Monocrystal of garnet-type structure, optical insulator and device for laser processing

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a monocrystal with a garnet-type structure to be used in optical communication and laser processing devices. This monocrystal is described by general formula (Tb3-xScx)(Sc2-yAly)Al3O12-z, where 0<x<0.1; 0≤y≤0.2; 0≤z≤0/.3.

EFFECT: translucent monocrystal that can inhibit cracking at cutting.

5 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex

 

The technical FIELD TO WHICH the INVENTION RELATES.

The present invention relates to a single crystal with garnet type structure, the optical isolator and device for laser processing.

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

Optical isolators containing a Faraday rotator rotates the polarization plane of incident light by application of a magnetic field, in recent years began to be used not only in optical communication, but also in devices for laser processing.

The single crystals of the terbium-scandium-aluminum garnet (TSAG: Tb3Sc2Al3O12) have traditionally been known as Faraday rotators used in such optical isolators (see the following non-patent document 1)

The DOCUMENTS of the prior art

Non-PATENT DOCUMENTS

Non-patent document 1: Yoshikawa and 5 others. Chochralski Growth of Tb3Sc2Al3O12Single Crystal for Faraday Rotator, Materials Research Bulletin, 2002, Vol. 37, pp. 1-10.

DISCLOSURE of INVENTIONS

The PROBLEM SOLVED by the INVENTION

Although described in the aforementioned non-patent document 1, the single crystals with the structure of garnet are transparent, there were cases when the single crystal formed cracks.

Taking into account the foregoing, the present invention is the creation of the single crystal with the structure of garnet, which pet is acnem, and is able to sufficiently inhibit the formation of cracks, creating an optical isolator and device for laser processing.

The SOLUTION of the PROBLEM

As the result of conducting extensive studies to solve the above problems, the authors of the present invention found that the above problems can be solved by substitution in the crystal, described in non-patent document 1, some part of the terbium-scandium, which led to the creation of the present invention.

That is, the present invention is a single crystal with the structure of garnet, we present the following General formula

(Tb3-xScx)(Sc2-yAly)Al3O12-z(1)

(where x satisfies the conditions of 0<x<0,1).

Such a single crystal is transparent and capable of sufficiently inhibiting the formation of cracks. The authors of the present invention assume that the reason that formation of cracks sufficiently inhibited, is that the garnet structure is stabilized by replacing part of the terbium-scandium.

In addition, the above-mentioned crystal structure type grenade preferably used for providing a Faraday rotator.

In the above General formula (1) y and z preferably simultaneously correspond to the formulas specified below.

0 is the y≤0,2

0≤z≤0,3

In this case, compared with the case when y and z are outside the above ranges, a reduction in the transparency of the single crystal can be more largely ingibirovalo.

In the above General formula (1) x, y and z preferably correspond to the formula below.

of 0.05≤x≤0,07

0,07≤y≤0,11

0,08≤z≤0,12

The single crystal corresponding to the above formula has a higher constant Verde at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Therefore, the single crystal with garnet structure corresponding to the above formula, is very useful as a single crystal for a Faraday rotator used in the optical isolator device for laser processing, using a Nd:YAG laser as the radiation source.

In addition, the present invention is an optical isolator containing a Faraday rotator, and is an optical isolator in which the aforementioned Faraday rotator formed of the above-mentioned single crystal with the structure of garnet.

In the optical isolator according to the present invention the value of the Faraday rotator can be reduced, since the Faraday rotator formed of the above-mentioned single crystal with the structure of garnet and Faraday rotators can be obtained from wisewoman the addition of the single crystal with the structure of garnet in large quantities. Thus, the cost can be reduced through the use of an optical isolator according to the present invention.

In addition, the present invention is a device for laser processing, containing the above-mentioned optical isolator.

According to the device for laser processing of the present invention, the absorption of light by the crystal structure type of garnet is low, since the single crystal with garnet type structure is transparent. Therefore, the stability of the optical isolator to damage caused by light can be increased. Moreover, since the lattice defects and other defects inside the crystal can be ingibirovany, can be prevented from cracking. Thus, the service life of the optical isolator can be increased. In the result, the frequency of replacement of the optical isolator device for laser processing can be reduced.

