SUBSTANCE: concrete mixture contains, wt %: portland cement 24.0-26.0, expanded clay with particle size of 20-40 mm 10.0-15.0, haydite sand 41.4-47.1, superplasticiser S-3 1.0-1.5, sodium ethyl siliconate or sodium methyl siliconate 1.0-1.5, lavsan fibre cut into 10-20 mm pieces 0.1-0.15, water 15.0-17.0.
EFFECT: high strength of articles made from the concrete mixture.
The invention relates to the construction materials industry, in particular to the manufacture of concrete building blocks for low-rise construction.
Famous concrete mixture containing the wt.%: cement 21,3-24,2; clay 57,6-64,0; clay sand 8,6-17,8; expanded perlite sand 3,2-4,6; saponified rosin 0,001-0,0012; water .
The objective of the invention is to increase the durability of products derived from the concrete mixture.
The technical result is achieved by the fact that the concrete mix including Portland cement, lightweight aggregate, expanded clay sand, water, further comprises a superplasticizer C-3, ethylsilicate sodium or potassium methyl siliconate and sliced into segments 10-20 mm Mylar fiber, wt.%: Portland 24,0-26,0; expanded clay fraction 20-40 mm 10,0-15,0; clay sand 41,4-47,1; superplasticizer C-3 1.0 to 1.5; ethylsilicate sodium or potassium methyl siliconate 1.0 to 1.5; cut into segments 10-20 mm Mylar fiber 0,1-0,15; water 15,0-17,0.
The composition of concrete mixtures are given in the table.
|composition No. 1||composition No. 2||composition No. 3composition No. 4|
|The expanded clay (fraction 20-40 mm)||10,0||12,5||12,5||15,0|
|The potassium methyl siliconate||-||-||1,5||1,0|
|Cut into segments 10-20 mm Mylar fiber||0,1||0,15||0,15||0,1|
|Water||16,8||of 17.0||of 17.0||15,0|
|The strength of concrete in compression at the age of 28 days, MPa||4-5||4-5||4-5||4-5|
In the concrete mixture used superplasticizer C-3, obtained on the basis of the condensation products of naphthalenesulfonate and formaldehyde .
The components are metered in the desired quantities and mix. Prepared concrete mixture is placed in a metal (pre-lubricated with mineral oil) shape and leave to set.
The source of information
1. SU 1276650, 1986.
2. Afanas'ev, A. A. Concrete work. - M.: Higher.HQ., 1991. - S. 29-30.
Concrete mix including Portland cement, lightweight aggregate, expanded clay sand, water, characterized in that it further comprises a superplasticizer C-3, ethylsilicate sodium or potassium methyl siliconate and sliced into segments 10-20 mm Mylar fiber, wt.%:
|the clay fraction 20-40 mm||10,0-15,0|
|ceramsite sand||41,4 was 47.1|
|superplus is idicator S-3||1,0-1,5|
|ethylsilicate sodium or potassium methyl siliconate||1,0-1,5|
|cut into segments 10-20 mm Mylar fiber||0,1-0,15|
SUBSTANCE: concrete mixture, which includes portland cement, expanded clay, haydite sand, water, further contains asbestos of 6-7 types, which is fluffed up in advance, gypsum binder, sodium methyl siliconate or sodium ethyl siliconate, with the following ratio of components, wt %: portland cement 26.0-30.0; expanded clay with particle size of 20-40 mm 46.0-48.0; haydite sand 5.0-8.5; asbestos of 6-7 types, which is fluffed up in advance, 0.5-1.0; gypsum binder 0.5-1.0; sodium methyl siliconate or sodium ethyl siliconate1.0-1.5; water 15.0-17.0.
EFFECT: high strength.
SUBSTANCE: concrete mixture contains, wt %: portland cement 18.87-21.34, expanded clay 41.13-41.56, superplasticiser LSTM 0.0312, thermal power plant fly ash 13.92-18.87, gas-forming additive PAK-3 0.022-0.025, iron-containing sludge - chemical production waste 0.10-0.50, water - the balance.
EFFECT: obtaining concrete with higher strength and low density.
SUBSTANCE: charge for production of a porous filler comprises, wt %: montmorillonite clay 82.0-86.0, ground schungite sifted via a net with hole size of 2.5 mm 8.0-10.0, ground wollastonite sifted via a net with a hole size of 2.5 mm 6.0-8.0.
EFFECT: increased strength of a porous filler produced from charge.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the production of building materials and products, in particular to wall ceramic products, and can be applied in the production of ceramic bricks and stones. A ceramic mass includes easily fusible clay and carbonate-silicon zeolite-containing rock of a mixed mineral composition and flotation wastes of coal washing - coal slurries, and carbonate-silicon zeolite-containing rock is applied with a degree of milling less than 1 mm, with the following component ratio, wt %: easily fusible clay - 60-75; carbonate-silicon zeolite-containing rock - 20-25; flotation wastes of coal washing - 5-15.
