Method of determining alternate electromagnetic field attenuation in space

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to measurement equipment and can be applied in determination of electric parameters of space. Method involves placement of probe in the form of open flat capacitor screened from solar radiation by opaque screen, in space and feed of HF signals of definite frequency to the probe. Measurement data are obtained from the probe in the form of loss angle tangent and dielectric permeability of medium under examination, allowing for determination of attenuation rate per length unit for space.

EFFECT: possible determination of attenuation rate per length unit for space.

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The present invention relates to measuring technique and can be used for determining the electrical parameters of outer space.

Advances in the field of space exploration has led to the emergence of artificial Earth satellites, including inhabited solving research tasks as Earth and space radio engineering methods. On the agenda are projects visit people nearby planets and send spacecraft beyond the solar system. With these devices will be communication. Because the estimated communication range can reach millions of kilometers and more, the question arises as to the attenuation of high-frequency electromagnetic fields in space.

The amplitude of the electric and magnetic components in a plane wave electromagnetic field in a lossy medium are described by the following formulas (C. C. Nicholas, T. N. Nikolskaya. Electrodynamics and wave propagation. Moscow:URSS, 2012):

E=x0Ae-azcos(ωt-βz+φ)

H=y0 A|W|e-azcos(ωt-βz+φ-φw)

where x0,0- single Horta axes X and Y;

A - vector potential;

|W| is the module of the wave resistance of the environment;

α=ωε'μ'ctgΔ2- linear damping (real part in propagation constant γ=α+iβ);

z - distance wave propagation along the Z-axis;

ω - circular frequency;

ε', µ' is the real part of the electric and magnetic permittivities of the medium of propagation in complex representation of ε, µ; c - light speed;

t - time;

φ is the initial phase of the wave at t and z, equal to zero;

φw- phase wave resistance.

As can be seen from the above formulas, the amplitudes of electric and magnetic field strengths depend on the exponential factors e-az, the value of which is determined by the distance z and the value of the linear attenuation α.

The value of the coefficient α is determined as is the rate of:

α=ωcε'μ'tgΔ2,

where ε' µ' is the product of the real parts of the complex values of the electric and magnetic permittivity of the propagation medium,

tgΔ=σωε0εtangent of the loss angle, depending on the frequency, the conductivity of the environment σ and its absolute and relative electric permittivity of the medium ε0and ε, respectively.

Hence the conclusion: if the distribution environment has conductivity and σ≠0, then the amplitude of the E and H fields will decrease exponentially with increasing distance z from the source of radiation. It is well known and confirmed by practice, the phenomenon of attenuation of alternating electromagnetic fields in conductive media. To date attenuation of alternating electromagnetic fields in space neglected because obviously negligibly small values of the damping in the solution of practical problems. However, you cannot ignore the fact that the observed part of the Universe fills religion is Tomoe radiation, intensive range which corresponds to the temperature of 2.7 K (TSB, 1969-1978). This fact proves the third law of thermodynamics, from which the conclusion follows the impossibility of such a process, in which the body has cooled down to the temperature T=0 K (principle unreachable absolute 0 temperature, B. M. Jaworski and A. A. of Detlef. The Handbook of physics. M.: Nauka, 1965). The CMB due to the presence in space of the atoms of hydrogen and their ionization by cosmic rays of different nature and origin of the intensity. Thus, it can be argued that in space there are free electric charges that cause the inequality to zero conductivity σ. The result is a zero of the tangent loss and the coefficient of linear attenuation α.

Known methods and devices of measurement of electrical characteristics of different environments, RF Patent No. 2132550 from 27.06.1999, "method for determining the conductivity and the device for its implementation", Patent of Russian Federation №2209425 from 27.07.2003, "Method for detection of gaseous substances and device for its implementation".

The closest technical solution is Patent RF №2051476 from 27.12.1995 "Method of plasma diagnostics and device for its implementation".

The disadvantage as analogues, and the prototype is that all existing HVL of the Oba does not provide for measuring the characteristics of an alternating electromagnetic field in the open space.

The purpose of the invention is for determining the coefficient of linear attenuation of outer space.

This goal is achieved by determining the attenuation of an alternating electromagnetic field in space probe placed in this environment, by diagnostic characteristics of the environment, and the probe is a flat outdoor capacitor, shaded from solar radiation opaque screen, which serves high-frequency signals of a fixed frequency, thus receive measurement information from a probe in the form of the loss tangent and the dielectric constant of the investigated medium, allowing to determine the coefficient of linear attenuation of outer space.

The drawing shows a conventional block diagram of an installation for implementing the method. Symbols accepted in the drawing: 1 - probe containing an outdoor condenser; 2 - in screen from solar radiation; 3 - measuring complex. Determination of coefficient of linear damping and is carried out as follows. As shown above analytical expression that defines this factor contains tgΔ, the angle Δ is determined by the change in the phase difference between current and voltage on the capacitor plates with an absorbing medium in comparison with the angle of phase difference in vacuum equal to 90°. The angle equal to the difference φ wbetween current and voltage on the capacitor plates, corresponds to the phase of a wave resistance of W. It is associated with the electric angle of the loss ratio Δ=2φw. The measurement of the angle φw. ensures the determination of the values of tgΔ. This is true in the case of making assumptions that in space there is no magnetic loss characteristic of the ferrites, or they are negligible. If this assumption is not true and there are also magnetic losses, the result of determining the amount of attenuation should be considered as "attenuation of not less than obtained from the proposed method.

In accordance with the assumption that there is no magnetic loss take µ'=µ0.

To determine the coefficient α should be determined as the real part of electric permittivity of the propagation medium ε'. This is measured by the capacitance probe Ckand compared with its capacity C1this capacitor, measured in any other environment with a known value of the electric permittivity ε1. The ratio of these capacitances is determined by the expression (if known values of s, d area of the capacitor plates and the distance between them, respectively):

CkC1= εksddε1s=εkε1

Here is determined by the permittivity of spaceεk=CkC1ε1

Since the imaginary part of the complex values of dielectric permittivity of space is substantially lower than its real part (for this reason, the dielectric constant of the space equal to the vacuum) can be neglected and in this case, the real part can be equal to the calculated value of εk, i.e., ε'=εk.

Values of the circular frequency ω is used to carry out these measurements, and the speed of light is known and the magnitude of the linear damping α is calculated by the above formula.

Thus, all the quantities involved in the calculation formula e-azto determine the magnitude of attenuation of the variable electromagnetic field in space, measured and calculated, which allows to determine the amount of attenuation for different is cnyh distances z.

The method of determining the attenuation of an alternating electromagnetic field in space probe placed in this environment, by diagnostic characteristics of the investigated medium, characterized in that the probe is a flat outdoor capacitor, shaded from solar radiation opaque screen, which serves high-frequency signals of a fixed frequency, thus receive measurement information from a probe in the form of the loss tangent and the dielectric constant of the investigated medium, allowing to determine the coefficient of linear attenuation of outer space.



 

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