The TECHNICAL RESULT

In accordance with the present invention are provided: single crystal with garnet type structure that is transparent and capable of sufficiently inhibiting the formation of cracks; the optical isolator and device for laser processing.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Fig.1 is a drawing which shows an implementation option) the ski insulator according to the present invention;

Fig.2 is a block diagram showing the process of growing a single crystal with garnet type structure according to the present invention; and

Fig.3 is a schematic drawing, which shows a variant implementation of the device for laser processing according to the present invention.

The IMPLEMENTATION of the INVENTION

The following is a detailed explanation of embodiments of the present invention with reference to the drawings.

Fig.1 is a drawing, which shows a variant implementation of the optical isolator according to the present invention. As shown in Fig.1, the optical isolator 10 is provided with a polarizer 1, analyzer 2 and the rotator 3 Faraday located between the polarizer 1 and an analyzer 2. Here, the polarizer 1 and an analyzer 2 are located so that their axes pass not parallel to each other, and are arranged at a certain angle, for example 45°.

The rotator 3 Faraday makes a magnetic field In a direction, for example, from the polarizer 1 to the analyzer 2 or, in other words, in the direction in which light is entering, and the rotator 3 Faraday is such that the application of a magnetic field B, the plane of polarization of the noise light L that passes through the polarizer 1, is rotated so that it makes the light to pass through the axis of the responsive is of the analyzer 2.

The following is a detailed explanation of the rotator 3 Faraday.

The rotator 3 Faraday was built using the crystal structure of the type grenade for a Faraday rotator, represented by the following General formula:

(Tb3-xScx)(Sc2-yAly)Al3O12-z(1)

(where x satisfies the conditions of 0<x<0,1). Here, the single crystal represented by the above General formula (1) represents a single crystal of terbium-scandium-aluminum garnet. In this case, the single crystal represented by the above General formula (1) based on Tb3Sc2Al3O12and the fragment (Sc2-yAlyindicates that part of the Sc can be replaced by Al, while the fragment (Tb3-xScxindicates that part of the Tb replaced Sc. In accordance with the single crystal with garnet type structure represented by the above General formula (1), the single crystal is transparent at least in a region of wavelengths of infrared and visible light and is capable of sufficiently inhibiting the formation of cracks during cutting.

In the above General formula (1) x satises the conditions 0<x<0,1. If x is equal to zero, the single crystal when cutting cracks. If x is 0.1 or more, the crystal crystallizes the second phase, thereby preventing the formation of the single crystal. Predpochtite is the super x is from 0.04 to 0.09 is made.

In the above formula (1) y typically ranges from 0 to 0.2, and preferably from 0.02 to 0.2.

In the above formula (1) z is usually from 0 to 0.3, and preferably from 0 to 0.2. In addition, in the case when z is not zero, the number of oxygen atoms is smaller than 12, which is the number of oxygen atoms in the crystal structure type grenade, and is caused by defects in the single crystal.

In particular, since the decrease in transmittance caused by oxygen defects is inhibited to a greater extent, y and z preferably simultaneously correspond to the formulas specified for the above-mentioned General formula 1 below.

0≤y≤0,2

0≤z≤0,3

In particular, in order to further improve the constant Verde in the case of rotator 3 Faraday optical isolator device for laser processing, using a Nd:YAG laser (with a wavelength of radiation - 1064 nm) as a radiation source, x, y and z preferably satisfy at the same time the General formulas specified for the above-mentioned General formula (1) below.

of 0.05≤x≤0,07

0,07≤y≤0,11

0,08≤z≤0,12

The following is an explanation of the production method of the above-mentioned single crystal.

First, before proceeding to the explanation of the method used for growing a single crystal, with reference to Fig.2 is illustrated the e construction of a device for growing crystals used for the cultivation of the above-mentioned single crystal. Fig.2 is a block diagram showing a process for growing a single crystal with the structure of pomegranate for a Faraday rotator according to the present invention. As shown in Fig.2, the device 20 for growing crystals mainly equipped with iridium crucible 21 made of a ceramic material of the tubular reactor 22, which put the crucible 21, and the high-frequency coil 23 inductance wound on the side surface of the tubular reactor 22. High-frequency coil 23 inductance is used for heating the crucible 21 by creating an induced current in the crucible 21.

The following is an explanation of the production method of the above-mentioned single crystal using a device 20 for growing crystals described above.

First, prepare the powder Tb4O7powder Sc2O3and powder of Al2O3.

As soon as the composition of the single crystal to be grown, namely, x, y, and z in the above General formula (1), determined based on this composition, determine the dilution factors powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3. At this stage, the above-mentioned dilution factors powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3and p is Roshka Al 2O3are such as listed below.

