Air cushion vehicle
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to vehicles. Proposed vehicle comprises two connected wings arranged one after another, fuselage, engine, discs and screw propulsor. Fuselage is connected with beam supporting second wing and two-leg wheeled undercarriage. First wing is connected with said beam and equipped with two-leg wheeled undercarriage. Every wheel is equipped with disc and motor with screw propulsor. Said motor is equipped with electrical generator. Said wings and beams can telescope for in-flight control. Wings and/or beams can vary their position for aircraft controllability.
EFFECT: simplified in-flight control.
The invention relates to the field of vehicles, designed to travel over land and control in flight due to a change in the overall dimensions of the device.
The apparatus (Patent RF №2283795 from 2005.03.21, IPC: B64C 29/00, B64C 27/28, patentee: Durov Dmitry Sergeevich, publ. 2006.09.20) made by the scheme to a flying wing. The device includes a fuselage, wing, power plant, comprising two engines located in the gondola, three rotary screw channels with nodes of rotation, and V-shaped tail. The wing is made in terms of W-shaped with different consoles respectively backward and forward sweep. Two rotary screw mounted in front of the V-shaped bends in the plane of the leading edge consoles reverse sweep wing, and one between the nacelles at the rear of the wing. The sides of the trapezoidal shape in plan steering surface in the form of a continuation of the rear edge consoles reverse sweep wing.
Disadvantages of the device. The presence of two engines and three rotary screw nodes turn complicate the design of the device and flight control.
The closest solution is the unit on the hovercraft (Application of the Russian Federation for useful model №2004122525 from 26.07.2004 published: 10.04.2005). The apparatus of the air cushion includes two related and located on the but for the other wing, the fuselage, engine, drives, screw drives, the fuselage is connected to the beam, where the second wing and a two-wheeled chassis. Screw propulsion device, made in the form of one rotor with a vertically arranged drive shaft, mounted on a hinged suspension in the fuselage, with the possibility of tilting of the shaft and, accordingly, the rotor relative to the vertical axis of the fuselage in all directions.
The disadvantages of the prototype. Screw propulsion device, made in the form of one rotor with a vertically arranged drive shaft, mounted on a hinged suspension in the fuselage, with the possibility of tilting of the shaft and, accordingly, the rotor relative to the vertical axis of the fuselage in all directions, complicates the design and flight control.
The technical result of the proposed technical solution is to simplify the design and simplification of control in flight.
The technical result is achieved in that the device for air cushion includes two related and located one after the other wing, fuselage, engine, drives, screw drives, the fuselage is connected to the beam, where the second wing and a two-wheeled chassis, and the first wing is also connected to the beam and provided with a two-wheeled chassis; each wheel is equipped with a drive motor with the screw is the first mover; the engine is equipped with a generator; wings and beams made telescopically extendable to control in flight; when fully extended/retracted wings and beams engine with a generator located in the center of mass, the motor generator are the most massive parts of the apparatus, the shift of the center of mass is insignificant when changing the dimensions of the apparatus, while the center of mass will be in a different location relative to the modified geometry (geometric center) of the apparatus, the wings and/or a beam change position at a certain angle relative to the screen (earth, water) that provides manageability of the device.
The technical solution is presented in the drawings:
Fig.1 - device with fully extended wings and beams, side view;
Fig.2 - device with fully drawn wings and beams, side view;
Fig.3 - device with fully extended wings and beams, top view;
Fig.4 - device with fully drawn wings and beams, top view;
Fig.5 - device with fully extended wings and beams, longitudinal section;
Fig.6 - device with fully extended wings and beams, rear view;
Fig.7 - device with fully extended wings and beams, a top view in isometric;
Fig.8 - device with fully extended wings and beams, bottom view in isometric;/p>
Fig.9 - apparatus with extended wings and beams, rear beam retracted, top view;
Fig.10 - device with extended wings and beams, front beam retracted, top view;
Fig.11 - apparatus with extended wings and beams, right wings drawn, view from above;
Fig.12 - unit with extended wings and beams, the left wings drawn, a top view,
where the following notation:
1 - the first wing;
2 - the second wing;
3 - engine;
4 - disk;
5 - screw propulsion;
6 - fuselage;
7 is a front beam;
8 - the average beam;
9 - generator;
10 - rear beam;
11 - a two-wheeled chassis;
12 - wheel;
13 - axis;
14 - motor;
15 - screw propulsion;
16 - box;
17 - right front fender;
18 - right rear fender;
19 - the left front fender;
20 - the left rear fender;
21 - the center of mass of the apparatus when fully extended/retracted wings and beams;
22 - the geometric center of the apparatus when fully extended/retracted wings and beams;
23 - the center of mass of the apparatus when extended/retracted left/right wings, front/rear beams;
24 - the geometric center of the apparatus when extended/retracted left/right wings, front/rear beams;
25 - diagonal conditional rectangle;
26 - conditional Pramogu is inik, hand that match the overall dimensions of the device.
