Slab foundation

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the construction of shallow foundations. Slab foundation, reinforced with recessed cage located outside the foundation along its perimeter at some distance from the edge of the plate. Deepening of the bottom of the cage exceeds the depth of maximum horizontal ground motions. The distance between the cage and the edge of the slab is set according to the planned design bearing capacity or settlement of the foundation and in the composite cage made of reinforced components their upper parts are connected by a belt.

EFFECT: technical result is the increase of the reliability and load-bearing capacity of the slab foundation, reduction of its settlement, reduction of material consumption.

8 cl, 9 dwg

 

The invention relates to the construction of shallow foundations.

A known method of strengthening of slab foundations, pile fields from a large number of piles below the foundations [SP 50-102-2003, M., 2004, S. 30-31].

However, you can significantly reduce the number of piles, if you install them in small increments in the form of a yoke not under the slab, and only with its outer side, along the external perimeter of the base. This is enough to limit the lifting of the soil from beneath the edges of the Foundation to increase due to this, the bearing capacity and reduce settlement Foundation (prototype No. 1) [RU 2256033 C2, 04.08.2003].

The disadvantages of the prototype

- The presence of large gaps between the piles in soft soils allow free horizontal lifting of the ground through the gaps. This weakens the effectiveness of the strengthening of the Foundation.

- The upper ends of the piles are free. Under the influence of horizontal movement of the soil piles will be pressed into the surrounding ground, the distance between adjacent piles will increase, thereby reducing the resistance to horizontal wyboru soil.

- The length, the diameter of the piles and their distance from the edge of the Foundation depends on many parameters. The specific values given in the prototype, are only a particular case described in the description of the invention. For mn the other other soil conditions and dimensions of the Foundation they simply unacceptable. In the prototype No. 2 [RU 2472899 C1, E03D 27/08, 30.01.2013] provided some evidence aimed at addressing these shortcomings. However, they were not devoid of shortcomings.

In particular, the laying loose beams on top of the pile, not clearly formulated, has an auxiliary decorative in nature and is not intended to increase the bearing capacity of the Foundation.

- Length of pile shell from the edge of the Foundation is aimed only at ensuring the free vertical movement of the Foundation and does not solve the problem of increasing the bearing capacity of the Foundation.

- The length of the pile shell in the ground is not unequivocally defined and therefore can theoretically be taken infinitely long.

The aim of the invention is to improve the reliability and load bearing capacity slab Foundation, the reduction sediment reduction of material consumption for the production and efficiency of operations.

The aim is achieved in that the depth of the bottom of the cage is greater than the depth of the maximum horizontal displacements of the soil, the distance clips the edge of the Board appointed depending on the planned design bearing capacity or settling of the Foundation, and in a compound clip from emoluments their upper parts are connected by the belt.

The objective is also achieved by the fact that the clip is made of emoluments as spun the new piles.

The objective is also achieved by the fact that the clip is made of emoluments two side plates along the length, rigidly attached to opposite sides of emolument and allow to fully close the gaps between the trunks of the neighboring emoluments due to partial overlap of the side plates.

The objective is also achieved by the fact that the clip is made of emoluments in the form of racks with two side plates along the length, rigidly attached to opposite sides of the racks and allow to partially overlap the gaps between the neighboring racks of emoluments.

The objective is also achieved by the fact that the clip is made is rigidly attached to the transverse support element resting on the subgrade.

The objective is also achieved by the fact that the transverse supporting element, based on the ground surface.

The objective is also achieved by the fact that the transverse supporting element, based on the soil at or below the base of the layer of seasonal freezing and thawing of the soil.

Comparative analysis of the prototype shows that the inventive method is distinguished by the totality of the stated characteristics. This allows to make a conclusion on compliance with the sign of "novelty."

The comparison not only with the prototype, but also with other technical solutions in this field of technology is not allowed to reveal in them the features that distinguish allow aemy way from the prototype, that allows to conclude that the criterion of "substantial differences".

In Fig. 1 cutaway raft Foundation on soil Foundation, strengthened the case installed on the perimeter of the base; Fig. 2 shows a plan of the specified slab Foundation, reinforced yoke; Fig. 3 shows a top view of a holder made of sheet piles; Fig. 4 shows a top view of a holder made of separate piles with side plates without gap; Fig. 5 - the same option with gaps between the plates; Fig. 6 shows a clip from a separate emoluments increments, depending on the planned design bearing capacity or design Foundation settlement; Fig. 7 shows a clip from a separate emoluments connected in the upper part of the power belt; Fig. 8 shows the holder with a cross support element resting on a ground surface; Fig. 9 shows a housing with a transverse support element resting on the ground below the base of the layer of seasonal freezing and thawing of the soil.

When loading base plate 1 is compressed to substrate 3 and the displacement of the soil in the lateral direction. This displacement of the soil reduces the bearing capacity of the Foundation under the stove. To strengthen the base 3 serves to hold the guide holder 2 located outside of the Foundation 1 isoperimetry (Fig. 1). It prevents lateral displacement of soil from under the base plate 1, contributes to a more uniform and intense soil compaction, and hence increase its load carrying capacity. The depth of the lower end of the holder 2, in contrast to the prototype, must exceed a depth of 8 at the level of maximum horizontal displacements of the soil δmax. Otherwise, the majority of the ground will be squeezed out from under the bottom of the holder 2 and this will greatly reduce the efficiency of the installation. The most effective is the depth of the cage up to level 9, where the horizontal movement of soil significantly reduced. In this case, is used to the full compression of the soil inside the casing, therefore, increases the maximum bearing capacity of the plate and decreases its sediment.

