Heat transfer panel of space vehicle

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: heat transfer panel can be used in temperature control systems of space vehicles (SV) for providing of temperature conditions of the equipment installed in earth satellites, interplanetary stations, landers and other space objects. SV heat transfer panel contains metal skin and built-in heat tubes. The panel is designed as sectional and consists of rigidly connected with each other separate hollow sections with heat tubes. Each section of the panel, including heat tubes, is designed as a uniform monolithic structure.

EFFECT: panel allows to improve the efficiency of heat contact between the cooled equipment and built-in heat tubes, unify the structure components, improve reliability and life of the panel, minimize pollution of SV internal atmosphere at the expense of avoidance of glue from used materials, and significantly simplify the technology of fabrication of instrument panel, which combines in itself heat and strength functions.

11 cl, 7 dwg

 

The invention relates to space technology and can be used in systems thermal control of space vehicles (SV) when thermal control equipment installed on an artificial Earth satellites, space stations, rockets and other space objects.

It is known the use of heat sotapanna (TSP) to ensure that thermal regime of the equipment and devices CA. Thermal honeycomb is an effective heat transfer device, which is generally flat, three-layer design (formed from two thin shells and cellular filler), within which is embedded embedded elements for fastening devices and heat pipes with sealed cavities filled with fluid. TSP also provides thermal and mechanical functions when creating an unpressurized instrument compartments KA different configurations. Equipment that is installed on the heat honeycomb, has a flat contact of the base, through which the heat generated by the specified equipment comes in heat pipes (TT), built-in RTC, and then (if necessary, through additional heat) radiation heat exchangers.

Famous KA, containing unpressurized instrument container, made in the form of a parallelepiped, all b is the lateral faces of which are three-sitopaladi (patent RU 2463219, priority dated 26.04.2011, B64G 1/10, B64G 1/50). Setpanel made in the form of a covering of two thin metal (e.g. aluminum alloy) sheets with a honeycomb filler. Inside the panel padded heat pipes, and heat-generating devices are mounted on the surface of setpanel. All setpanel instrument containers are connected in a single heating system collector heat pipes. The proposed solution allows to increase the density of arrangement of the container and to improve thermal stabilization devices and equipment due to the possibility of redistribution of heat flows between sitopaladi and ensure uniform temperature distribution within each setpanel, but this solution does not provide a very efficient heat exchange between the cooled equipment and built-in heat pipes.

The reason for this are the design features of the merchants mentioned, for example, in the article "two-phase thermal control system with disclosed refrigerators-emitters communications satellite with a high power to weight ratio" (Krivov E. C., W. "Young scientist" №1 (24), January, 2011). Here, in particular, it is stated that in the manufacture of three-layer sotapanna apply adhesive bonding, which should provide an effective thermal contact between buildings teplovi the pipe cladding panels made of aluminum sheets. Thus, the heat generated by the contact bases of installed equipment, enters the heat pipes TSP data not directly, but through the covering and adhesive connection.

In some cases, especially for small devices with high heat dissipation or cruciform (regenerative) heat pipe collector with heat pipes, this type of connection is not sufficiently effective due to the low thermal conductivity of the adhesive (two to three orders of magnitude lower than that of aluminum) that can be classified as a serious disadvantage of this design (and technology).

The closest analogue to the claimed heat transfer panel KA, selected as a prototype, is a heat transfer panel in which the plating TSP cut so that the heat pipe had direct contact with a flat installation (contact) base unit (patent US 5682943, publ. 01.07.1996, B64G 1/58, B64G 1/22). This solution allows to increase the efficiency of thermal contact between the panel heat pipes, cooling equipment and other elements of the heat transfer path, the transfer of heat by radiation the heat exchanger of thermal control system. However, the proposed design requires a sophisticated technology TSP, with the notches on the clapboard is E. can lead to loss of strength characteristics of the merchants and, therefore, to reduce the reliability of the design. In addition, the use of adhesives in the manufacture of setpanel, subsequently, in the conditions of space vacuum, leads to increased secretion of TSP various gases that adversely affects the optical instruments of service systems and the target equipment (telescopes, multispectral scanning devices, optical sensors, etc). When this adhesive bonding limit operating temperature TSP, and also subject to ageing and degradation characteristics. In addition, glued TSP does not permit machining, in the case when it is necessary "to bring" (reduce) the variation of flatness or roughness of the surface on the already made panel.