EFFECT: reduction of an average density and heat conductivity, increase of the product durability and reduction of expenditures for burning.
1 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method for producing lightweight ceramic heat-insulating building material, comprising mixture of pre-treated silica-containing component and alkaline component, homogenization of raw mixture, drying of the granulated raw mixture, grinding of dried granules and firing in metal moulds. At that, the preliminary treatment of silica-containing component is carried out at stone-separating rolls in order to remove strong impurities and activate the silicon dioxide, in the drying apparatus to achieve the humidity of 19-25% and in grinding device in order to achieve the maximum particle size of 1 mm. Diatomite o tripoli and/or flask, containing the active silicon dioxide is used as silica-containing component, mixture of caustic soda and soda ash in the ratio of 0.5-0.8/1 is used as alkali component. Mixing of silica-containing component and alkaline component is carried out in the mixer of periodic action, providing the content of mass fraction in dry raw mixture of caustic soda of 6-14% and soda ash of 6-15%. Homogenization of raw mixture is carried out by treatment in strew press with filtering grid with size of cells of 8-25 mm, and drying of granular raw material mixture is carried out in dryer drum until the humidity of 5-7% is achieved. Grinding of dried granules is performed until the achievement of maximum particle size of 3 mm, and firing of silicate mixture, obtained as a result of grinding, is carried out in metal moulds in oven by raising the temperature up to 650°C with speed of 100-120°C/hour, and up to maximum of 680-800°C - with speed of 15-25°C/hour with subsequent isothermal exposure at maximum temperature during 1-3 hours, cooling from the maximum temperature up to 600°C is carried out with speed of 30-50°C/hour and from 600 to 50°C - with speed of 50-60°C/hour.
EFFECT: reduction of energy costs and improvement of hygienic and sanitary conditions of production.
4 cl, 5 ex, 3 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials, particularly, expanded-clay concrete to be used for production of reinforced concrete articles for building blocks. Proposed method comprises activation of 70% of tempering water by quick-action Portland cement and plasticising additive UP-4 in concrete mixer at 15 rpm for 1 min to get homogeneous suspension. Tempering water remainder is mixed with crushed haydite gravel, haydite and quartz sand with pre-activated tempering water for 0.5 minutes. Obtained haydite mix is subjected to two-step heat treatment at 60°C in summer for 5 hours, in winter for 8 hours. Then, it is treated in secondary heat treatment chamber at 40°C for 4 hours.
EFFECT: better placeability, higher strength, accelerated production.
SUBSTANCE: composition of a haydite-concrete mixture includes, wt %: portland cement 18.87-21.34, haydite 41.13-41.56, superplasticiser LSTM 0.0312, fly ash of TPP 13.92-18.87, gasifying additive PAK-3 0.022-0.025, water - balance.
EFFECT: production of haydite concrete with higher strength and reduced density.
SUBSTANCE: swollen perlite is used, which is first saturated with water, water that is not retained by a swollen perlite granule is filtered, the water-saturated perlite is mixed with gypsum, the produced mix is supplied into a die mould for further pressing, and pressed at 10 MPa at least.
EFFECT: increased strength of a finished product with increased time of mortar hardening.
SUBSTANCE: raw mix for making foam concrete includes, wt %: portland cement 35.0-37.0, foaming agent PB-2000 0.25-0.35, TPP ash 10.65-13.25, crushed foam glass of fraction 5-10 mm 20.0-25.0, mineral wool ground and sifted through sieve No. 2.5 1.0-1.5, haydite sand 5.0-7.0, water 21.0-23.0.
EFFECT: higher heat resistance of foam concrete produced from raw mix.
SUBSTANCE: raw mixture contains the following components, pts. wt.: non-caking acid clay 58.0-61.0; expanded perlite ground to specific surface of 4500-5000 cm2/g 13.0-15.0; chalk stone 1.0-2.0; broken silicate glass ground to specific surface of 4500-5000 cm2/g 14.0-16.0; bentonite and/or kaolin 4.0-6.0; liquid potassium glass 4.0-6.0.
EFFECT: increase of product water-resisting property.
