Method of determining alternate electromagnetic field attenuation in space
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to measurement equipment and can be applied in determination of electric parameters of space. Method involves placement of probe in the form of open flat capacitor screened from solar radiation by opaque screen, in space and feed of HF signals of definite frequency to the probe. Measurement data are obtained from the probe in the form of loss angle tangent and dielectric permeability of medium under examination, allowing for determination of attenuation rate per length unit for space.
EFFECT: possible determination of attenuation rate per length unit for space.
The present invention relates to measuring technique and can be used for determining the electrical parameters of outer space.
Advances in the field of space exploration has led to the emergence of artificial Earth satellites, including inhabited solving research tasks as Earth and space radio engineering methods. On the agenda are projects visit people nearby planets and send spacecraft beyond the solar system. With these devices will be communication. Because the estimated communication range can reach millions of kilometers and more, the question arises as to the attenuation of high-frequency electromagnetic fields in space.
The amplitude of the electric and magnetic components in a plane wave electromagnetic field in a lossy medium are described by the following formulas (C. C. Nicholas, T. N. Nikolskaya. Electrodynamics and wave propagation. Moscow:URSS, 2012):
where x0,0- single Horta axes X and Y;
A - vector potential;
|W| is the module of the wave resistance of the environment;
z - distance wave propagation along the Z-axis;
ω - circular frequency;
ε', µ' is the real part of the electric and magnetic permittivities of the medium of propagation in complex representation of ε, µ; c - light speed;
t - time;
φ is the initial phase of the wave at t and z, equal to zero;
φw- phase wave resistance.
As can be seen from the above formulas, the amplitudes of electric and magnetic field strengths depend on the exponential factors e-az, the value of which is determined by the distance z and the value of the linear attenuation α.
The value of the coefficient α is determined as is the rate of:
where ε' µ' is the product of the real parts of the complex values of the electric and magnetic permittivity of the propagation medium,
Hence the conclusion: if the distribution environment has conductivity and σ≠0, then the amplitude of the E and H fields will decrease exponentially with increasing distance z from the source of radiation. It is well known and confirmed by practice, the phenomenon of attenuation of alternating electromagnetic fields in conductive media. To date attenuation of alternating electromagnetic fields in space neglected because obviously negligibly small values of the damping in the solution of practical problems. However, you cannot ignore the fact that the observed part of the Universe fills religion is Tomoe radiation, intensive range which corresponds to the temperature of 2.7 K (TSB, 1969-1978). This fact proves the third law of thermodynamics, from which the conclusion follows the impossibility of such a process, in which the body has cooled down to the temperature T=0 K (principle unreachable absolute 0 temperature, B. M. Jaworski and A. A. of Detlef. The Handbook of physics. M.: Nauka, 1965). The CMB due to the presence in space of the atoms of hydrogen and their ionization by cosmic rays of different nature and origin of the intensity. Thus, it can be argued that in space there are free electric charges that cause the inequality to zero conductivity σ. The result is a zero of the tangent loss and the coefficient of linear attenuation α.
Known methods and devices of measurement of electrical characteristics of different environments, RF Patent No. 2132550 from 27.06.1999, "method for determining the conductivity and the device for its implementation", Patent of Russian Federation №2209425 from 27.07.2003, "Method for detection of gaseous substances and device for its implementation".
The closest technical solution is Patent RF №2051476 from 27.12.1995 "Method of plasma diagnostics and device for its implementation".
The disadvantage as analogues, and the prototype is that all existing HVL of the Oba does not provide for measuring the characteristics of an alternating electromagnetic field in the open space.
The purpose of the invention is for determining the coefficient of linear attenuation of outer space.
This goal is achieved by determining the attenuation of an alternating electromagnetic field in space probe placed in this environment, by diagnostic characteristics of the environment, and the probe is a flat outdoor capacitor, shaded from solar radiation opaque screen, which serves high-frequency signals of a fixed frequency, thus receive measurement information from a probe in the form of the loss tangent and the dielectric constant of the investigated medium, allowing to determine the coefficient of linear attenuation of outer space.