The apparatus of the air cushion includes two related and located one after the other wing, the first wing 1 (Fig.1...12), the second wing 2. Wings 1, 2 made for example from sheet aluminum alloy D16 thickness of 1.5 mm, the Apparatus also includes a motor 3, disk 4, the screw propeller 5. The fuselage 6 is connected to the front beam 7, the average beam 8 posted by motor 3 with generator 9, is located further back beam 10, which placed second wing 2 and a two-wheeled chassis 11. The fuselage 6 made, for example of plastic. The first wing 1 is connected to the front beam 7 and is provided with a two-wheeled chassis 11. Each wheel 12 wheeled chassis 11 is provided with a disk 4, the axis 13, a motor 14 with a screw propeller 5. Wings 1, 2 and beams 7, 8, and 10 were made telescopically extendable to control in flight, for example by means of a hydraulic drive (not shown).
Beams 7, 8, 10 and the wings 1, 2 is made in the form of a pipe 15. At the bottom, and also on the location of the screw propeller 5 of the beam provided by the window 16 to create an air cushion. Right front fender 17, right rear fender 18, left front fender 19, left rear fender 20 is extended and retracted independently of each other. When fully extended/retracted wings 1, 2 and beams 7, 8, 10 engine 3 generator 9 is displayed at the center of mass 21 (Fig.3, 4) and the geometric center of the apparatus 22, and the center of mass 21 and the geometric center 22 of the apparatus are the same. When extended/retracted, for example, right front, right rear wing center of mass 23 (Fig.11) and the geometric center 24 do not match. Engine 3 generator 9 are the most massive parts of the apparatus, the shift of the center of mass 23 is insignificant when changing the dimensions of the apparatus, while the center of mass 23 will be in a different location relative to the modified geometry (geometric center 24 of the unit and the wings and/or a beam change position at a certain angle relative to the screen (earth, water) that provides controllability of the apparatus. Under the geometric center 22, 24 (Fig.3, 4, 9...12) is the intersection of the diagonals 25 conditional rectangle 26, the sides of which correspond to the dimensions of the device.
The operation of the device.
Turns on the engine 3 (Fig.1...12) with generator 9, the electric motor 14 with screw propulsion device 5 starts to rotate, the wheel 12 with the disk 15 rotates in the opposite direction with respect to the screw propeller 5 in the form of blades, due to torque reaction. The apparatus moves along the ground. For movement in flight, the wings 1, 2 and beams 7, 8, 10 are telescopically extended. The revolutions of screw propulsion 5 increases, the speed of the devices is increased, at the initial stage, the device maintains contact with the ground, while the air flow and the air flow with screw propellers 5 each wheel 12 to create an air cushion under the beam 7, 8, 10, and the wings 1, 2 create a lifting force due to the screen effect. Control in flight is achieved by extending or retracting the telescopic wing 1, 2 and/or telescopic beams 7, 8, 10, with the center of mass 23 against the new overall size (geometric center 24 will be in a different place. Since the engine 3 generator 9 are the most massive parts of the apparatus, the shift of the center of mass 23 is negligible compared with the change in dimensions (the geometric center 24 of the unit. For example, when flying in a straight both wings 1, 2 fully extended, to set the height of the front beam 7 (Fig.9) fully extended, the rear beam 10 is advanced partially, with the center of mass 23 will be in the rear relative to the modified geometry (geometric center 24 of the unit and the wings 1, 2 are arranged at a certain angle of attack relative to the screen (earth, water). For landing, the front beam 7 (Fig.10) partially extended, the rear beam 10 is fully extended, the center of mass 23 will be in the front part relative to the modified geometry (geometric center 24 of the unit, and the wings 1, 2 are p is on a different angle of attack relative to the screen (earth, water). When turning in flight, for example to the right, the right wings 17, 18 (Fig.11) are drawn, the center of mass 23 will be at the right side relative to the modified geometry (geometric center 24) of the device, the device tilts to the right, air flow, turn the machine to the right. When turning left, the left wings 19, 20 (Fig.12) are drawn, the center of mass 23 will be at the left side relative to the modified geometry (geometric center 24) of the device, the device tilts to the left, the air flows turn the machine to the left.
