Method of producing gas sensor material for selective detection of h2s and derivatives thereof
SUBSTANCE: invention comprises producing nano-heterogeneous material based on whisker crystals of n-type oxides SnO2, ZnO, In2O3 and nano-clusters of p-type oxides CuO, NiO, Co3O4 immobilised on the surface of said crystals. The method includes producing whisker crystals from vapour and impregnating the crystals with salt solutions, followed by annealing to form p-n heterocontacts.
EFFECT: high selective sensitivity of the sensor to H2S and derivatives thereof in air.
3 cl, 2 ex
The technical field to which the invention relates.
The invention relates to gas sensors, and specifically to devices, the detecting hydrogen sulfide and its derivatives in the air. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a product of decomposition of organic and biological substances, is a gas with an unpleasant pungent smell, is one of the most toxic air pollutants with a wide range of toxic effects on humans and animals. On the level of concentration of 170 mg/m3hydrogen sulphide is completely paralyzes the sense of smell of a man from 30 to 50 seconds, at higher concentrations, hydrogen sulfide blocks the lungs and cause death. Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of hydrogen sulfide in the air of working zone is 10 mg/m3(7.1 ppm).
The level of technology
For detection of toxic gases in the air at the level of the MPC is widely used semiconductor sensors resistive type. The most widespread sensory devices based on thin films of nanocrystalline tin dioxide SnO2and zinc oxide ZnO. The mechanism of action of these devices is based on the change of electrical conductivity of the sensor layer in the course of what is happening on its surface chemical reactions, for example the interaction of hydrogen sulfide with hammarbyhamnen oxygen. Sensoria basis SnO 2and ZnO are characterized by high sensitivity, low cost, good responsiveness and a number of other advantages. At the same time, their typical disadvantages are low selectivity and lack of stability. The main reason for low selectivity is the presence of surface oxides SnO2and ZnO active centers of different nature, which cause the response of sensitive material by various gases in the atmosphere. The low stability of the response of sensors with long-term use caused, first of all, material degradation, the growth of grains of nanocrystalline oxides at the temperature detection. To improve selectivity in sensory devices used modifiers based on platinum group metals, which are in the form of clusters applied to the surface of the grains of a semiconductor oxide. The stability of the sensors can be improved by changing the structure of the sensitive layer with polycrystalline to monocrystalline structure whiskers SnO2or ZnO (I. A. Myasnikov, V. L. Shrew, L. Y. Kupriyanov, S. A. Zavialov. Semiconductor sensors in physico-chemical studies, M.: Nauka, 1991).
Known touch device (U.S. Patent No. 3,901,067, 1975) for indication of hydrogen sulfide, comprising an insulating substrate with the measuring electrodes, rustically layer of polycrystalline tin oxide, doped with aluminium, of a thickness of 4000 Å and the heating element. The specified device provides sensitivity to the concentration of 1 ppm hydrogen sulfide in air at moderate temperatures of the heating element (130°C). The disadvantages of the proposed device is a significant return to its original state, usually a few minutes. To improve the dynamic properties of the sensor increase the operating temperature to 400°C, resulting in non-repeatable measurements and significantly reduces the time the guaranteed operation of the sensor.
Describes a sensor device for indication of hydrogen sulfide on the basis of many individual ZnO whiskers with a diameter of 30 nm, fixed on the substrate and connected two electrical contacts at opposite ends of the nanowires (U.S. Patent No. 8030185, B2, 2011). The method is applied to the threads at the same time many small Islands with a diameter of 10-50 nm of various metals: platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), Nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co). The use of solid filiform nanocrystals avoids degradation patterns and significantly increase the value of the specific surface of the sensitive layer. The presence at the same time on the surface of the whiskers islets different nature of catalytic metals significantly increases the sensitivity of the Mat is Rial to toxic gases and allows to detect low total concentration of harmful pollutants in the air. The method relates to gas sensors, which measure the resistance of the array whiskers coated islets of metals in air containing gaseous impurities. The disadvantage of this method is a significant limitation in the selectivity of the sensor, especially when the detection of gaseous reducing agents CO, H2S, NH3. Despite the high sensitivity it is impossible in the signal of a sensor to distinguish the contribution of a particular group of substances, for example, sulfur-containing molecules, which is a serious drawback, especially when monitoring air quality in large cities, in places of a mass congestion of people near chemical plants and refineries oil and gas.