Namely, the dilution factor of the powder Tb4O7usually from 21,0% mol to 23,1% mol of the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3.

The dilution factor of the powder Sc2O3usually from 30,8% to 33.5 mol% mol of the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3.

The dilution factor of the powder of Al2O3is usually 45.0% mol to 46,1% mol of the total number of moles of powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3.

The above-mentioned powder Tb4O7powder Sc2O3and powder of Al2O3then mixed in dry form with these specific dilution factors to obtain mixed powder.

Next, the above-mentioned mixed powder fill the crucible 21.

Further high-frequency coil 23 inductance pass current. As a consequence, the crucible 21 is heated and mixed the powder in the crucible 21 is melted with the formation of the molten liquid 24. Next, prepare the seed crystal 25 in the form of a rod, and, after dipping the end of the seed crystal 25 in the molten liquid 24, the seed crystal 25 lift at a given speed rise when rotating the attachment of the seed crystal 25 at a given speed of rotation.

At this stage, as the seed crystal 25 may be used a single crystal with the structure of garnet such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG).

The speed of rotation of the seed crystal 25 is preferably from 3 rpm to 50 rpm, and more preferably from 3 rpm to 10 rpm

The speed of raising the seed crystal 25 is preferably from 0.1 mm/h to 3 mm/h, and more preferably from 0.2 mm/h 1 mm/h

The seed crystal 25 is preferably raised in the atmosphere of inert gas, and inert gas typically use nitrogen. In addition, the seed crystal 25 is usually raised at atmospheric pressure.

When the seed crystal 25 raise thus, at the end of the seed crystal 25, you can get massive single crystal 26 represented by the above General formula (1).

Next with reference to Fig.3 is a detailed explanation of the structure of the device for laser processing according to the present invention. Thus in Fig.3 to denote elements corresponding to the elements or equivalent elements in Fig.1, utilizes the same reference symbols, and missed their overlapping explanations.

Fig.3 is a schematic drawing, which shows a variant implementation of the device for laser processing present Adamu invention. As shown in Fig.3, the device 100 for laser processing is equipped with a source 11 of the laser radiation and an optical isolator 10, located on the paths P of the laser radiation L emitted by the source 11 of the laser radiation. According to the design of this device 100 for laser processing, the laser light L emitted from the source 11 of the laser radiation is passed through an optical isolator 10, thereby allowing to carry out the processing of this emitted radiation of the processed object Q.

Here, since the single crystal structure of the type of grenade used for rotator Faraday optical isolator 10 is transparent, the absorption of radiation by the crystal structure type grenade is small. Therefore, the stability of the Faraday rotator 3 damage radiation can be increased.

In addition, since the above-mentioned single crystal structure of the type of grenade used for rotator 3 Faraday, is able to inhibit the lattice defects and such defects within the crystal can be prevented from cracking. Therefore, the service life of the optical isolator 10 can be increased. As a result, the frequency of replacement of the optical isolator 10 in the device for laser processing 10 may be reduced.

As a source 11 of the laser radiation can the be used any source of laser radiation, such as Nd:YAG laser having a wavelength of 1064 nm or more, or laser based on fiber doped with ytterbium having a wavelength of 1080 nm. In addition, as a source 11 of the laser radiation can also be used a source of laser radiation having a wavelength less than 1064 nm. An example of a source of laser radiation having a wavelength less than 1064 nm, is the source of laser radiation having a wavelength from 400 nm to 700 nm. Examples of sources of laser radiation having a wavelength from 400 nm to 700 nm include semiconductor laser type GaN having a wavelength of 405 nm, and the titanium-sapphire laser having a wavelength of 700 nm. In addition, the wavelength of the radiation source 11 of the laser radiation can also be within the range from 700 to 1064 nm, for example, about 800 nm, or from 1030 nm to 1080 nm.

In addition, although in the above embodiment, the single crystal structure of the type of grenade used in the optical isolator device for laser processing, using a single crystal with garnet type structure is not limited to an optical isolator. On the contrary, it can also be used for magnetic field sensor and similar sensors are used for monitoring change the values of the magnetic field by measuring the change in the angle of Faraday rotation when using a Faraday rotator. In addition, the crystal structure of the type of grenade can also be used in applications other than applications of Faraday rotator.

Examples

Although the following is a more specific explanation of the contents of the essence of the present invention by way of examples, the present invention is not limited to the following examples.