Unlike the prototype of the proposed technical solution design is simplified due to the telescopic extension and retraction by means of the hydraulic drive.
Unlike the prototype of the proposed technical solution, the management apparatus in flight simplified due to changes in overall (geometric) size of the apparatus, while the center of mass in relation to the new overall size (geometric center) will be in a different place, because the engine 3 (Fig.1...12) with generator 9 are the most massive parts of the apparatus, the shift of the center of mass is negligible compared with the change in dimensions (geometric center) of the device.
The claimed invention is technically feasible, industrial realizable conducted model tests confirm the achievement Savino what about the technical result - to simplify the design and simplification of control in flight due to a change in dimensions.
In this regard, the invention corresponds to the level of patentability and is industrially applicable.
The apparatus of the air cushion, comprising two connected and located one after the other wing, fuselage, engine, drives, screw drives, the fuselage is connected to the beam, where the second wing and a two-wheeled chassis, wherein the first wing is also connected to the beam and provided with a two-wheeled chassis; each wheel is equipped with a drive motor with screw propulsion; engine equipped with a generator; wings and beams made telescopically extendable to control in flight; when fully extended/retracted wings and beams engine with a generator located in the center of mass; the motor generator are the most massive parts of the apparatus, the shift of the center of mass is insignificant when changing the dimensions of the apparatus, while the center of mass will be in a different location relative to the geometric center of the apparatus, the wings and/or a beam change position at a certain angle relative to the screen, formed by land or water, which ensures the controllability of the device.
SUBSTANCE: combined anti-ice system consists of a thermal device located under skin of wing leading edge, and movable flap. The flap is installed at a distance of 1-2 maximum thicknesses of profile from the leading edge. The flap turns by an angle of 20°. Flap surface and surface of the wing in front of the flap are coated with superhydrophobic coating, preventing the formation of barrier ice.
EFFECT: ensuring of flight safety by anti-icing protection of airfoil surfaces.
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: eleven control mechanism consists of rotary shaft arranged at rocket body and connected with eleven pivoted to wing trailing edge, lever secured at said shaft and actuator fitted in rocket body, its con-rod being articulated with said lever. Shaft arranged in rocket body is rigidly connected with lever articulated with actuator con-rod. One end of the shaft with ball bearing fitted in rocket body makes a sliding spline joint. Other end of the shaft is equipped with cartridge articulated therewith and with actuator rigidly secured at folding wing eleven. Pin of hinge between actuator and cartridge is aligned with wing rotational axis. Actuator is furnished with a tooth. Groove is made at said cartridge to accommodate actuator tooth.
EFFECT: reliable control over eleven irrespective of rocket parts thermal deformation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering, particularly, to maneuvering aircraft and their control systems. Maneuvering aircraft comprises fuselage, swept wing, front wing-root extensions, control components and undercarriage. Said front wing-root extensions are arranged in fuselage head-to-tail joint and equipped with controlled rotary airfoils. Wing-root extension controlled surface turn axes are perpendicular or angularly to aircraft wing surface.
EFFECT: higher safety and combat efficiency, better relationship between lift and drag.
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: collapsible airfoil comprises a base and a hingedly connected rotary blade, a pusher and a screw converter of pusher progressive motion into rotary motion of the blade. The screw converter comprises two cylinders with helical surfaces and an interacting working element. Cylinders are arranged coaxially in series. One of cylinders is connected to the base, and the other one - with the blade, besides, the second cylinder has helical surfaces of another direction, in comparison to the helical surfaces of the first cylinder. The working element is made in the form of a threaded stem placed in inner cavities of cylinders with the possibility of progressive and rotary movements. The working element with one end is rigidly connected to the pusher sliding inside the first cylinder, and with the other end it is introduced into the second cylinder. Helical grooves made along the surface generator of the threaded stem in its middle part change their direction from one to another, which responds to helical surfaces of cylinders.