The technical problem solved by the invention is to improve the efficiency of thermal contact between cooled equipment and built-in heat pipes, reducing the temperature gradient between the source and drain heat exception glue from applied materials, improving reliability and durability, the unification of the elements of design, as well as a significant simplification of the manufacture of the instrument panel, which combines thermal and mechanical function.

This task is ensured by the fact that in contrast to the known heat transfer panel to the economic system, containing a metal shell and built-in heat pipes, what's new is that the panel is made sectional and consisting of rigidly connected with each other separate hollow sections with heat pipes, each panel section including heat pipes, made in the form of a single monolithic structure.

In addition, all sections with heat pipes made of aluminum alloy by extrusion.

In addition, sections of the panel are connected to each other via pins located on the inner side of the cladding panel and passing through the cavity sections of the panel.

In addition, sections of the panel are connected to each other through a farm located on the outside of the sheathing panel.

In addition, the blocks of the devices are attached with embedded components that are installed on the inner side of the cladding panel and providing the clamp block to the casing by means of the threaded connection.

In addition, heat pipes are interconnected, at least one common manifold, made in the form of a heat pipe, while the cavity of the heat pipe and the reservoir filled with coolant, form a single closed evaporation-condensation system.

In addition, metal siding panel, side-free installation is the radiation heat exchanger and done the on variable thickness, at the same time its thickness decreases as the distance from the heat pipe, according to the following dependencies:

δ(x)=0,0001 x2+0,0025 x+1,1 d

where:

x - remove the covering from the center of the heat pipe, mm;

δ(x) is a variable thickness of the panel with the parties free of installation of the devices, as the distance from the heat pipe, mm;

d - constant thickness from the installation of devices, mm, with a 0.5≤d≤1,2 mm

In addition, the cavity of the heat pipes are connected in series, forming at least one coil of the heat exchanger, through which the pumped liquid heat transfer medium.

In addition, the panel is in the form of radiation of the heat exchanger, in which the cavity of the heat pipes are connected and used as a condenser two-phase heat transfer path.

In addition, the covering panel has a cut-free installation.

In addition, the covering panel has a thickening in the field installation of the devices.

Execution sectional and panel consisting of rigidly connected with each other separate hollow sections with heat pipes can significantly simplify the manufacturing technology of the instrument panel of various sizes and to reduce thermal gradient within sections and between the sections of the panel.

The execution of each partition panel, including heat pipes, in the de single, monolithic structure, allows you to improve thermal contact between cooled equipment and built-in heat pipes, to avoid glue from applied materials, improve reliability and durability, as well as to simplify the manufacturing technology of the instrument panel.

The manufacture of panels of aluminum alloy by extrusion allows to simplify the technology of construction of the panels and reduce the cost thereof.

The connection sections of the panels to each other by pins located on the inner side of the cladding panel and passing through the cavity sections of the panel will ensure the rigidity of the connection sections of the panel and to facilitate their Assembly.

The connection sections of the panels to each other through a farm located on the outer side of the cladding panel, will ensure the rigidity of the connection sections of the panel and reduce restrictions on the placement of the heat pipes in the inner cavity of the panel.

Fastening devices to panels with embedded elements, such as plates with screw holes that are installed on the inner side of the sheathing panels, allows you to raise and distribute more evenly on the surface of the force of contraction and thereby to improve thermal contact between the instrument and the panel, and also to eliminate the adhesive connection.

The connection of the heat pipe between them, p is at least one common collector, made in the form of a heat pipe, with the formation of a single closed evaporation-condensation system improves the efficiency of heat transfer between the cooled equipment and thermal panels, as well as between different sections within the same panel.