The closest in technical essence and the achieved effect is the way of the sensor material (U.S. Patent No. 20120097917 A1, 2012), in which the active component is set (system) of nanowires of zinc oxide ZnO or tin oxide SnO2coated clusters of noble metals Au, Pt, Pd. Threads vertically fixed on the insulating substrate with contacts. The advantage of the device is its high sensitivity to hydrogen sulfide concentrations at the ppb level and low (room) temperature. The sensitive layer is also characterized by high stability of the structure. Things the public the disadvantage of this device is its low selectivity, the sensor responds to the presence in the air not only H2S, but also other gases-reducing agents CO, NH3N2and gas-oxidizer NO2. To improve the selectivity is proposed to analyze the response time of the sensor simultaneously with the change in conductivity. However, in the case of a mixture of gases to highlight the contribution of a pollutant is not possible.
Disclosure of inventions
The technical effect of the present invention is to improve the selectivity of the semiconductor touch materials for the detection of hydrogen sulfide and its derivatives in the air while providing high sensitivity and stability of the structure of the sensitive layer of the sensor.
The task was solved by the present invention. A method of manufacturing a material gas sensor for the selective detection of H2S and its derivatives is carried out according to the invention receiving whiskers SnO2, ZnO, In2O3the conductivity of n-type, impregnation of these crystals with solutions of salts of Cu, Ni, Co, followed by annealing prior to the formation of oxides CuO, NiO, Co3O4the conductivity of p-type and formation of p-n heterocontacts. The resulting material is preferably applied on the insulating substrate made of polycrystalline alumina with a platinum measuring electrode is but the obverse and a platinum thin film heater on the back side. The resulting material is also preferably applied in paste form with a binder, which is used as a solution of a-terpineol in alcohol, after which produce heating of the paste at a temperature of 450°-500°C for 6 hours to remove the binder.
The implementation of the invention
In a preferred embodiment of the invention whiskers SnO2, In2O3or ZnO is obtained from the vapor on a substrate of polycrystalline Al2O3in a horizontal flow reactor at a temperature of condensation of 950°C To 1030°C in an atmosphere of inert gas with an oxygen content of 0.05-0.1%. Coating the surface of the whiskers clusters of oxides of copper, Nickel and cobalt carried out by impregnation of many whiskers solutions of acetates or nitrates of the metals, followed by drying at a temperature of 100°C and annealing in oxygen atmosphere at a temperature of 250°C for 24 hours. After annealing whiskers is separated mechanically from the substrate.
You can obtain nanowires SnO2, In2OCor ZnO and application of the clusters of oxides of copper, Nickel and cobalt on the surface by chemical vapor deposition from the vapor (CVD) in a vacuum reactor using alcoholate and complex compounds as precursors. As the original substances using the volatile alcoholate and complex compounds, such as di - and Tetra-tert-butylate tin: Sn(OtBu)2and Sn(OtBu)4, acetylacetonates and other Synthesis of nanowires is carried out in high vacuum (10-6mbar). The evaporation temperature of the metal organic precursor is 50-200°C, condensing temperature of 500-800°C.
As a result of synthesis get nanoheterogeneous materials consisting of whiskers semiconductor oxide n-type conductivity with an immobilized on their surface clusters of metal oxide p-type conductivity. The content of oxides of p-type conductivity in nanoheterogeneous materials is 0.6-0.8 mol.%.
Depending on the composition can be obtained by a variety of sensory materials: SnO2/CuO, SnO2/NiO, SnO2/Co3O4, ZnO/Co3O4, ZnO/CuO, ZnO/NiO, In2O3/Co3O4, In2O3/CuO, In2O3/NiO.
