Concrete mixture

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: concrete mixture contains, wt %: portland cement 18.87-21.34, expanded clay 41.13-41.56, superplasticiser LSTM 0.0312, thermal power plant fly ash 13.92-18.87, gas-forming additive PAK-3 0.022-0.025, iron-containing sludge - chemical production waste 0.10-0.50, water - the balance.

EFFECT: obtaining concrete with higher strength and low density.

3 tbl

 

The invention relates to the construction materials industry, in particular the production of lightweight concrete for low-rise construction.

Famous raw mix for the production of lightweight concrete (Patent No. 2379265, IPC C04B 38/08, publ. 20.01.2010) containing, wt.%: cement 21,0-23,0; clay 26,0-28,0; water 14,0-18,0; shungite dust 31,0-39,0.

The disadvantage of this mixture is the low strength.

Famous concrete mixture (Patent No. 2449971, IPC C04B 38/08, publ. 10.05.2012) containing, wt.%: Portland 23,0-25,0; expanded clay fraction of 10-20 mm 4,5-5,5; clay sand 20,0-23,0; saponified rosin 0,001-0,0012; clay ground 13,0-18,0; water - the rest.

The disadvantage of this mixture is insufficient durability, increased density, reduced thermal properties.

Closest to the invention is a concrete mixture for the production of building blocks for low-rise construction (Patent # 2440943, IPC C04B 28/04, C04B 111/20, publ. 27.01.2012) comprising, wt.%: Portland 21,0-24,0; expanded clay gravel 27,0-31,0; clay sand 5,0-7,0; expanded perlite sand 5,0-7,0; saponified rosin 0,001-0,0012; superplasticizer C-3 0,9-1,3; ground-glass 18,0-20,0; water - the rest.

The disadvantage of this concrete mixture is reduced strength, increased density and reduced thermal properties.

The technical result consists in obtaining concrete is increased strength and reduced density.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that the concrete mix including Portland cement, lightweight aggregate, superplasticizer LSTM, water, according to the invention further comprises fly ash of thermal power plants, gas-forming additive PAK-3 and iron-containing sludge, in the following ratio, wt.%:

Portland 18,87-21,34;

the clay 41,13-41,56;

superplasticizer LSTM 0,0312;

ash CHP 13,92-18,87;

gas-forming additive PAK-3 to 0.022-0.025;

iron-containing sludge - 0,10-0,50;

water the rest.

Ash CHP is a fine powder with fineness of 2500-3000 cm2/g, a bulk density of 780 kg/m3the true density of 2300 kg/m3, humidity 17%, loss on ignition of 4.8%.

Grain composition of fly ash CHP wet removal are presented in table 1.

/tr>
Table 1
Grain composition of fly ash CHP.
The size of the holes of the sieve, mmPrivate residues on the sieves, %Full residues on the sieves, %
2,53,143,14
1,25of 1.574,71
0,63of 1.576,28
0,3151,057,33
0,1620,427,73
less than 0,1672,25of 99.98

The fineness modulus of fly ash CHP-Mkr=0,48.

The chemical composition of the fly ash CHP are presented in table 2.

Table 2
The chemical composition of the fly ash CHP.
Name of the power plantSiO2A2O3Fe2O3CaOFeOMgOK2OSO3SiO2+Al2O3+FeO
Kemerovo)49,118,612,8the 5.71,52,0 0,21,0567,7

Ash CHP in the concrete mix plays the role of fine aggregate and fills the emptiness of the clay. Spherulites fly ash CHP create additional closed porosity fine aggregate, reducing overall open porosity structure is an artificial construction conglomerate. Reduced open porosity leads to a decrease in water absorption of the material and to increase the strength of artificial conglomerate.

Superplasticizer LSTM is a product of wood processing pulp sulphite method carbide and water-soluble resin. Thick, viscous dark brown liquid, soluble in water. Introduction superplasticizer reduces the water requirement of a mixture of about 15% and increases the strength of concrete.

Additive PAK-3 - powder aluminum contact is a silver fine powder. It is soluble in acid and alkali solutions. Is introduced into the concrete mixture in the form of a suspension in water required for mixing of concrete.