The drawing shows a conventional block diagram of an installation for implementing the method. Symbols accepted in the drawing: 1 - probe containing an outdoor condenser; 2 - in screen from solar radiation; 3 - measuring complex. Determination of coefficient of linear damping and is carried out as follows. As shown above analytical expression that defines this factor contains tgΔ, the angle Δ is determined by the change in the phase difference between current and voltage on the capacitor plates with an absorbing medium in comparison with the angle of phase difference in vacuum equal to 90°. The angle equal to the difference φ wbetween current and voltage on the capacitor plates, corresponds to the phase of a wave resistance of W. It is associated with the electric angle of the loss ratio Δ=2φw. The measurement of the angle φw. ensures the determination of the values of tgΔ. This is true in the case of making assumptions that in space there is no magnetic loss characteristic of the ferrites, or they are negligible. If this assumption is not true and there are also magnetic losses, the result of determining the amount of attenuation should be considered as "attenuation of not less than obtained from the proposed method.
In accordance with the assumption that there is no magnetic loss take µ'=µ0.
To determine the coefficient α should be determined as the real part of electric permittivity of the propagation medium ε'. This is measured by the capacitance probe Ckand compared with its capacity C1this capacitor, measured in any other environment with a known value of the electric permittivity ε1. The ratio of these capacitances is determined by the expression (if known values of s, d area of the capacitor plates and the distance between them, respectively):
Here is determined by the permittivity of space
Since the imaginary part of the complex values of dielectric permittivity of space is substantially lower than its real part (for this reason, the dielectric constant of the space equal to the vacuum) can be neglected and in this case, the real part can be equal to the calculated value of εk, i.e., ε'=εk.
Values of the circular frequency ω is used to carry out these measurements, and the speed of light is known and the magnitude of the linear damping α is calculated by the above formula.
Thus, all the quantities involved in the calculation formula e-azto determine the magnitude of attenuation of the variable electromagnetic field in space, measured and calculated, which allows to determine the amount of attenuation for different is cnyh distances z.
The method of determining the attenuation of an alternating electromagnetic field in space probe placed in this environment, by diagnostic characteristics of the investigated medium, characterized in that the probe is a flat outdoor capacitor, shaded from solar radiation opaque screen, which serves high-frequency signals of a fixed frequency, thus receive measurement information from a probe in the form of the loss tangent and the dielectric constant of the investigated medium, allowing to determine the coefficient of linear attenuation of outer space.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device for determining parameters of metal-dielectric structures, which contains a wave-guiding system connected to a cylindrical resonator, in the hole of which a coupling element is arranged, differs by the fact that the coupling element is of measurement type and made in the form of an adjustable quarter-wave frame, one end of which is connected to the housing of the cylindrical resonator, and the other one is made in the form of a nib point placed into a dielectric insert arranged in the holes of the cylindrical resonator housing and projecting beyond external boundaries of the resonator by the value that is smaller than length of a standing electromagnetic wave of the main type of the cylindrical resonator; the device includes additional coupling element intended for input/output of electromagnetic radiation of microwave range, which is made in the form of two metal quarter-wave frames connected to each other with one end and placed into a dielectric insert located in the holes between the wave-guiding system and the cylindrical resonator housing. The first frame is made so that its plane can be turned and the same frame is located in the inner cavity of the cylindrical resonator, and the second one is located in the wave-guiding system; other ends of frames are connected to the cylindrical resonator housing and the wave-guiding systems accordingly; in the wave-guiding system an arrangement is made for a one-dimensional waveguide microwave photonic crystal representing periodically alternating layers of two types; layers of the first type have constant value of relative dielectric permeability that is higher than one, and layers of the second type - close to one; total number of layers and number of layers of the second type - uneven; layers of the first type are extreme in the photonic crystal structure; thickness of layers of the first type is less than thickness of layers of the second type; sum of electrical lengths of layers of the first and the second types is equal to half length of an electromagnetic wave, which corresponds to the middle of the used frequency range; thickness of central layer of photonic crystal comprises one fourth of thickness of the layer of the second type.
EFFECT: improving sensitivity and enlarging functional capabilities.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method involves force action on the surface of a test object, recording of a set of electrical signals of input information with the information sensors installed on the test object; signals of the information sensors are determined with changes in force action on the surface of the test object. A use is made of information sensors installed on the test object and receiving changes in parameters of the test object, electronic filters to increase signal-to-noise ratio, which are connected to the outputs of the sensors and connected to the inputs of an electronic analogue circuit implementing a neural network model of reliable operation of the test object; with that, to another group of inputs of the electronic analogue circuit there connected is a unit for supply of a signal for retraining of a model with wears, and to its output there in-series connected is approximation unit of time dependences of sets of electrical signals, a shaping unit of time series of forecasts of reliable operation of the test object, an extrapolation unit of the value of the set of electrical signals at the output of the electronic analogue circuit till a limit value and determination of residual life, to the input of which an extrapolation model setting unit is connected.