Example 1

First prepared powder Tb4O7(99.99% purity), powder Sc2O3(purity of 99.99%) and Al powder2O3(99.99% purity) followed by mixing in a dry form of these powders to obtain a mixed powder. At this stage, the dilution factors powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3on the basis of the total number of moles (100 mole%) powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3was 23,1% mol, 30,8% mol and 46,1% mol, respectively.

Next, the above-mentioned mixed powder was placed in a tubular crucible 21, having a diameter of 50 mm and a depth of 50 mm.

Further high-frequency coil 23 inductance allow current to melt the mixed powder to obtain a molten liquid 24. Next was preparing the seed crystal 25 in the form of a square rod with dimensions of 3 mm × 3 mm × 70 mm, and made of YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet), and after immersion of the end for rabochego crystal 25 in the molten liquid 24 seed crystal 25 was raised with the speed of lifting of 1 mm/h while rotating at a speed of 10 rpm At this stage, the nitrogen was allowed to flow in a tubular reactor 22 at the rate of 2 l/min, and the seed crystal 25 was raised in an atmosphere of nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Thus was obtained a transparent single crystal having a diameter of approximately 2.5 cm and a length of about 5 cm

When the thus obtained single crystal was subjected to x-ray analysis confirmed the presence of peaks corresponding Tb3Sc2Al3O12. In addition, the structural analysis of the resulting single crystal using x-ray diffraction analysis using the apparatus of Smart Apex, manufactured by Bruker AXS K. K., it was confirmed that part of the Tb was replaced by Sc, and the Sc part was replaced by Al, and that some of the oxygen atoms was lost.

In addition, the composition of the single crystal (the ratio of atoms of Tb, Sc, Al and O) was confirmed by chemical analysis of the above-mentioned single crystal using inductively coupled plasma (ICP). More specifically, chemical analysis using ICP was carried out as described below. Namely, the received portion of the single crystal by cutting 50 mg from the lower end of the elongated middle part of the single crystal. Next, this part was placed in a platinum crucible and to it was added 250 mg of lithium tetraborate. Then a platinum crucible placed in a furnace and the dust the aqueous heating, followed by heating for 2 hours at 1030°C to melt the specified portion of the single crystal.

Further, after the platinum crucible was allowed to cool, the specified part was placed in the beaker 50 ml) and to it was added 120 ml of HCl. Next, the glass was placed on the heating plate and gently heated until dissolution of each elementary component (Tb, Sc, and Al) of the said part in HCl. At this stage, resulting in a beaker of the solution is brought up to a volume of 50 ml in a measuring cylinder and conducted chemical analysis of the solution using ICP. In the result, it was confirmed that the obtained single crystal had the composition (Tb2,96Sc0,04)(Sc1,87Al0,13)Al3O11,9.

Example 2

First prepared powder Tb4O7(99.99% purity), powder Sc2O3(purity of 99.99%) and Al powder2O3(99.99% purity) followed by mixing in a dry form of these powders to obtain a mixed powder. At this stage, the dilution factors powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3on the basis of the total number of moles (100 mole%) powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3amounted to 22.1% mol, 32,1% and 45.8 mol% mol, respectively.

Next, the above-mentioned mixed powder was placed in a tubular crucible 21, having a diameter of 50 mm and a depth of 50 mm.

In subsequent grew single crystal in the same manner as in p is the iMER 1. Thus was obtained a transparent single crystal having a diameter of approximately 2.5 cm and a length of about 5 cm

When the thus obtained single crystal was subjected to x-ray diffraction, it was confirmed the presence of peaks corresponding Tb3Sc2Al3O12. In addition, the structural analysis of the resulting single crystal using x-ray diffraction analysis, it was confirmed that part of the Tb was replaced by Sc, and the Sc part was replaced by Al, and that some of the oxygen atoms was lost.

In addition, when the single crystal was subjected to chemical analysis using ICP in the same manner as in example 1, it was confirmed that the obtained single crystal had the composition (Tb2,94Sc0,06)(Sc1,91Al0,09)Al3O11,9.

Example 3

First prepared powder Tb4O7(99.99% purity), powder Sc2O3(purity of 99.99%) and Al powder2O3(99.99% purity) followed by mixing in a dry form of these powders to obtain a mixed powder. At this stage, the dilution factors powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3on the basis of the total number of moles (100 mole%) powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3amounted to 21.2% mol, 33,3% and 45.5 mol% mol, respectively.