Obtained by this method, the materials are characterized by the presence on the surface of filamentous crystal system p-n heterocontacts that form energy barriers for the transport of electrons. The consequence of the formation of p-n junctions is a significant increase in electrical resistance whiskers in an atmosphere of clean air. In the presence of trace concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the air on the surface of the threads when the temperature is 150-350°C is selective chemical reaction of interaction of clusters of oxides of p-type conductivity of CuO, NiO, Co3O4with hydrogen sulfide, which leads to the formation of well-conducting electric current sulphides of metals. The result of this reaction is the removal of p-n junctions and associated energy barriers for the transport of electrons and as a consequence of the sharp decrease in the resistance of the filaments. On the air in the absence of hydrogen sulfide electrical properties of the whiskers are returned to the initial state in the reverse reaction of interaction of sulfides of metals with oxygen to form oxides CuO, NiO, Co3O4p-type conductivity. Repeated Cycling of the composition of the atmosphere: clean air/10 ppm H2S shows the complete reversibility of the effect of the change in the electrical resistance. It is established that filamentary crystals of n-type conductivity SnO2, ln2O3, ZnO in terms of trace hydrogen sulfide concentration and temperature of 150-350°C do not enter into reaction with the hydrogen sulfide with the formation of sulphides.
Received touch materials used for the manufacture and testing of gas sensors, materials were applied to microelectronic chip, which includes as main elements of the insulating substrate of polycrystalline A12O3with a platinum measuring electrode on the front side and platinum Templin cnym heater on the back side. Sensitive layer on the basis of the whiskers was applied between the measuring electrodes. Sensory properties were determined by measuring the resistance of the sensitive layer, depending on the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide.
The sensor signal was calculated as the ratio of the conductivity sensor in the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the air to the conductivity sensor on the air. It is found that the present invention materials exhibit high sensitivity to the content in the air of hydrogen sulfide and its derivatives at the level of maximum permissible concentration of the working area.
Example 1. Detection of H2S filamentary crystals SnO2and nanoheterogeneous materials SnO2/CuO, SnO2/NiO, SnO2/Co3O4
Sensor array-based whiskers SnO2and nanoheterogeneous materials SnO2/CuO, SnO2/NiO, SnO2/Co3O4connected to the device for simultaneous measurement of electrical conductivity of 4 sensors were placed in the cell in which let in fresh air and gas mixture containing 2 ppm H2's in the air. As H2's gas-reducing agent, in the presence of hydrogen sulfide, the conductivity of the sensitive layer of n-type conductivity increased, and in the atmosphere of the clean air decreased. Detection of H2's conducted is at a temperature of 300°C. The study of sensory properties were conducted under cyclic change of the air flow and the flow of the gas mixture containing H2S. the Total gas flow over the sensor remained constant at 100 ml/min
The experiment established that the touch signal, calculated as described above 2 ppm H2S when applied to the surface of the n threads-SnO2clusters R-CuO increases in 21 times, when applying cluster p-NiO - 13 times and during application clusters R-Co3O4- 28 times.
Example 2. Detection of gases reductants CO and NH3and gas oxidizer NO2filamentary crystals SnO2and nanoheterogeneous materials SnO2/Co3O4
Sensor array-based whiskers SnO2and nanoheterogeneous materials 8nO2/Co3O4connected to the device for measuring conductivity, was placed in a cell in which consistently missed the fresh air and then a gas mixture containing 21 ppm NH3in the air, 14.1 ppm CO in air or 1.7 ppm NO2in the air. The exposure time of the sensor in the atmosphere of pollutants was 5 minutes in clean air for 15 minutes. Since NH3and WITH gaseous reducing agents, their presence in the air leads to an increased value of the conductivity of the sensitive layer of n-type conductivity compared elektroprovodnostju in clean air, while the presence of gas in the air as oxidant NO2leads to a decrease in the magnitude of the conductivity. Detection was performed at a temperature of 300°C. the Total gas flow over the sensor remained constant at 100 ml/min
The experiment was established, in all cases, when applied to the surface of the n threads-SnO2clusters R-Co3O4the touch signal decreases: in the case of detection FROM 10 times, when the detection of NH31.2 times and the detection of NO280 times.
1. A method of manufacturing a material gas sensor for the selective detection of H2S and its derivatives in the air, including the production of whiskers conductivity n-type on the basis of SnO2, ZnO, In2About3the impregnation of these crystals with solutions of salts of Cu, Ni, Co and subsequent annealing before forming the oxide conductivity of p-type CuO, NiO, Co3About4and the formation of p-n heterocontacts.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the material is additionally applied on the insulating substrate made of polycrystalline alumina with a platinum measuring electrode on the front side and the platinum thin film heater on the reverse side.