EFFECT: reliable opening of an airfoil under conditions of strong aerodynamic disturbances.
SUBSTANCE: proposed control surface comprises root section and support. Root section is arranged aircraft airframe to turn thereon. Said root section accommodates support to turn about axis perpendicular to root section center surface. With support folded, part of control surface area ahead of root section turn axle is related to that behind said axle as 1:1 to 3:1. Folded control surface in unfolded position corresponds to condition of axial compensation.
EFFECT: reduced moment load in folded position.
4 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: aeronautical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the designs of folding aerodynamic surfaces of pilotless flight vehicles. The proposed device comprises fixed (1) and rotary (2) part hinged thereon, pushrod sliding inside the hinge holes and a helical converter of the pushrod translation into rotation of the rotary part of the said aerodynamic surface including a cylinder with helical surfaces and a pin interacting them. The helical converter is furnished with the second cylinder with the helical surfaces direction other than that of the fist cylinder helical surfaces. The cylinders are arranged concentrically relative to each other. Note here that one of the cylinders is connected to the aerodynamic surface fixed part while the other one is jointed to the rotary part. The pushrod is arranged inside the inner cylinder to reciprocate and rotate therein. The pin is fitted on the said pushrod to interact with helical surfaces of both cylinders. Note that helical surfaces of each cylinder are formed by side surfaces of helical slots (5,6) made on diametrically opposite side of the cylinders shells.
EFFECT: invention allows reducing weight and overall sizes of folding aerodynamic surface.
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: aerodynamic surface comprises fixed and hinged parts, pusher sliding inside the hinge holes and helical converter of the pusher translation motion into the rotary motion of the aforesaid aerodynamic surface rotary part, the converter including a helical-surface cylinder and a pin interacting with the said helical surface. The helical converter is furnished with the second cylinder with helical surfaces with direction opposite to that of the fist cylinder and an additional pin interacting with the second cylinder helical surfaces. Both cylinders are arranged aligned and prohibited to reciprocate by a thrust bearing. One of the cylinders is linked with the aerodynamic surface fixed part while the other one with its rotary part. The pusher is arranged inside the cylinders to reciprocate and revolve therein, the pins being fitted on the said pusher to interact with the cylinders helical surfaces via the spherical sleeves. The said helical surfaces of every cylinder are formed by the side surfaces of helical slots made on the opposite sides of the cylinders rings.
EFFECT: smaller weight and sizes.
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: hypersonic aircraft comprises fuselage, outer wings, multi-engine drive, two turbojets. Outer wings comprises root, mid and end sections furnished with hook at the end coaxially articulated in fuselage. Multi-engine drive is designed to vary wing span by simultaneous action at outer wing end sections both by lever of mechanism connected via screw gearing with motor shaft in lengthwise mirror plane and by moment of force from the shaft of appropriate lateral motor via planetary gearbox. Turbojet allows gas tapping to gas-dynamic system of control over pitch, bank and hunting.
EFFECT: decreased drag at supersonic speed, higher controllability.
6 cl, 18 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Proposed aircraft comprises the main convertible wing with three planes. Wing central plane is rigidly jointed to fuselage. Wing top and bottom planes are interconnected by H-like hard rods. One pair of ends of every H-like rod is articulated with top plate while opposite pair is articulated with bottom plane. With rods turning about axis of rotation, aircraft is converted from monoplane into triplane. Wing transmission drive may be made up of undercarriage extension/retraction system.
EFFECT: simplified conversion.
9 cl, 15 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to life preserver systems. Proposed system consists of two frames jointed together by means of posts and can be arranged above airframe inside the fairing and folded. When activated, it can automatically be unfolded. It is attached to airframe load bearing elements to form the hand-glider wing.
EFFECT: more time for aircraft salvage.
SUBSTANCE: rescue device for falling aircraft is made in the form of additionally deploying in danger seconds wings. At that, within body of aerodynamic shape, device for high-speed inflation of elastic inflatable wing is located. This device is made in the form of cumulative charge with electric fuse. Inflatable wing is made with outer telescopic sections. In the end section safety valve is incorporated which actuates after wing straightening due to explosion of actuating cumulative charge.