Next, the above-mentioned mixed powder was placed in a tubular crucible 21, having a diameter of 50 mm and a depth of 50 mm.

In subsequent grew single crystal in the same manner as in example 1. Thus was obtained a transparent single crystal having a diameter of approximately 2.5 cm and a length of about 5 cm

When the thus obtained single crystal was subjected to x-ray analysis confirmed the presence of peaks corresponding Tb3Sc2Al3O12. In addition, the structural analysis of the resulting single crystal using x-ray diffraction analysis, it was confirmed that part of the Tb was replaced by Sc, and the Sc part was replaced by Al, and that some of the oxygen atoms was lost.

In addition, when the single crystal was subjected to chemical analysis using ICP in the same manner as in example 1, it was confirmed that the obtained single crystal had the composition (Tb2,91Sc0,09)(Sc1,97Al0,03)Al3O11,9.

Example 4

First prepared powder Tb4O7(99.99% purity), powder Sc2O3(purity of 99.99%) and Al powder2O3(99.99% purity) followed by mixing in a dry form of these powders to obtain a mixed powder. At this stage, the dilution factors powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3and Al powder 2O3on the basis of the total number of moles (100 mole%) powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3that was 22.6 mole%, 31.4% of the mol and 46,0% mol, respectively.

Next, the above-mentioned mixed powder was placed in a tubular crucible 21, having a diameter of 50 mm and a depth of 50 mm.

In subsequent grew single crystal in the same manner as in example 1. Thus was obtained a transparent single crystal having a diameter of approximately 2.5 cm and a length of about 5 cm

When the thus obtained single crystal was subjected to x-ray diffraction, it was confirmed the presence of peaks corresponding Tb3Sc2Al3O12. In addition, the structural analysis of the resulting single crystal using x-ray diffraction analysis, it was confirmed that part of the Tb was replaced by Sc, and the Sc part was replaced by Al, and that some of the oxygen atoms was lost.

In addition, when the single crystal was subjected to chemical analysis using ICP in the same manner as in example 1, it was confirmed that the obtained single crystal had the composition (Tb2,99Sc0,01)(Scof 1.85Alof 0.15)Al3O11,9.

Comparative example 1

First prepared powder Tb4O7(99.99% purity), powder Sc2O3(purity of 99.99%) and Al powder2O3(h is state 99,99%), followed by mixing in a dry form of these powders to obtain a mixed powder. At this stage, the dilution factors powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3on the basis of the total number of moles (100 mole%) powder Tb4O7, powder Sc2O3powder and Al2O3was 22,7% mol, 31,3% mol and 46,0% mol, respectively.

Next, the above-mentioned mixed powder was placed in a tubular crucible 21, having a diameter of 50 mm and a depth of 50 mm.

In subsequent grew single crystal in the same manner as in example 1. Thus was obtained a transparent single crystal having a diameter of approximately 2.5 cm and a length of about 5 cm

When the thus obtained single crystal was subjected to x-ray analysis confirmed the presence of peaks corresponding Tb3Sc2Al3O12. In addition, the structural analysis of the resulting single crystal using x-ray diffraction analysis, it was confirmed that part of the Sc was replaced by Al and that some of the oxygen atoms was lost.

In addition, when the single crystal was subjected to chemical analysis using ICP in the same manner as in example 1, it was confirmed that the obtained single crystal was part of Tb3(Scof 1.85Alof 0.15)Al3O11,8.

The evaluation of the properties

(1) cracks

From the single crystals of examples 1-4 and CPA is a comparative example 1 using a cutting apparatus with internal cutting edge, equipped elecrodeposition diamond circle, cut the bars with a thickness of approximately 2 cm and the resulting crystals were visually evaluated for the presence formed in the cutting process of the cracks. The results are shown in table 1.

(2) the rotation Angle of the Faraday

For obtained in the manner described above the single crystals of examples 1-4 and comparative example 1 were measured angles of the Faraday rotation at the wavelength 633 nm, 1064 nm and 1303 nm. The angles of the Faraday rotation was measured as described below. Namely, the analyzer was rotated without the location of the single crystal between the polarizer and the analyzer in order to create a suppressed state. Further, the single crystals of examples 1-4 and comparative example 1 was cut in the form of square bars with dimensions of 3.5 mm × 3.5 mm × 20 mm, each single crystal was placed between the polarizer and the analyzer and emitted light under the application of magnetic induction in 0,42 T along the longitudinal direction of the single crystal, followed by repeated rotation of the analyzer to create a suppressed state. Calculated the difference between the rotation angle of the analyzer before the location of the single crystal between the polarizer and the analyzer and the analyzer angle after the location of the single crystal between them, and the difference between the angles of rotation has taken place, the angle of Faraday rotation. On Dunn the m stage, measured the angles of the Faraday rotation for sources of radiation with a wavelength of 633 nm, 1064 nm and 1303 nm, respectively. The results are shown in table 1.