3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the material is applied in paste form with a binder, as the cat is, which requires a solution of a-terpineol in alcohol, then produce heating the paste at a temperature of 450°C for 6 hours to remove the binder.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacture of gas sensors intended for detection of different gases. The invention proposes a gas sensor manufacturing method, in which a heterostructure is formed of different materials; a gas-sensitive layer is made in it; after that, it is fixed in the sensor housing, and contact pads are connected to terminals of the housing by means of contact conductors. The gas-sensitive layer is made in the form of a thin tread-like nanostructure (SiO2)20%(SnO2)80%, where 20% - mass fraction of SiO2, and 80% - mass fraction of component SnO2, by application of sol of orthosilicic acid, which contains stannum hydroxide, onto a silicone surface by means of a centrifuge with further annealing. An area with width of 1 mcm and depth of 200 nm is formed on the surface of the substrate surface by a method of local anodic oxidation. Sol is prepared at two stages: at the first stage, Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and ethyl alcohol (95%) is mixed in the ratio of 1:1.046 at room temperature, and the mixture is exposed during about 30 minutes, and at the second stage, to the obtained solution there introduced is distilled water in the ratio of 1:0.323; hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the ratio of 1:0.05; stannum chloride dihydrate (SnCl2·2H2O) in the ratio of 1:0.399, where TEOS volume is accepted as one, and stirred at least during 60 minutes. The invention also proposes a gas sensor with a nanostructure, which is made as per the proposed method.
EFFECT: increasing gas sensor sensitivity.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measuring instrumentation.
SUBSTANCE: ammonia trace contamination sensor includes semiconductor base and substrate. Semiconductor base is made out of polycrystalline cadmium sulphide nanofilm reinforced with cadmium telluride. Electrode pad of pieso-quartz resonator serves as substrate.
EFFECT: significantly simpler design of sensor, several times higher sensitivity than that of existing sensors.
SUBSTANCE: sensor contains a semiconductor base and a substrate, with the base being made of a polycrystalline film of cadmium sulphide, alloyed with zinc telluride, applied on the non-conducting substrate.
EFFECT: increase of the sensor sensitivity and manufacturability of its production.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gas analysis and may be used to control toxic and explosive gases and in these areas of science and engineering, where analysis of gas media is required. A semiconductor sensitive element according to the invention represents an isolating substrate with previously applied contacts, on which, by application of a film-forming water-alcohol solution SnCl2 with carbon nanotubes they form a layer of nanocomposite of tin dioxide. The sensitive element manufactured in this manner is exposed to drying for 10 minutes at 150°C with subsequent stabilising annealing on air for 30 minutes at temperature of not below 370°C for formation of the nanocrystalline structure.
EFFECT: invention is aimed at increasing value of gas sensitivity and selectivity of a sensor element.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in accordance with the invention a sensor contains a semiconductor base and a substrate, with the base being made of a polycrystalline film of cadmium telluride, doped with zinc sulphide, applied on the non-conducting substrate.
EFFECT: possibility of increasing the sensor sensitivity and technological effectiveness of its manufacturing.
SUBSTANCE: sensor of microadmixtures of carbon oxide contains a semiconductor base and a substrate. The semiconductor base is made of a polycrystalline nanofilm of cadmium telluride, doped with cadmium sulphide, applied on the non-conducting substrate.
EFFECT: increase of the sensor sensitivity and technological effectiveness of its manufacturing, with providing the possibility of determining carbon oxide microadmixtures in gas mixtures at room temperature.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to analysis of gases. Proposed method is implemented with the help of hardware-software measuring complex. It consists in that sensor sensitive element is heated cyclically in clean air preset (PGC-1) number of time (K times) to temperature T1 and cooled to temperature T2. Then, during the next K cycles of heating and cooling test gas mix PGC-2 is fed to sensitive element area. Then, during the next K cycles of heating and cooling test gas mix PGC-3 is fed to sensitive element area. Then, during the next K cycles of heating and cooling test gas mix PGC-N is fed to sensitive element area. Family is constructed from N=4 time dependencies of conductivity of gas-sensitive ply σ(t) for every gas mix and for fixed time moment in the cycle ti to define calibration characteristic. Calibration curve thus constructed is approximated and loaded in the processor of intelligent gas module sensor. Said processor is mounted in gas analyser for sensor processor is polled by central processor of gas analyser to output readings of measured gas concentration at its display.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and validity of calibration.