EFFECT: providing ascensional force for floating and safe landing of rescued aircraft.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering. The rocket consists of an airframe and wings furnished with additional fan-shaped wings.
EFFECT: smooth landing.
SUBSTANCE: fighter features fuselage, undercarriage, two wings, power plant with two vectored-thrust turbojet engines, each of which is attached to the stabiliser fin wing with rearward-facing nozzle. Each wing is attached to the aircraft fuselage and consists of mobile sections retractable horizontally inside the fuselage along the axis parallel to the axial axis of fuselage. Fighter aircraft has also front stabiliser fin rotating horizontally along the fuselage axis, stabiliser fin with ailerons acting as a wing, rudder fin and cockpit with ejecting seat.
EFFECT: improved flight stability.
2 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: aeronautical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: triple-wing aircraft is provided with center wing (2) mounted on fuselage (1) which is retracted during flight, i.e. it is sunken flush with fuselage surface. When necessary, this wing is raised above fuselage with the aid of jacks (3,4) and struts (5,6). Fuselage is widened and has aerofoil profile.
EFFECT: enhanced stability of gliding flight and additional deceleration in the course of landing.
FIELD: aviation; air transportation of air troops and air-borne troops.
SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft has fuselage, wing jet engines or turbo-jet engines mounted for turn relative to horizontal and/or vertical plane. Wing has variable area. Upper and lower surfaces of wing may be wound on/off individual drums. Tail-mounted engines may be provided which are set in horizontal plane at angle relative to aircraft longitudinal axis at similar signs.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: hovercraft includes cargo platform in the form of wraparound excluding floor arch-domed space with carrying air-supported dome and aerostatic bearings. The aerostatic bearings are installed along the whole perimeter of hovercraft and provided with closed elastic diaphragms placed on inner surfaces of bottom branches of closed drive bands. Actuation of bands is provided by friction wheels which can be switched off at one or at the other side of hovercraft when it is necessary to turn it in corresponding direction. At the level of bottom branches of closed drive bands, rear and side walls of arch space are made under condition of minimum air losses to maintain in it the preset atmospheric pressure.
EFFECT: creation of multimission vehicle with small energy consumption and large carrying surface, possibility to transfer large volumes of cargoes.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building. Proposed ship comprises hull with lengthwise lateral compartments accommodating vertical lift propulsors. Primary engine is arranged at ship hull fore-part and engaged with said vertical lift propulsors. Sustainer propulsor is arranged at hull stern part and engaged with horizontal motion propulsors. Ship incorporates navigation control system and course-keeping ability control system Vertical lift propulsors feature identical design, each comprises rectangular housing accommodating two identical lifting mechanisms arranged one above the other. Every said mechanism has rectangular box with open part directed upward. Several pairs of cylindrical drums are fitted on bearings in top section horizontally and in parallel. Gear is fitted on shaft of every drum while idle gear are fitted between gears to engage with two gears of two adjacent drums. Distance between drums makes 0.3-0.5 mm. Taper gears and drum vertical shafts on bottom lifting element engage with drums of top lifting element. Drums run in one direction. Porous elastic wear proof insert is fitted inside the box to get in contact with bottom surfaces of drums and box bottom.
EFFECT: higher operating performances.
SUBSTANCE: proposed propulsor comprises one or several pairs of side paddle wheels. Said pairs of side paddle wheels have axles with disk fitted thereon with line of plates secured along perimetre. Said plates are arranged regularly along circumference of disks. Elastic vanes with weights-grousers arranged on their free ends are secured to said plates radially with respect to wheel axle.
EFFECT: higher thrust due to increased friction and better adhesion with bearing surface.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to air-cushion ships. In compliance with proposed method, air-cushion ship is provided with two rotary rudders arranged at the thrust air duct outlet. Pilot cab is provided with two handles that can independently rotate about appropriate axis of rotation. Each said handle is connected with said rotary rudder so that turning said handle causes rudder turning. To allow joint displacement of both handles, they are articulated by link element with hinge joints on their ends. Said link element can vary the distance between said handles on applying opposite=direction forces thereto. Turning said handle in one direction turns rudders in one direction, while turning said handle in opposite directions causes turning of rudders in opposite directions.
EFFECT: simplified control of air-cushion ship.
14 cl, 5 dwg