FIELD: construction engineering; manufacture of building structures.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes preparation of polystyrene concrete mix from binder, foamed polystyrene and water, molding articles from this mixture and heat treatment. Prior to preparation of mixture, foamed polystyrene is subjected to foaming performed at two stages as minimum. At two stages as minimum. At first stage, polystyrene gravel at density of 12-30 kg/cu m is obtained. At subsequent stages its density is brought to 6-11 kg/cu m; polystyrene gravel may be obtained by grinding wastes of articles made from polystyrene to grain composition of fractions to 1-15 mm. Introduced additionally into mixture is air-entrapping additive hardening accelerator and water-reducing additive which are thinned with water. Articles are molded by placing the mixture in metal molds. Mixture is fed to each cell of metal mold by means of hose by forcing it from pneumatic concrete mixer by compressed air. After heat treatment, metal molds containing articles are delivered to demolding station where are subjected to vibration treatment for separation of articles from molds. Then, articles are removed from metal molds. Line proposed for realization of this method includes foaming unit, service bins and proportioners for foamed polystyrene, binder and water, at least one pneumatic concrete mixer for preparation of polystyrene mixture and molding and demolding stations. Proportioners for aqueous solution of hardening accelerator, air-entrapping additive and water-reducing additive, service reservoirs for air-entrapping additive, hardening accelerator and water-reducing additive, screw feeder for delivery of binder to proportioner, vibration table, metal molds with covers, pipe lines with shut-off cocks and swivel chutes, control console and hose. Proportioner is located under service bin forming single reservoir which may be divided by mechanical splitter. Pneumatic concrete mixer is provided with horizontal shaft at volume of 0.6 to 2 cu m. Metal mold is provided with sump having hinged sides, partitions, cargo-gripping mechanism and cover located on sump of cassette. Each cassette is made in form of platform formed by horizontal square sheet and four vertical sheets rigidly secured on horizontal sheet, shifted relative to center axes and interconnected in T-shaped pattern perpendicularly relative to each other forming four cells over perimeter of platform and central cell. Cells over perimeter of platform have three free faces. Cargo-gripping mechanism is located in central cell partitions are mounted between cassettes and are pinched by two vertical sheets. Cover is made in form of metal sheet pressed to upper faces of cells, partitions and sides. According to second version, metal mold has sump and at least one cell heat-insulated articles. Each cell is formed by bottom of sump and two z-shaped profiles clamped together and provided with changeable inserts placed between z-shaped profile. Each z-shaped profile has two side and one central webs. Side surfaces of all webs are perpendicular to plane formed by sump bottom. Changeable inserts are secured on side webs of z-shaped profiles. Each z-shaped profile forms one of subsequent cells by its one cell.
EFFECT: extended technological capabilities; increased productivity; improved quality and enhanced reliability.
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns manufacture of articles for heat-retention of furnace units and power equipment operated at surface temperatures up to 1100°C. Invention provides charge mixture containing, wt %: swollen vermiculite 20-60, refractory clay or kaolin 37-55, electrofilter dust 1-20, chamotte fraction below 0.063 mm 1-30, and structure-forming polyelectrolyte 3-5 (above 100%). Charge is moistened to form mass, which is aged in closed space for at least 24 h, molded into crude article, dried to residual moisture at most 5%, and fired at 1000-1100°C. Aforesaid polyelectrolyte is characterized by having carboxyl, amide, nitrile, and ester groups in polymer molecule.
EFFECT: reduced air and fire shrinkage and service deformations, raised softening point, simplified manufacture, and achieved absence of anisotropy of physicochemical and thermal characteristics with extremely low heat-conduction values.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacture of polystyrene-concrete parts for use in construction as wall and heat-insulating material. Manufacture of heat-insulation products comprises preparation of molding mix from Portland cement (60.0-65.6%), water, and granulated foamed polystyrene with loose density 10-20 kg/m3 (2.2-4.4%), molding, and heat treatment of products. Invention resides in that molding mix additionally includes microsilica (6.6-12.0%) and superplasticizer S-3 (0.6-0.66), starting mix Portland cement/microsilica/foamed polystyrene is first stirred for 2-3 min, then water containing superplasticizer is added, resulting mix is stirred for further 3-5 min and loaded into molding boxes. Molding involves vibrocompaction and pressing followed by unloading of products from molding boxes and heat treatment: 2 h at 15-25°C, 8 h at 40-60°C, and 1 h at 15-30°C.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of cement, improved placeability and moldability of mix, increased strength of products, and increased productivity.
FIELD: building industry, in particular raw mixtures for production of heat-insulating materials for heat insulating of roofing, building walls, floor, etc.
SUBSTANCE: claimed mixture contains (mass pts): expanded polystyrene foam granules 10-12,5; cement 100-170; and water 80-100; and additionally polymethylenenaphthalene sulfonate 0.8-0.85; and sodium sulfate 0.01-0.08, wherein said granules are obtained by surface treatment of polystyrene with aqueous solution of polymethylenenaphthalene sulfonate and sodium sulfate.