Table 1
xyzThe structural formulaCracksTransparencyThe angle of Faraday rotation/degrees
633 nm1064 nm1303 nm
Example 10,040,130,1(Tb2,96Sc0,04)(Sc1,87Al0,13)Al3O11,9notransparent73,8a 21.5the 13.4
Example 20,060,090,1(Tb2,94Sc0,06)(Sc1,91Al0,09)Al3O11,9 notransparent75,1of 21.914,0
Example 30,090,030,1(Tb2,91Sc0,09)(Sc1,97Al0,03)Al3O11,9notransparent73,521,413,2
Example 40,010,150,2(Tb2,99Sc0,01)(Scof 1.85Alof 0.15)Al3O11,8notransparent73,2of 21.212,8
Cf. Example 100,150,2Tb3(Scof 1.85Alof 0.15)Al3O11,8transparent72,821,0a 12.7

According to the results, the cm is authorized in table 1, it was found that the single crystals of examples 1-4 were transparent and were able to sufficiently inhibit the formation of cracks in the cutting process. In contrast, although the single crystal in comparative example 1 was transparent, it was discovered that he was prone to cracking when cutting.

Based on the above, it was confirmed that the single crystal with garnet type structure according to the present invention is transparent and ensures sufficient to inhibit the formation of cracks.

EXPLANATION of REFERENCE LEGEND

1, the Polarizer

2 Analyzer

3 Faraday Rotator

10 Optical isolator

100 Device for laser processing.

1. The single crystal with garnet type structure represented by the following General formula

where x, y and z in the General formula (1) satisfy the formulas specified below:
0<x<0,1
0≤y≤0,2
0≤z≤0,3.

2. The crystal structure of the type grenade under item 1, which is used for the Faraday rotator.

3. The crystal structure of the type grenade under item 1 or 2, in which x, y and z in the General formula (1) correspond to the formulas specified below:
of 0.05≤x≤0,07
0,07≤y≤0,11
0,08≤z≤0,12.

4. Optical isolator containing a Faraday rotator in which the Faraday rotator formed of the single crystal structure of ti is and pomegranate under item 1 or 2.

5. Device for laser processing, containing optical isolator under item 4.



 

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9 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method involves thermomechanical processing of initial crystalline material made from metal halides at plastic deformation temperature, obtaining a polycrystalline microstructured substance characterised by crystal grain size of 3-100 mcm and intra-grain nanostructure, where thermomechanical processing of the initial crystalline material is carried out in vacuum of 10-4 mm Hg, thus achieving degree of deformation of the initial crystalline material by a value ranging from 150 to 1000%, which results in obtaining polycrystalline nanostructured material which is packed at pressure 1-3 tf/cm2 until achieving theoretical density, followed by annealing in an active medium of a fluorinating gas. The problem of obtaining material of high optical quality for a wide range of compounds: fluoride ceramic based on fluorides of alkali, alkali-earth and rare-earth elements, characterised by a nanostructure, is solved owing to optimum selection of process parameters for producing a nanoceramic, which involves thermal treatment of the product under conditions which enable to increase purity of the medium and, as a result, achieve high optical parameters for laser material.

EFFECT: nanosize structure of the ceramic and improved optical, laser and generation characteristics.

3 cl, 3 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: polycrystalline laser material is a microstructured substance with grain size from 3 mcm and consists of calcium and ytterbium fluorides. The material is a solid solution of calcium fluoride and ytterbium fluoride. Content of ytterbium fluoride is less than 5 mol %. The base of the structure of the material is composed of layered grains in which layer thickness ranges from 30 to 100 nm, and the size of separate grains ranges from 30 to 150 mcm.