5 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: electric sensor for hydrazine vapours contains a dielectric substrate, on which placed are: electrodes and a sensitive layer, which changes photoconductivity as a result of hydrazine vapour adsorption; the sensitive layer consists of the following structure - graphene-semiconductor quantum dots, whose photoconductivity decreases when hydrazine molecules are adsorbed on the surface of quantum dots proportionally to the concentration of hydrazine vapour in a sample. If hydrazine vapours are present in the air sample, hydrazine molecules are adsorbed on the surface of quantum dots, decreasing intensity of quantum dot luminescence, which results in decrease of graphene conductivity proportionally to the concentration of hydrazine vapours in the analysed sample.
EFFECT: increase of sensitivity, decrease of determination sluggishness and simplification of the sensor manufacturing.
1 ex, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: according to the invention, a method for obtaining material based on zinc oxide, which is sensitive to acetone vapours, consists in preparation of sol by dilution of non-organic zinc salt in alcohol, in addition of tetraethoxy silane, distribution of sol along a substrate surface, annealing and processing of the obtained material by action on it of a flow of electrons accelerated up to energy of 540-900 keV at absorbed dose of 25-200 kGy.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing sensitivity of material to acetone vapours.
2 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method as per the invention implies usage of sensors with their number corresponding to the number of unknown components to be measured. Each of the components to be measured is natural input value for one sensor, i.e. the sensor for this component is the most selective (sensitive) one and the other sensors are less sensitive to this component. Nevertheless each sensor is graduated for each component separately in order to measure gaseous medium polycomposition.
EFFECT: invention allows for the improvement of measurement accuracy for each component and at the same time for the integral evaluation of the composition of the whole gaseous medium.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of making a sensor for obtaining giant Raman scattering spectra, which is a glass capillary whose inner wall is coated with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles are obtained and attached to the glass surface via reduction of silver ions with alkylamines. The glass capillaries are washed with a detergent solution for optical devices, distilled water while mixing with ultrasound, absolute ethanol and dried in air, placed in a teflon vessel with a reaction mixture of 1 mmol/l AgNO3 and 1 mmol/l alkylamine in ethanol; the reaction mixture is heated at 45-50°C for 40 min with intense agitation along the axis of the capillaries. After the reduction reaction, the capillaries are washed with ethanol and cleaned on the outside.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a high-resolution giant Raman scattering sensor.
2 cl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: device is presented in the form of a ring element of silicon rubber containing 2-4 weight portions of silver nanoparticles. The ring element comprises an elastic core of silicone rubber having Shore A hardness 60 units. The core is enclosed into an external layer. The layer is made of silicone rubber having Shore A hardness 10 units or of porous silicone rubber having density 0.6÷0.8 g/cm3. An external layer thickness and a core diameter are related as 1:3. Four hollows are equally spaced along an external surface, on the perimeter of the device in the external layer.
EFFECT: higher therapeutic effectiveness of pelvic floor descent in females by improving the more reliable fixation of the device and reducing the risk of infectious complications.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composite paint-and-varnish materials for anticorrosion protection of metal structures in aggressive media. Anticorrosion paint-and-varnish material includes multilayered carbon nanotubes from 0.2 to 2 wt %, epoxy binding agent from 38.1 to 54.9 wt %, solidifying agent from 5.8 to 10 wt %, as filling agent anticorrosion additive, desaerative additive and siccative from 2.3 to 4.7 wt %, 2-ethoxyethanol to 100 wt %. Said paint-and-varnish material can include technical carbon as pigment.
