuous prolonged computer record of impedance cardiogram with saving the results on digital media.
4 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: device for evaluating arterial elasticity comprises an infrared diode 1, a photoelectric receiver 2, a current-to-voltage converter 3, a voltage amplifier 4, a high-pass filter 5, an analogue-to-digital converter 9, a microcontroller 10, as well as additionally contains ECG sensors 6, ECG signal amplifier 7, an R-wave selector 8, two Fourier-transform processors 11 and 12, a subtracter 13. The ECG sensors are connected to outputs of the ECG signal amplifier; an output of the ECG signal amplifier is connected to an input of the R-wave selector; an output of the R-wave selector is connected to a second output of the analogue-to-digital converter. An output of the high-pass filter is connected to a first input of the analogue-to-digital converter; an output of the analogue-to-digital converter is connected to an input of the microcontroller; a first output of the microcontroller is connected to an input of the first Fourier-transform processor; a second output of the microcontroller is connected to an input of the second Fourier-transform processor; an input of the first Fourier-transform processor is connected to a first input of the subtracter; an output of the second Fourier-transform processor is connected to a second input of the subtracter.
EFFECT: use of the invention enables higher accuracy and reliability of evaluating arterial elasticity.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of medicine, in particular hepatology. Polyhepatography is performed, amplitude, form of blood filling waves, basic body resistance in area of the liver and their change in carrying out two functional tests - with breath-holding and with nitroglycerin are measured. If wave amplitude is higher than 0.1 ohm, basic resistance is not higher than 100 ohm, wave shape looks "normal" or takes "normal" form in carrying out at least one of the two performed functional tests, absence of fibrosis is determined. If wave amplitude is higher than 0.1 ohm, basic resistance is not higher than 120 ohm, wave form looks normal "with plateau" at the beginning of systolic rise, which remains in functional test with nitroglycerin, liver fibrosis is estimated as periportal. If basic resistance is not higher than 140 ohm, wave has "two-phase asymmetric" form, does not tend to change to normal-looking form in functional test with nitroglycerin, liver fibrosis is estimated as portoportal. If basic resistance is not lower than 120 ohm, wave has "two-phase asymmetric" form with flattened diastola, with tendency to change towards normal-looking form in at least one of the two functional tests, liver fibrosis is estimated as portocentral. In case of amplitude not higher than 0.1 ohm, basic resistance higher than 150 ohm, wave has "two-phase asymmetric" form with flattened diastola, with no tendency to change towards normal-looking form in neither of the two functional tests, live cirrhosis is estimated. If basic resistance is higher than 100 ohm, wave has "plateau-like" form with no tendency to change towards normal-looking form in neither of the two functional tests, liver fibrosis is estimated as perivenular fibrosis. If wave has form "with local rise at the end of diastolic part, which does not tend to change towards normal-looking form in neither of the two functional tests, liver fibrosis is estimated as fibrosis of central pulmonary veins.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to carry out differential estimation of liver fibrosis at early stages of disease.
3 tbl, 8 dwg, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers in particular to instant diagnosis the CSV of the patient on the basis of the cardiac rhythm variability test. RR intervals (RRI) of the patient are registered and their length is measured. Then the dynamic range of RRI by means of excluding extra systoles which length T3 exceeds double value of the minimum length of RRI 2Tmin and the average length of RRI Tavr in the dynamic range with excluded extra systoles is calculated and changed by the extra systoles on the RRI of length Tavr. Autocorrelation function of the dynamic range RRI is formed and converted to the autocorrelation matrix. The state of the patient's cardiovascular system P is judged by the value of the composite index of the patient's health P, which contains the new index of the regulatory systems tension taking into account maximum and minimum proper values of the autocorrelation matrix and age of the patient in years.
EFFECT: means provides simplification, urgency, advanced objectiveness and accuracy of the diagnosis the cardiovascular system of the patient.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves recording rheogram from feet and legs lifted and fixed at an angle of 45є. Then, rheogram is recorded on inhaling from legs directed vertically downward. Functional blood circulation reserve index is calculated as product of results of dividing and subtracting rheographic indices recorded under conditions of lifted and lowered extremities that means under conditions of functional venous system relief and venous hypertension, respectively.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in recognizing patient group suffering from severe lower extremities ischemia.