EFFECT: improved optical characteristics and thermal conductivity of the laser material.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: laser medium includes an optical medium which can transmit a laser beam and having an input surface, a first surface and a second surface opposite the first surface. At least one of the gain media is connected to the first surface of the optical medium and at least one of the gain media is connected to the second surface. The gain media are pumped by an optical pumping beam and amplify the laser beam during its successive reflection. The gain media are made from the same optical material and are doped with at least one active element. The amount of the doping active element in the gain media and/or thickness of the gain media in the direction perpendicular to the first or second surfaces is chosen such that the amount of heat released during absorption of the optical pumping beam is the same for the said gain media.

EFFECT: possibility of generating a high-quality laser beam with high output power owing to uniform amplification by the laser medium.

12 cl, 14 dwg

FIELD: physics, optics.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to producing a terbium aluminium garnet monocrystal which can be used as a Faraday rotator for optical insulators. In the terbium aluminium garnet monocrystal, a portion of aluminium is at least replaced with scandium and a portion of at least aluminium or terbium is replaced with at least one component selected from a group consisting of thulium, ytterbium and yttrium, wherein the garnet monocrystal has the general formula (Tb3-x-zSczMx) (Sc2-yMy) Al3O12 (1), where M represents at least one component selected from a group consisting of Tm, Yb and Y, and x, y and z satisfy the following relationship: 0<x+y≤0.30 and 0≤z≤0.30.

EFFECT: present monocrystal has a high light transmission factor in a wide wavelength range and a wide Faraday rotation angle with cracking-resistance.

8 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 12 ex

FIELD: physics, optics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of producing a terbium aluminium garnet single crystal which can be used as a polarisation rotator (Faraday rotator) in optics. The single crystal is a terbium aluminium garnet single crystal in which part of the aluminium is replaced with lutetium (Lu) and which has the following chemical formula: (TbayLy)(MbxNx)Al3zO12                        (1), wherein L represents Sc, M represents at least one type of element selected from a group consisting of Sc and Y, N contains Lu, and a, b, x, y and z satisfy the following formulae: 2.8≤a≤3.2; 1.8≤b≤2.2; 0.01≤x≤0.6; 0≤y≤0.5; and -0.5≤z≤0.5. The single crystal of said composition is capable of providing a larger Faraday rotation angle than a terbium gallium garnet (TGG) single crystal not only in the wavelength range of 1064 nm or more, but in the wavelength range smaller than 1064 nm, and is also capable of sufficiently inhibiting decrease in transmittance in the short wavelength region (400 to 700 nm) unlike TGG.

EFFECT: invention increases the size of obtained crystals.

10 cl, 9 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: magnetooptic material is an epitaxial monocrystalline film of iron garnet of the composition (YBi)3(FeGa)5O12, which is grown on a substrate of nonmagnetic garnet with a high lattice constant a=12,380Ao/12,560Ao/. The epitaxial film contains 0.1-0.4 formula units of Mg2+ ions. The substrate of nonmagnetic garnet can be made from (GdCa)3(GaMgZr)5O12, or Ca3(NbLi)2Ga3O12, or Ca3(NbMg)2Ga3O12, or Ca3(NbZr)2Ga3O12. The disclosed material has a magnetooptic figure of merit of 56-60 deg/dB at λ=0.8 mcm, 350-380 deg/dB at λ=1.3 mcm, coercitive force of about 2.5-15.3 Oe.

EFFECT: obtaining high-contrast images by thermomagnetic recording.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 3 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: optical isolator has, arranged in series on an optical axis, a polariser, a magnetooptic rotator installed in a magnetic system and an analyser. The magnetooptic rotator is in form of Faraday elements which rotate the polarisation plane by 22.5° each, between which there is a mutual polarisation rotator which rotate the radiation polarisation plane by an angle φ. Both Faraday elements are made from the same monocrystal with orientation [001], but have different directions of crystal axes θ1 and θ2 relative polarisation of radiation incident on the optical isolator, wherein the turning angle of the polarisation plane φ in the mutual polarisation rotator lies in the range from 70° to 74°. The ratio of the length of the Faraday elements varies from 0.96 to 1 and their specific values are defined by the optical anisotropy parameter ξ of the material from which they are made. The direction of crystal axes θ1 and θ2 of the Faraday elements relative polarisation of laser radiation is selected based on the condition of maximum degree of isolation of the optical isolator.

EFFECT: increase in the maximum allowable mean power of laser radiation and high degree of isolation.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: method is based in effect of dependence of magnetic permeability of certain ferromagnets used as a core in the proposed device, on light. The method is based on application of the specified effect as a facility to control the induced magnetic field developed by a permanent magnet, and converting the DC magnetic field into AC one by means of the pulse mode of operation of the source of light. The AC magnetic field of the core installed inside the coil with a conductor generates electric potential in coils.