EFFECT: improving reliability of forecast results; improving flexibility of the method and enlarging its application scope.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: system of localised control of combustible gas leaks by primary parameters of measuring devices includes stationary sensors-gas analysers of combustible gases, an automatic control system, comprising a unit of sound and light alarm, a unit of control of sensors-gas analysers. The system additionally includes a unit of automatic switching of gas supply from the main process line into a reserve one and back, air-conducting boxes with a common swirler, where air is injected with required parameters from an air blowing plant, making it possible to move a gas leak in a certain direction to serially arranged sensors-gas analysers, which will make it possible with a sufficient extent of accuracy to determine local arrangement of the available leak in the shortest possible time from the moment of its formation.
EFFECT: increased safety, timely, efficient and effective detection of a local leak point, reduced risk of gas concentration formation in the air.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of non-destructive control of materials and substances, measurement of statistic characteristics of random processes. A device to control materials and substances comprises serially connected a source of physical field, an element with a control object, a converter of physical field, and also the first and second conversion circuit, each of which comprises serially connected an accumulating averaging summator and a count block, at the same time the outlet of the first circuit is connected to the first inlet of a computing device, and the outlet of the second circuit is connected to the second inlet of the computing device, the first outlet of which is connected to inlets of strobing of accumulating averaging summators combined into a bus "Measurement time", the first multiplier, the first analogue-digital converter and the second analogue-digital converter, the second multiplier, the first controlled frequency multiplier, serially connected the second controlled frequency multiplier and the controlled phase changer, the outlet of which is connected to the second inlet of the second multiplier, the outlet of which is connected to the inlet of the second analogue-digital converter, and the first inlet of the multiplier is combined with the first inlet of the first multiplier and is connected to the outlet of the first controlled frequency multiplier, the inlet of which is connected to the outlet of the physical field converter, and the outlet of the source of physical field is connected to the inlet of the second controlled frequency multiplier, the outlet of which is connected to the second inlet of the first multiplier, the outlet of which is connected to the inlet of the first analogue-digital converter, in which the outlet is connected to the inlet of the first circuit of conversion, and the inlet of the second conversion circuit is connected to the outlet of the second analogue-digital converter, besides, control inlets of the first and second controlled frequency multiplier and controlled phase changer are combined into a bus "Plant Vm" and are connected to the second outlet of the computing device.
EFFECT: simplification of a circuit of a device for control of quality of materials and substances.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to facilities for monitoring of injury treatment process. A monitoring device comprises a unit of injury nitrogen oxide level monitoring, a unit of controlling signal generation by means of comparison of a nitrogen oxide level with preset threshold and unit of correction of light dosing for injury treatment, at the same time the monitoring unit is designed to detect magnetic field produced as a result of transition from Fe2+ into Fe3+, production of Fe3+ level in accordance with magnetic field, calculation of met Hb level in accordance with the level of Fe3+ and calculation of nitrogen oxide level in accordance with proportionate ratio between the level of met Hb and level of nitrogen oxide. The injury treatment device comprises several sources of light and a monitoring device.
EFFECT: using this invention makes it possible to correct treatment dose more accurately and conveniently, with minimum side effects.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means of efficient detection of poisoning substances and toxins and their instant neutralisation. Device contains microprocessor sets of first 16 and second 22 order, unit of template memory 17, units for detection of poisoning substances and toxins, audio-video system, and units of detection of poisoning substances and toxins are made in form of absorbing devices 3-7, which have sensors at outlet, which determine level of air environment contamination, outlets of sensors are connected to amplifiers-converters 11-15, connected with outlets-inlets with microprocessor set of first order 16, which is connected by outlets-inlets to unit of template memory 17, unit of question introduction 18 and microprocessor set of second order 22, unit of template memory 17 is connected by inlets-outlets to matrix field 21 in form of based on liquid crystals diode crystal lattice, unit of question introduction 18 is connected by inlets-outlets with unit of response analysis 19 and unit of analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of poisoning substances 20, which is connected by inlets-outlets to unit of response analysis and to matrix field 21, connected with inlets-outlets of unit of question introduction 18 and to microprocessor set of second order 22, connected by inlets-outlets with hazard warning unit 23, unit of analysis of unknown chemical compounds and combinations of poisoning substances 20, matrix field 21 and unit of executive device 24 for neutralisation of poisoning substances and toxins, which is connected by outlets with executive mechanisms 25-27.