Performing metal plating panel, side, free from the install apparatus, of variable thickness, which decreases as the distance from the heat pipe, according to the following dependencies:

δ(x)=0,0001 x2+0,0025 x+1,1 d

where:

x - delete cladding panels from the center of the heat pipe, mm;

δ(x) is a variable thickness of the panel with the parties free of installation of the devices, as the distance from the heat pipe, mm;

d - constant thickness from the installation of devices, mm, with a 0.5≤d≤1.2 mm

reduces the mass of the heat transfer panel when used as a radiation heat exchanger.

Serial connection pipes of the panel, with the formation of at least one coil of the heat exchanger, through which the pumped liquid coolant, improves the conditions of heat exchange with a heat transfer panel and allows you to connect the panel directly to the liquid circulation system.

The implementation panel in the form of radiation of the heat exchanger, in which the cavity of the pipe shall uedineny between themselves and used as a condenser two-phase heat transfer circuit, improves conditions reset heat heat transfer panel and allows you to connect the panel directly to the two-phase circulation circuit, in particular, to the evaporator contour of the heat pipe.

The presence in the skin panel cut-free installation, reduces the weight of the panels without compromising their thermal characteristics.

The presence of the sheathing panels thickening in places of installation of the devices increases the efficiency of heat transfer between the cooled equipment and built-in heat pipes.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where:

Fig.1 is a cross - section of the heat transfer panel with one-sided mounting devices;

Fig.2 is a cross - section of the heat transfer panels with double-sided mounting devices and two-row placement of the heat pipes;

Fig.3 is a General view of the panel, when combining heat pipes panel in a single evaporation-condensation system with the help of collector (collector heat pipe);

Fig.4 is a General view of the panel when connecting the cavities produced under heat pipes, flowing in coil heat exchanger for pumping liquid coolant;

Fig.5 is a cross - section of the heat transfer panel using the panel as a one-sided radiation of the heat exchanger, combining the functions of radiator and condenser two-phase circuit is;

Fig.6 is a cross - section of the heat transfer panel using the panel as a two-way radiation of the heat exchanger.

Fig.7 is a chart of the changes in the thickness of the cladding panel as the distance from the heat pipe.

We offer heat transfer panel shown in Fig.1, contains several rigidly interconnected monolithic hollow metal sections (1), each of which has a cavity (2), which is sealed, dressed with coolant and performs the function of a heat pipe. Connecting multiple sections with each other allows you to build a panel of the desired size. All sections of the panel are attached to the power elements CA and can be connected by mechanical fasteners or welded together.

Capillary structure in the heat pipe can serve as longitudinal grooves, which, for example, can be made together with other elements of the cross-section of the section by extrusion and steam channel can have a round cross-section. In this case, the Central cavity is necessary to hermetically seal and fill with coolant (usually ammonia). If necessary, can be applied to another type of capillary structure, for example, blood from a dealer structure in the form of threaded grooves.

Covering each section has two flat faces (3), which are blocks of devices(4), or for which the panel is attached to the power elements (5) CA. For secure fastening devices to the panel and for fastening the panel using threaded connections. Response part are installed on the inner side of the cladding panel embedded elements, for example, a flat plate with the screw holes (or through holes under the nut on the outside) (6), which are inserted at the end of each section inside the cavities (7) and are summarized in the right place.

Profiles of the cavities under TT (2) can have a different configuration, for example, be designed as a dual TT, arranged in two rows so as to increase the building height of the heat transfer panel. Devices (4) can be mounted on the panel with two sides (Fig.2). The connection of the heat pipe panel collector with heat pipe (8) through the capillary structure and steam channels so that each channel TT, including the collector, connected in a single closed evaporation-condensation system (Fig.3). This system is sealed, has a total capillary filled by common carrier, and a single system connected to the steam channels. The creation of such complex compounds is known, decided to practice engineering task, and in this case it is proposed to perform Obedinenie TT between the arterial capillary structure (type segmental artery with threaded dealer capillary structure). In this solution, the contact thermal resistance between the heat pipes embedded in the panel, and collector heat pipe will be excluded from the heat transfer path, which further reduces both the total temperature difference and the temperature gradient on the panel.