EFFECT: claimed paint-and-varnish material provides increase of coating protective properties and its resistance to impact of aggressive medium with more prolonged service term and reduction of coating cost.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: composite material contains a metal component of a metal matrix (201, 211), a reinforcing component (202) in the metal matrix (201, 211) and an additional reinforcing component. Reinforcing components are sprayed onto a substrate (5) by thermal spraying. The reinforcing component (202) used is carbon in the form of nanotubes, nanofibres, graphenes, fullerenes, flakes or diamond. The additional reinforcing component is selected from a group comprising tungsten, tungsten carbide, tungsten-cobalt carbide, cobalt, copper oxide, silver oxide, titanium nitride, chromium, nickel, boron, boron carbide, invar, kovar, niobium, molybdenum, aluminium oxide, silicon nitride, silicon carbide, silicon oxide, zirconium tungstate and zirconium oxide.
EFFECT: obtaining composite material with a metal matrix with a more uniform distribution of components used.
15 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composite nanomaterial for chemical sources of current, consisting of powder of oxides of complex composition, mixed with electrically conductive carbon additive and binding agent. As powder of oxides of complex composition, used is nanocomposite material, in which oxides of complex composition are in core/shell form of nanoparticles, where carbon layer serves as shell, with said nanosized aggregates in composite material having interfacial nanodimensional carbon contacts and/or current pick-ups among each other. Invention also relates to method of obtaining claimed materials. Claimed material represents novel type of electrically conductive carbon-containing composite nanomaterials with wide range of specific electrical conductivity (0.1-1x10-9 S/cm), suitable for application in lithium sources of current.
EFFECT: increased energy capacity characteristics and increased by life cycle of electrodes in the process of exploitation.
11 cl, 1 tbl, 5 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: base mixture of components is subject to cold rolling to form it as a strip. Obtained strip is subject to cladding rolling between layers of plastic metal (for instance, aluminium) reaction mixture compression from 30 to 60%. Produced foil contains cladding external layers of plastic metal and internal reaction layers with reagents size of 10-100 nm.
EFFECT: lower labour intensity and power consumption, possibility of producing foils with preset energy margin and high mechanical properties.
5 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a cutting fluid for metal forming, which contains water and oil with saponification number of not less than 130 mg KOH/g, with content of mechanical impurities of not more than 100 mg/l per 1% overall oil concentration, and further contains Taunit carbon nanotubes with concentration thereof of 1-1.2% and overall oil concentration of 1.25-1.5%.
EFFECT: high effectiveness of the cutting fluid while reducing content of oil therein when cold rolling metal strips and pipes and during metal working.
SUBSTANCE: method for obtaining nanostructured surfaces with the shape memory effect on steel surface includes application of powder with the shape memory effect based on Ni on a steel surface, hardening with heating up to 1000°C with subsequent cooling in liquid nitrogen, plastic deformation of the obtained coating in three stages during heating. Each stage of plastic deformation is followed by annealing. The used powder with the shape memory effect contains the following components, wt %: Ni - 41-44, Cu - 5-10, Ti - the rest. Before the coating application, TiNiCu powder is mechanically activated in vacuum. The powder is applied by high velocity oxygen fuel.
EFFECT: obtained TiNiCu coating with the shape memory effect has improved mechanical properties due to an increase of adhesion, coating porousness reduction, and due to nanostructure formation plastic properties of the coating are improved.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: intensification method of a combustion process of low-reactivity coal in TPP boilers involves ignition and combustion of pulverised-coal low-reactivity fuel, at introduction to the combustion process of a water emulsion with a nanoadditive in the form of a soluble taunite.
EFFECT: increasing dynamics of a combustion process and burnout completeness of coal in TPP boilers.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to powder metallurgy, namely to production of nanopowders of metals with increased stored energy. It can be used to increase a reactive capacity of nanopowders at sintering, burning, in energy-saving technologies. A specimen of metal nanopowder is obtained by a flux of accelerated electrons with energy of not more than 6 MeV in vacuum with provision of a positive charge of the inner part of a metal particle. Specimen thickness does not exceed electron run length.
EFFECT: providing increase of stored energy by 10-15%.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine and deals with nanoliposome which includes liposomal membrane, contains ethgerificated lecitin and one or more physiologically active ingredients, incorporated in the internal space of liposomal membrane, method of obtaining such, as well as composition for prevention or treatment of skin diseases, containing nanoliposome.
EFFECT: invention ensures long-term stability and homogenecity of nanoliposomes.
15 cl, 22 ex, 4 dwg, 2 tbl