EFFECT: possibility of determining concentration of toxic materials and their neutralisation in the shortest terms and instant warning of people about hazard, ie maximally possible protection of people against impact of different toxins.
SUBSTANCE: method for determination of pipeline technical condition consists in technical condition integral characteristic quantitative evaluation from which pipeline state is evaluated and corresponding corrective measures are planned. To determine mentioned integral characteristic in-line inspection (ILI) and integrated corrosive survey of pipeline is performed. From results of ILI, proportion factor between technical condition characteristic and relative quantity of defective pipes is established depending on pipeline diameter. Pipeline integrated corrosive survey is performed by measuring electric current from external source along pipeline route with interval not exceeding 10 m. According to obtained data, proportion factor between relative quantity of defective pipes and relative length of damaged protective coating. From determined parameters, technical condition integral characteristic is determined which describes pipeline damage.
EFFECT: higher quality of pipeline reconstruction, repair and technical diagnosis planning.
1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: bombardment of a surface with an ion beam and recording of intensity of reflected ions is performed; besides, analysed surface is bombarded with inert gas ions with energy of less than 100 eV, and energy spectrum of reflected ions is recorded in the energy range, which is higher than energy of primary ions; then, as per energies of peaks of pair collision in the obtained spectrum there determined are types of atoms in one upper monolayer of atoms, as per the available peak with energy equal to energy of bombarding ions there evaluated is availability of a crystalline phase on amorphous or amorphised surface, including in a film of nanodimensional thickness, and as per the ratio of values of the above peak without any energy losses to a peak or peaks of pair collision there determined is surface concentration of crystalline phase on amorphous or amorphised surface.
EFFECT: reduction of depth of an analysed layer till sub-nanodimensional values; improvement of reliability of analysis results and enhancement of compatibility of equipment for implementation of the method with other analysis methods and process equipment.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: use: to measure change in the local concentration of impurities in the liquid flow at the entrance to the measuring cell. The substance is that the first change of impurity concentration is determined in time within the measurement cell to the fluid containing an impurity, wherein the concentration changes with time at the entrance of the measuring cell is known, and they find the impulse response of the measuring cell using the deconvolution method. Then they determine the change in the impurity concentration within the measuring cell for the sample liquid with an unknown impurity concentration at the entrance. They calculate the unknown concentration of impurities upon entering the measuring cell using the found impulse response of the measuring cell and a definite change in the impurity concentration inside the cell.
EFFECT: improving the accuracy of determining concentration of impurities without changing configuration of a measuring cell.
8 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: offshore hydrophysical system has a rigid support structure which joins self-contained geophysical units, each performing a specific measuring or synchronising function, enclosed in separate pressure-resistant housings, wherein each pressure-resistant housing is equipped with a radio-frequency receive/transmit modem, mounted inside the housing on an insert which is transparent for electromagnetic radiation.
EFFECT: high reliability of offshore measuring devices, easier operation thereof and unification of offshore measuring equipment.
FIELD: thermal and nuclear power stations; meter calibration in extremely pure water of condensate type and power unit feedwater.
SUBSTANCE: for pH-meter calibration ammonia whose concentration varies by 1.5 - 2 times is dosed in working medium. Electric conductivity and temperature of working-medium H-cationized sample are measured. Measurement results are processed in computer with aid of set of equations characterizing ionic equilibrium in source sample and H-cationized samples. Calculated pH value is compared with measurement results.
EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability of meter calibration in extremely pure waters.
1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has housing provided with three cylinders made of a dielectric material. The housing receives the cylinder with a piston.
EFFECT: improved design.
FIELD: agriculture and soil science; evaluating water-physics properties of soils.
SUBSTANCE: porous probe communicating with water-filled tank is driven into soil, cathode is inserted in probe and anode, in soil. Voltage is applied to electrodes from dc power supply and soil moisture potential preventing water transfer from tank to soil is determined by measuring current between them.
EFFECT: reduced single measurement time due to eliminating escape of significant amount of water from measuring instrument.
1 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises measuring section made of dielectric pipe whose inner diameter is equal to the inner diameter of the pipeline, two electrodes which form a capacitor made of segments of the dielectric pipe, mounted diametrically opposite, and connected with the electronic unit. The electronic unit has a self-excited oscillator whose frequency-generating circuit includes the capacitor and device for processing frequencies with the indicator. The electrodes are arranged inside the dielectric pipe of the measuring section. The transverse length of each electrode can be greater than half inner diameter of the pipeline. The longitudinal length of each electrode may not exceed half length of the dielectric pipe.