Also the cavity of the heat transfer panel can be connected to the coil (9) flow-through heat exchanger (Fig.4). It is known that in TSP and milled thermal panels heat pipes, sometimes replaced by the liquid pipe P in which (with pump) pumped liquid coolant. This decision encouraged to apply for the inventive heat transfer panels, i.e. panels, assembled from reinforced sections. The respective channels of the sections are connected in a flow-type heat exchanger according to the rules that apply when designing a liquid or two-phase PAGE.

If such a flow-type heat exchanger used as a condenser two-phase heat transfer path is the channel diameter can be relatively small (2-4 mm), and the walls of the channels is smooth. Such radiators condensers, but based on TSP, are widely used for the AC.

Perhaps the Union condenser two-phase circuit with a heat sink (as the final element of the heat transfer path), see Fig.5. Here, the capacitor biphasic system the volumes (cavity sections, marked POS.2) represents a system of smooth cylindrical channels having a circular cross-section of small diameter. These channels can be connected in series, as shown in Fig.4, and may have a set of connections both parallel and sequential, while maintaining the principle of flow-through heat exchanger having inlet and outlet.

The inventive panel can be used as double-sided cooler-condenser two-phase loop (Fig.6). When designing bilateral radiator-based monolithic Bessonova sections, the connection sections can be made via pins (10), i.e., not close to the radiating surfaces of the fastening elements. This solution makes it possible to open a cladding panel for radiation in the surrounding space. The radiator, thus, should be attached to the SPACECRAFT using the end faces of the panels.

If the panel is installed devices is used to reset the heat radiation through the opposed faces of the casing relative to the verge, which installed devices, the thickness of the radiating faces can be optimized. The use of extrusion in the manufacture of sections of the panel allows you to perform the verge of covering with a variable cross-section and, accordingly, reduce the weight of the panel.

Typically, the step of heat pipes PE lamentorum production technology thermal panels, similar to the TSP. In practice, for the Russian KA is used, the step of heat pipes in the range of 70-140 mm In the diagram of Fig.7 analysis of the efficiency of the radiating ribs at the maximum step of the TT. The chart shows that the reduction of the cross section of the ribs according to a certain law allows you to keep the integral efficiency of radiation, but the mass of the ribs can be reduced by 15%.

The dependence of the thickness of the metal cladding panels with hand-free installation, here approximated by the expression:

δ(x)=0,0001 x2+0,0025 x+1,1 d, where:

x - delete cladding panels from the center of the heat pipe, mm;

δ(x) is a variable thickness of the panel with the parties free of installation of the devices, as the distance from the heat pipe, mm;

d - constant thickness from the installation of devices, mm, with a 0.5≤d≤1.2 mm

the normal level temperatures (0-20°C).

When one of the faces of the sheathing panel (usually the one that is facing to the power elements KA) not used either for installation or as a radiator - part of the material sections (from the skin) can be removed by milling, which will further reduce the weight. The removal of the material from these locations, in this case, almost no effect on thermal properties of the panel.

Faces of the casing sections, addressed to the device of the am, can also be variable, increased or reduced without compromising strength) thickness of material. The thickness of the cladding material section in the zone of contact with the device is based on the settings of the device, in particular, the non-uniformity of heat flux, the thickness of the contact base, the requirements for the temperature gradient on the seat, etc.,

Does heat transfer panel as follows. The heat generated by the devices (4), the direct thermal contact comes in a metal shell sections (1) and further to the heat pipe (2) of this section. The heat trapped in the panel (and raspredeleniya length with TT), can radiate any of the faces of the casing sections or be discharged into the reservoir (8). (Collector may have a regenerative connection with heat pipes panel). In the reservoir there is a redistribution of heat flow between the sections, and heat transfer, (with heat on the base TT, CNT and so on), to another, such that the heat transfer panel, which radiates heat into space.

The use of standardized sections of the dashboard and/or the heat sink is made in the form of monolithic structural elements, for example, using highly technological method of extrusion, eliminates many of the labor is MkII technological operations, associated with the placement inside the panel heat pipes (various lengths and configurations), and also to eliminate gluing all elements of sotapanna each other. At the same time increases the reliability and durability of the panel during operation, and also minimized thermodeformative, as in the present design uses a homogeneous material.