Introduction in the concrete composition of gas-forming additives PAK-3 leads to the interaction of the aluminum powder with calcium hydroxide produced during the hydration of tricalcium silicate. In the reaction allocated the waters of the genus, which perisheth matrix and reduces the density of the concrete mix. The formation of pores optimal structure, which is evenly distributed throughout the matrix of the concrete mixture in the form of a polydisperse in size, closed, deformed in the right polyhedra with glossy surface preparepage layer. The pores are separated by a thin, but dense, durable and uniform in cross-section interporous partitions (an Additive in concrete and mortars: training Handbook / L. I. Kesternich. - Rostov-on-don: Phoenix, 2007).

Iron-containing sludge - chemical production waste - is a fine black powder with a specific surface area 3000-3500 cm2/g, a true density 2530-2600 kg/cm3the average density 2300-2500 kg/m3. Iron-containing sludge contains iron trioxide 73,0 is 75.0%, iron oxide of 17.0 and 17.2%, alumina of 9.8 to 10.0%, insoluble residue of 4.7%, calcined residue of an 80.2%, of aqueous extract pH of 5.0-6.0.

The introduction of iron-containing sludge promotes intense hydration process of Portland cement, especially in the initial setting period. Iron-containing sludge, due to its high specific surface area, distributed in the solid phase of the concrete and helps chemisorptive interaction with cement paste. With the formation of new chemical link is, which are very strongly held on the surface of the cement stone, and on the surface of fly ash CHP. In addition, the formation of new complex hydrated compounds contributes to the hardening interporous partitions in the concrete structure, which also helps to increase its strength.

Preparation of the tested compounds was carried out in a forced action mixer. The clay was dosaged by weight and poured into the mixer, which poured 30% of the water required for mixing concrete mixture, and was stirred for 120 seconds.

Then the mixer was dosaged Portland cement, fly ash CHP. Mixing water was injected superplasticizer LSTM, gas-forming additive PAK-3 and iron-containing sludge. Then the rest of the water required for mixing concrete mixtures with additives was poured into the mixer, and the mixture was stirred for 210 seconds. From ready-mix formed samples, which were verdeli 28 days.

The composition of concrete mixtures are given in table 3.

Table 3
The composition of concrete mixture.
ComponentsContent, wt.%
Composition No. 1Composition No. 2 Composition No. 3
Portland21,3419.14 per18,87
Leca41,5641,5041,13
Ash CHP13,9216,7018,87
Superplasticizer LSTM0,03120,03120,0312
Gas-forming additive PAK-30,0220,0230,025
Iron-containing sludge0,100,250,50
Waterrestrestrest
The strength of concrete in compression, MPanot less than 7.0not less than 7.0not less than 7.0
The prototype of the Strength of concrete in compression, MPanot less than 3,0 not less than 3,0not less than 3,0

Thus, the introduction of the concrete composition of fly ash CHP leads to optimization of the pore space of the concrete, reducing the open intergranular vacuum in the concrete structure, and the absence of large capillary pores increases the strength of concrete.

The introduction of additives PAK-3 pariset the cement matrix, in which there are small rounded closed pores, practically does not affect the strength of concrete, but significantly reduces the density and increases the insulating properties of concrete.

Use in the concrete mixture of iron-containing sludge increases the strength of the cement matrix due to the chemisorption interaction of iron-containing sludge from the surface of the clay, Portland cement and fly ash CHP. Generated new complex hydrated compounds contribute to earlier formation of the products of hydration in crystalline form, which leads to increase the strength of the system, especially in the early stages of hardening.

Cation of iron present in the iron-containing sludge, relates to multivalent transition metals, and it promotes the oxidation-reduction processes in the hardening of the cement matrix of concrete mixture, intensifies the process of hydration portlander the NTA, this produces a large number of new hydrated compounds that contributes to a significant increase in concrete strength.

Concrete mix including Portland cement, lightweight aggregate, superplasticizer LSTM, water, characterized in that it further comprises fly ash of thermal power plants, gas-forming additive PAK-3 and iron-containing sludge, in the following ratio, wt.%:

Portland18,87-21,34
Leca41,13-41,56
superplasticizer LSTM0,0312
ash CHP13,92-18,87
gas-forming additive PAK-3to 0.022-0.025
iron-containing sludge0,10-0,50
waterrest



 

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