EFFECT: enhanced sensitivity.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: analytical methods.
SUBSTANCE: electrodes of piezoelectric resonator are modified with menthol phenyl salicylate vaseline oil, recommended solvent being toluene, modifier film weight 5-20 μg, drying temperature 20-35°C, and drying time 40-48 h. The following gains in aromatic amine determination sensitivity are thus obtained: for aniline, from 282 to 368 Hz-m3/g; for o-tolidine, from 68 to 78 Hz-m3/g; for 9-nitroaniline, from 136 to 125 Hz-m3/g. Reductions in relative deviation are, respectively, 6.0 to 3.2%, 7.0 to 3.6%, and 6.0 to 4.3%, sensor response time is decreased by 5 times, regeneration time is decreased by 24 times, and aniline detection threshold is lowered from 0.84 to 0.11 Δ, g/m3.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity and accuracy of determination.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 11 ex
FIELD: scanning probe microscopy.
SUBSTANCE: scanning probe microscope has sample holder, first platform, onto which case is mounted, and piezoscanner. Elastic membrane is placed between case and piezoscanner. There is unit for preliminary bringing sample and probe together, as well as housing and probe fixer. The second platform is introduced into the scanner, onto which unit for preliminary bringing sample and probe together. Base and sample holder is put together with cup by means of first hole and the second hole. Second hole is connected with inert gas source. Cup is made of chemically-proof material. Case is made to be air-proof. Locker of the probe is fastened to piezoscanner. Housing is mounted onto cup for interaction with airtight case. Aerostatic plain bearing is formed between housing and airtight case. Sample holder, cup, housing, airtight case, elastic membrane and probe locker form all together closed cavity of electrochemical cell.
EFFECT: simplified exploitation; widened operational abilities.
11 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: detector can be used in concentration meters as positive and negative aeroiones. Aeroion concentration detector has bias voltage source and receiving probe. Detector additionally has two resistors connected in series, auxiliary electrode and electrometer for measuring output voltage that is proportional to measured concentration of aeroiones. Receiving probe has to be volumetric electrode made of metal grid inside which the auxiliary electrode is located. The latter is isolated from volumetric electrode.
EFFECT: improved functional abilities.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes mounting a sample between panels of capacitor converter of electromagnetic radiation, deforming thereof in loading device. Loading device has oppositely mounted in metallic body of loading device metallic rods, force detector and registration system. Compressing external force is applied to sample from first metallic rod through force detector body and it is destroyed due to reaction force of conic indenter of second metallic rod. Metallic body of loading device is a first plate of capacitor converter, second plate - second metallic rod, mounted in bushing of dielectric material, placed in metallic body. Stand has screen, frame, capacitor converter, loading device, force detector and registration system. Between ends of metallic rods force detector and sample are positioned. Second metallic rod is provided with conic indenter.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: analytical chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: sensor can be used for inspecting level of oxidants and antioxidants in liquid. Device for detecting absence or presence of reduction-oxidation reactive-capable analyzed matter in water sample has electro-chemical cell with sensor chamber, first and second electrodes, hole for introducing sample into sensor chamber and reagent placed inside sensor chamber. Electro-chemical cell is designed to be removable after usage in any unique experiment. Reagent is capable of subjecting to reduction-oxidation reaction directly with analyzed matter to generate electric signal indicating absence or presence of analyzed matter. Method of detecting level of reduction-oxidation reaction-capable matter is also proposed as well as method of measurement of sulfur dioxide in sample of vine and method of producing device mentioned before.
EFFECT: improved precision.
36 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology; criminology.
SUBSTANCE: main and ancillary electrodes are installed before procedure of getting imprints of dust trace. Voltage applied to main and ancillary electrodes is regulated within wide high-voltage range. Device for getting imprints of dust traces has electric charge storage, main and ancillary electrodes and connecting cable of ancillary electrode, mechanical unit driven into action by muscle force of expert. Mechanical unit is connected with mechanical energy/electric energy converter which is connected with electric charge storage. Main electrode is coated with insulating dielectric film and connected with electric charge storage.
EFFECT: improved exploitation characteristics; independence on external electric power sources; reduced chance of electric current shock.
2 cl, 2 dwg