Thanks to the idea of creating a monolithic hollow metal sections already in the process of production, you can perform configuration of channels for heat pipes, and set a law of variation of the material thickness (in cross section) for contact or radiant faces of the sections.

Due to the absence of seams, adhesive compounds having significant thermal resistance, increases the efficiency of heat transfer from the seats of the devices to the other elements of the heat transfer path. No glue panel construction allows to reduce the pollution of our own atmosphere KA, which is important when installing sensitive optical devices.

The use of the present invention will enlarge the use of panels intended for installation and ensure that thermal regime of the equipment and devices for space application.

1. The heat transfer panel of the spacecraft containing a metal shell and su is Ronnie heat pipes, wherein the panel is made sectional and consisting of rigidly connected with each other separate hollow sections with heat pipes, each panel section including heat pipes, made in the form of a single monolithic structure.

2. The panel p. 1, characterized in that all of the section with heat pipes made of aluminum alloy by extrusion.

3. The panel p. 1, characterized in that the sections of the panel are connected to each other via pins located on the inner side of the cladding panel and passing through the cavity sections of the panel.

4. The panel p. 1, characterized in that the sections of the panel are connected to each other through a farm located on the outside of the sheathing panel.

5. The panel p. 1, characterized in that the blocks of the devices are attached with embedded components that are installed on the inner side of the cladding panel and providing the clamp block to the casing by means of the threaded connection.

6. The panel p. 1, characterized in that the heat pipes are connected, at least one common manifold, made in the form of a heat pipe, while the cavity of the heat pipe and the reservoir filled with coolant, form a single closed evaporation-condensation system.

7. The panel p. 1, characterized in that the metal cladding panels, with one hundred the ons, free installation is the radiation heat exchanger and is made of variable thickness, its thickness decreases as the distance from the heat pipe according to the following dependencies:
δ(x)=0,0001 x2+0,0025 x+1,1 d where:
x - delete cladding panels from the center of the heat pipe, mm;
δ(x) is a variable thickness of the panel with the parties free of installation of the devices, as the distance from the heat pipe, mm;
d - constant thickness from the installation of devices, mm, with a 0.5≤d≤1,2 mm

8. The panel p. 1, characterized in that the cavity of the heat pipes are connected in series, forming at least one coil of the heat exchanger, through which the pumped liquid heat transfer medium.

9. The panel p. 1, characterized in that it is made in the form of radiation of the heat exchanger, in which the cavity of the heat pipes are connected and used as a condenser two-phase heat transfer path.

10. The panel p. 1, characterized in that the casing has a cut-free installation.

11. The panel p. 1, characterized in that the lining is thickening in the field installation of the devices.



 

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Thermosiphon // 2261405

FIELD: heat-power engineering; utilization of low-potential heat, heat of soil inclusive.

SUBSTANCE: proposed thermosiphon includes heat pump with thermosiphon containing working medium capable of changing its liquid state to gaseous state and vice versa; it includes evaporation and condensation parts; thermosiphon is provided with hermetic thermal tube whose working medium is capable of changing its liquid state to gaseous state and vice versa; it also has evaporation and condensation parts; condensation part of thermal tube bounds cavity of heat pump evaporator together with outer housing, cover and lower platform; said cavity is provided with branch pipes for delivery of liquid phase of heat pump working medium and discharge of gaseous phase of heat pump working medium in such way that condensation part of thermal tube forms inner housing of heat pump evaporator; mounted in between of outer and inner housings of heat pump evaporator is intermediate housing which is provided with holes in lower part for passage of liquid or gaseous phase of heat pump working medium circulating inside its evaporator; tubes-nozzles mounted between inner and intermediate housings are directed vertically upward for admitting liquid phase of heat pump working medium under pressure; heat pump evaporator has inner surfaces. Besides that, outer, inner and intermediate housings of heat pump evaporator are taper in shape and are so located that have common vertical axis of symmetry; inner surfaces of heat pump evaporator and inner housing are finned.

EFFECT: considerable reduction of thermal head between soil and working medium in heat pump evaporator; reduced overall dimensions; possibility of utilization of energy of compressed liquid fed from heat pump condenser to evaporator.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: heat transfer equipment, particularly to carry heat for long distances, for instance refrigerators.