Between the edge of the plate 1 and the shell 2 arrange the clearance value "a" (Fig. 1). This increases the bearing capacity of the slab, because it increases the diameter of the working part of the soil Foundation with "d" to "D". At the minimum gap is a strong compaction of the soil in a confined space, it can lead to the destruction clip from the effects of tensile stresses. If the clearance is too large ground before reaching the cage, will be squeezed out from under the plate on the surface of the ground inside the cage, i.e., the positive effect is not bodø is obtained. For these reasons, to increase the bearing capacity of the Foundation inside the clip distance "a", you must first assign a special way (according to the calculation or experiments).

Describes the nature of the influence of the gap "a" the bearing capacity of the surface of the Foundation is confirmed, in particular, the model tests the surface of the Foundation of a small diameter, installed in a steel shell. The test results presented in thesis. Murzenko Y. N. [Experimental-theoretical study of force interaction of foundations and sandy grounds. dis.... Dr technology. Sciences. - Novocherkassk. 1972. S. 358]. The tests showed that the bearing capacity of the model Foundation in a steel cage on a sand base significantly depends on the ratio D/d, i.e., the size of the gap "and". The nature of this relationship described above. The optimum value of the ratio D/d=1,3. Whenand=0,5(D-d) and d=40 cm, it follows that the recommended gap for these particular parameters, the sizes of the base and the shell 0.15 d. Maximum load capacity when the ratio D/d is equal to 46.7 mc. For other values of D/d bearing capacity F was:

D/d1,051,31,8 2,5
andcm1,06,01630,0
F, mc27,046,716,91,73

That is, the bearing capacity of the Foundation depends on the size of the gap.

The clip may be a composite of the individual emoluments. In Fig. 3 shows the clip of sheet piles 4 are securely interconnected. This design is capable of tensile stress in the horizontal (circular direction) and therefore most effectively resists the horizontal pressure of the extruding soil and it increases the bearing capacity of the Foundation.

In Fig. 4 shows a portion of a yoke of the racks 7 with two side plates 6, rigidly welded to the rack. They completely cover the gap between the posts, so they provide almost full use of compression of the soil inside the cage. To improve the reliability overlap a gap between the reinforcing elements in the process of their movement and deformation during the loading of the Foundation, side plates need to install a small overlap (up to 10 mm).

In order to save material, the ferrule may be zgodovina of a single reinforcing elements, shipped a short distance "b" or "d" from each other (Fig. 5 and Fig. 6). In this case, the soil in this small gap is involved in the operation of the elements and forms a combined pile-soil cover. The distance between the reinforcing elements must be assigned individually by the results of the preliminary calculation or experimental studies. This distance must provide the required design load bearing capacity of the slab Foundation.

Emolument, primarily designed to resist horizontal load when Wymore soil. For this reason they can be run in the form of racks, freely lowered into the drilled hole with a small space without filling the wells. Small gaps (2-3 mm) between emoluments and the borehole wall will be eliminated immediately after the start of horizontal ground motions and will not have a material impact on the carrying capacity of the Foundation.

For the perception of the annular tensile stresses in the shroud upper ends of the reinforcing elements 4 are connected to each other connecting element - power zone 5 (Fig. 5-7).

With a small depth of the Foundation of the ferrule may be made of steel pipe (ring case) or reinforced concrete, placed in a vertical trench arranged gap making machine or excavator.

Gruntbots holder 2, under the influence of a pressing load from the base plate, will be compacted. Due to this, the frictional force between the reinforced soil and the inner walls of the casing will be larger than with its outer side. This can lead to the displacement of the shroud down over the ground with the outer side of the bracket. This move will stop the process of further compaction of soil within the casing, and hence further increase the bearing capacity of the Foundation. This can be prevented. In Fig. 8 shows a new, compared to prototype, design solution: perpendicular or oblique to the shell 2 along its perimeter rigidly attached to the transverse support element 10 resting on the ground surface. This element provides an additional resistance to immersion shell 2, further compaction inside the cage.

Effect of free movement of soil inside the casing, and therefore, additional sealing can be achieved by reducing the friction force between the ground and the inner wall of the shroud. For example, lubricate it with grease. The outer surface of the shroud should be roughened.

If the soil layer of seasonal freezing and thawing of the ground is heaving, the bearing element 10, based on the soil below the soles layer 7 seasonal freezing-Ottawa the Oia soil (Fig. 9).

1. Raft Foundation, reinforced recessed clip, located outside of the Foundation along the perimeter at a distance from the edge of the plate, characterized in that the depth of the bottom of the cage is greater than the depth of the maximum horizontal displacements of the soil, the distance clips the edge of the Board appointed depending on the planned design bearing capacity or settling of the Foundation, and in a compound clip from emoluments their upper parts are connected by the belt.

2. Raft Foundation under item 1, characterized in that the ferrule is made of emoluments in the form of sheet piles.

3. Raft Foundation under item 1, characterized in that the ferrule is made of emoluments two side plates along the length, rigidly attached to opposite sides of emolument and allow to fully close the gaps between the trunks of the neighboring emoluments due to partial overlap of the side plates.

4. Raft Foundation under item 1, characterized in that the ferrule is made of emoluments in the form of racks with two side plates along the length, rigidly attached to opposite sides of the uprights and allowing only partially overlap the gaps between the neighboring racks of emoluments.

5. Raft Foundation under item 1, characterized in that the ferrule is made with rigidly attached to the transverse support element, on Hiroshima on the subgrade.

6. Raft Foundation under item 1 or 7, characterized in that the transverse support element, based on the ground surface.

7. Raft Foundation under item 1 or 5, characterized in that the transverse support element, based on the soil at or below the base of the layer of seasonal freezing and thawing of the soil.

8. Raft Foundation under item 1, characterized in that the friction on the inner surface of the shroud make less than the outer surface.



 

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