EFFECT: increased cement adhesion to polystyrene foam without application of toxic and expensive additives; decreased component number without losses of heat-insulating properties.
FIELD: building industry, in particular building materials.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes providing polystyrene/concrete mixture by blending of cement, sand, water, foamed polystyrene; formation by vibrocompaction; dismantling of forms and article conditioning. Plasticizer and pigment are additionally introduced into polystyrene/concrete mixture during blending. In formation step precursory vibrocompaction is carried out to produce compacted protective and ornamental cement/sand face layer with thickness not less than 0.3 mm. Then finished vibrocompaction under kentledge is carried out to accomplish desired geometrical sizes. Obtained article is hold in form under kentledge at 15-25°C for 24 h or more, and in total article is hold up to 5 days. Article back surface is heat treated to produce porosity in contact sites due to polystyrene volume contraction up to 10 % in contrast with original one.
EFFECT: article with controlled thickness of compacted protective and ornamental layer.
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.
SUBSTANCE: object of invention are special refractory concretes based on Portland cement and slag aggregates, which concretes can be used in manufacture of heat assemblies operated under prolonged high-temperature and sharp temperature gradient conditions. Concrete mix contains 16-22% Portland cement, 10-20% alumina hydrate in the form of production waste, 28-36% sand slag-pumice fraction up to 5-20 mm, broken slag fraction 5-20 mm, 0.5-1.5% super-plasticizer S-3, and water, said alumina hydrate being waste coming from synthetic rubber production or from radio component plant, namely from manufacture of electrolytic condensers in the form of aluminum foil etching waste.
EFFECT: increased density due to filled hollows in porous aggregate with alumina hydrate or reaction product thereof with lime releasing on hydration of clinker minerals, increased residual strength after firing at 800°C, and increased heat resistance.
FIELD: manufacture of porous sound-absorbing ceramic bricks, tiles or slabs possessing high sound-absorbing properties in wide range of frequencies.
SUBSTANCE: proposed porous sound-absorbing article is made from porous ceramic material with communicating pores at specific gravity of 0.5-1.0; for obtaining such material, 100-200 parts by weight of at least one sintered material is added to 100 parts by weight of pearlite at grain diameter of 0.50-2.0 mm; sintered materials are selected from group containing ash dust, wollastonite, chamotte, slag, quartz, lava, stones or clay as basic material, 10-20 parts by weight of inorganic binder; then, mixture is sintered; pearlite particles make material porous since pearlite particles get surrounded with basic material and binder after sintering; communicating pores are formed between contact surfaces of particles. Specification gives characteristics of versions of porous sound-absorbing ceramic article and method of its production.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of sound absorption in wide range of frequencies.
45 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: manufacture of building materials and articles; light-weight structural insulating concrete.
SUBSTANCE: proposed light-weight concrete contains cement, hollow micro-spheres - component separated by reagentless floatation from ash-and-slag mixtures and water; it additionally contains silicon opal-cristobalite mineral - tripolite of the following fractional composition, %: 0.315 - 0.14 mm 27-31.1, 0.14-0.071 mm 30.1-33.2 lesser than 0.071 mm 32.9-39.7 at the following ratio of components, mass-%: cement, 24.9-29.3; tripolite, 6.8-14.2; micro-spheres, 34.8-41.1; the remainder being water.
EFFECT: reduced density and heat conductivity.
5 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: building materials, in particular polystyrene-concrete foam articles.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes mixture forming in the next component ratio (mass %): Portland cement 81.0; granulated foamed polystyrene 4.0, wherein three parts thereof have granule diameter of 1-2 mm, and one part has granule diameter of 2-3 mm; plasticizing additive 0.5; air-entraining admixture 0.02; and balance: water. For mixture production 2/3 of Portland cement, both additives and 1/2 of tempering water are charged into mixer and agitated for 2-3 min. Foamed polystyrene having granule diameter of 1-2 mm, is added and agitated for 1-2 min; remained cement, foamed polystyrene having granule diameter of 2-3 mm, and remained water are added and agitated for 2-3 min. Mixture is placed into curb, floated and conditioned at 20°C for 8 hours. Finished articles are laid in stacks for storage or hauling.
EFFECT: building articles of increased heat insulating properties, improved constructive characteristics and decreased average density; simplified technology.
FIELD: building materials, in particular heat insulating article production.
SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains (mass pts): green vermiculite 1-1.05; mixture of hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid in volume ratio of 3:1 1-2,20; and artificial porous additive, namely expanded perlite 1-1,20.
EFFECT: heat insulating articles of increased strength.
2 tbl, 12 ex