SUBSTANCE: heat-exchanging system comprises closed loop including main heat-exchanging channel, heat carrier agent pumping device, additional heat-exchanging channel and heat-carrier supply channel connecting the main and additional heat-exchanging channels. Heat carrier agent pumping device may withdraw heat carrier agent in vapor or vapor-and-liquid state from one heat-exchanging channel and supply above vapor or vapor-and-liquid heat carrier agent under elevated pressure into another heat-exchanging channel. Heat carrier agent supply channel is formed as channel with capillary partition closing the channel. During heat-exchanging system operation the capillary partition obstructs vapor penetration or vapor-and-liquid flow. The vapor penetration obstruction is defined by cooperation between meniscuses and inner surfaces of capillary channels formed in the partition. The vapor-and-liquid flow obstruction is defined by bubble meniscuses cooperation with inner surfaces of capillary channels of the partition. The heat carrier agent pumping device may withdraw vapor or vapor-and-liquid heat carrier agent from any heat-exchanging channel and pump above heat carrier agent under elevated pressure in another heat-exchanging channel.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of heat-exchanging system.

14 dwg, 18 cl

FIELD: applicable for heat abstraction in various media.

SUBSTANCE: the heat transferring device has a sealed pipe with condensation and evaporation zones filled up with a heat-transfer agent with pockets provided on the inner surface, the pockets used for inhibition of draining condensate are located in the evaporation zone and made annular or formed by the sections of the helical surface adjoining the pipe inner wall with its lower edge at an acute angle, which are separated from one another by radial partitions, the annular pocket is formed by the side surface of the truncated cone, adjoining the inner wall of the mentioned pipe with the larger base. Besides, at least some of the pockets located one above other are positioned at such a distance that a capillary effect occurs between the surfaces facing one the other.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of heat transfer due to the increase of the pipe surface wettable by the heat-transfer agent, as well as simplified structure an facilitated actuation of the device.

3 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: chemical and oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: reactor comprises housing, means for supplying initial components and discharging finished product, unit for heating and cooling made of a number of heat pipes, additional catalyzer applied on the heat pipes and/or housing and made of a coating. The heat pipes are staggered in the space of the housing. The total area of the surface of the heat pipes in the catalytic zone should provide heating and cooling the catalytic zone.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

5 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: electric mechanical engineering, possible use for cooling electric generators and electric engines.

SUBSTANCE: in proposed system for cooling electric machines, containing compressed air source with force pipeline, splitting vortex pipe, having as a result of energy division to hollows - hot one and cold one, thermal pipe made inside the hollow shaft of electric machine, as a special feature, along axis of hollow shaft a tubular channel is made for passage of cold flow from splitting vortex pipe, and space, formed by external surface of tubular channel and internal surface of hollow shaft is thermal pipe, condensation area of which - external surface of tubular channel, and evaporation area - internal surface of hollow shaft.

EFFECT: efficient and even cooling of electric machine, simplified construction, increased manufacturability.

2 dwg

FIELD: control of temperature of spacecraft and their components.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of temperatures in spacecraft temperature control zones, comparison of these temperatures with high and low permissible magnitudes and delivery of heat to said zones at low limits. Heat is delivered by conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy. Power requirements are measured at different standard time intervals of spacecraft flight forecasting orientation of its solar batteries to Sun. Magnitude of electric power generated by solar batteries is determined by forecast results. Measured magnitudes of consumed electric power are compared with forecast data. According to results obtained in comparison, flight time is divided into sections at excess of energy generated by solar batteries over consumed power, equality of these magnitudes and shortage of generated energy. High magnitudes of temperature are maintained at excess energy sections by conversion of difference of generated energy and consumed energy into heat. In case of reduction of generated energy in the course of changing the orientation of solar batteries on Sun, temperature in these zones is reduced to low limits at simultaneous equality of energies. In case of further increase of generated energy, temperature in said zones is increased to high limits at equality of energies. Then, in the course of change of generated energy, temperature correction cycles in temperature control zones are repeated.

EFFECT: avoidance of excess of consumed energy above generated energy of solar batteries.

7 dwg

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