EFFECT: generation of electromotive force being the effect of difference in potentials induced in coils with a conductor by the AC magnetic field produced by using the permanent magnet field by control of magnetic permeability of the ferromagnetic core placed in the permanent magnet field, with the help of light.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: magnetooptic material is a epitaxial film of (YBi)3(FeGa)5O12 grown on a substrate of nonmagnetic garnet with high lattice constant (example: (GdCa)3(GaMgZn)5O12, Ca3(NbLi)Ga3O12, Ca3(NbMg)2Ga3O12, Ca3(NbGa)5O12). The epitaxial film contains 0.1-0.4 symbolic units of NCa2+.

EFFECT: high recording contrast.

2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: magnetooptic converter is made in form of a magnetic film deposited on a transparent substrate. The latter is made in form of one or more layers of 3-d metals, mainly Fe and Co. Total thickness of the film is 1000±100 A. Metals in the film in polycrystalline or amorphous form. The 3-d metals in the film are in separate form or in form of mixtures, mainly in form of a Fe-Co mixture with weight ratio of said elements equal to 1:1 respectively. The magnetic film is made with addition of rare-earth elements, mainly Gd in amount of 15-25% of the atomic composition of the film. The preferred film contains a Gd-Co-Fe mixture in amorphous form. The substrate is made from glass with thickness of 0.1-2 mm or in form of a polished monocrystalline silicon plate with preferred orientation (100).

EFFECT: high sensitivity when viewing an inhomogeneous magnetic field, low cost of the magnetooptical converter and simplification of its manufacturing method.

6 cl, 5 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: physics; optics.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to measuring techniques. A magneto-optical rotator of an optical isolator, fitted in the magnetic field of a magnetic system, is located in a thermostat with provision for maintaining a given low temperature value in the rotator, so as to reduce heat release. If the magneto-optical rotator is made from paramagnetic material whose Verdet constant ν, increases with decrease in temperature T° according to the law ν˜1/T°, the linear dimensions of the magneto-optical rotator can be considerably reduced.

EFFECT: provision for degree of insulation of over 20 dB.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to optical technique.

SUBSTANCE: for changing the state of polarization of light a magnetized uniaxial crystal is used. At that the light passes through the given zones of the crystal. For switching the state of polarization of light an impulse of magnetic field is imposed on the crystal with a certain density of the magnetic field at which the crystal after the end of the impulse does not remain in the monodomain state but returns in a definite multidomain state defined by the direction of the accompanying magnetic field.

EFFECT: possibility of achieving large useful apertures of the commutating element at very short periods of commutation, at that energy is necessary only for its commutation but not for supporting the definite state.

6 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: non-linear integral and fiber optics.

SUBSTANCE: device can be used for high-speed data processing transmitted by electromagnet radiation. Modulator has weak ferromagnetic material transparent plate disposed between coils having aiding connection; coils are connected and in pairs. Coils are connected with magnetic pulse oscillator. Ferromagnetic plate is tightly fixed between magnets for forming stable rectilinear domain boundary inside uniformly magnetized domain area of coils. Mechanical pressure aids are connected to plate for forming constant mechanical pressure which pressure together with influence of pulse magnetic field, created by coils, induces elastic induced magnetization in a reverse sense of weak ferromagnetic plate. Speed of operation can be increased till optical range frequencies. Power of control reaches of 1E, time of switch doesn't exceed a few tens of ns.

EFFECT: improved speed of operation.

5 dwg

Immersion liquid // 2535065

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an immersion liquid which can be used in optical instrument-making for investigating optical parameters of inorganic materials and optical components, including large, irregularly shaped articles. The immersion liquid for optical investigation contains 97-99 wt % meta-bis(meta-phenoxyphenoxy)benzene and 1-3 wt % 2-naphthol. To reduce viscosity and surface tension, the immersion liquid may further contain 0.1-3 wt % dibutyl sebacate per 100 wt % of said composition.

EFFECT: disclosed immersion liquid is nontoxic, has a good refraction index nD>1,6 and high adhesion to inorganic optical materials, which enables to deposit on the entire surface of the investigated substrate or part thereof a thin immersion layer and use thereof for effective quality control of large optical articles without immersion in a cell with an immersion liquid.

2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex

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