System for subsea oil or gas field development
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: system contains at least one modular shaft with the central unit placed under water and an uprise buried to the ocean bottom and at least one air-lock chamber to transport duty shifts of workers, materials and equipment. Besides the system comprises at least one drilling area with a horizontal tunnel branched from the uprise in the central unit, and an inclined area for delivery of drill pipes and a vertical area in which bottom part there is a wellhead of at least one well. A power cable and control systems as well as pipeline in the protective shell for oil and gas transportation are connected to the modular shaft.
EFFECT: increasing development efficiency of subsea oil and gas deposits.
9 cl, 56 dwg
The invention relates to the field of development of mineral resources, and specifically to the development system of an underwater oil or gas, mainly in the Arctic and adjacent areas.
A known system for the development of an underwater oil or gas on the Arctic shelf, providing for initial placement on the bottom of the ocean plate having a sufficient number of wells located in accordance with the grid location of wells at the ice base. Plate bury in the ground by the amount necessary to pass over the surface of the plate-resistant base. Over the stove establish self-elevating floating drilling rig and make it faster drilling wells through the bottom plate to the desired depth. Then make a well completion and drilling rig away from the drill site, where fail-resistant base made in the form of a fully equipped ice-resistant offshore platform, which is set on the bottom plate, put it on the stove, combine the well grid platform and the plate, after which produce a landing platform on the ground, form a wellhead platform, perform it well is put into operation and then produce further exploitation of the Deposit as ice-free and ice periods. Les is ostoyae the base of the complex is operational, power equipment and residential unit and made in the form of an offshore platform having a bottom part in the area of the well grid platform the notch to align with the bottom plate when the landing platform (EN 2123088 C1 IPC E02B 17/00, 1998).
A well-known system of mining on the underwater field, which involves the installation of a hollow sturdy metal construction with further deepening her in the seabed around the perimeter of the base, then enclosed inside the structure of sea water are removed outside of the structure to the full exposure of the bottom, which drain either proparaguay and equip for industrial purposes, including the purpose of carrying out works on development of oil or gas using traditional ground-based technologies (EA 006717 B1, IPC E21C 50/00, 2006).
Also known other decisions involving the use of surface floating or fixed offshore drilling platforms, which, as described above, have a number of common disadvantages.
In case of an accident on a floating rig or platform offshore oil or gas will flow directly into the environment, which will inevitably lead to environmental disaster. Known drilling rigs operating in extreme conditions of low Arctic temperatures, wind, and the other adverse weather conditions, that creates a difficult environment for life staff, ensuring the functioning of this equipment. Problems in carrying out the work also creates difficult ice conditions. When installing and servicing the system of underwater drilling requires a large amount of underwater works (preparation of horizontal platform for installation, anchor handling, laying communications, etc.,) that in the cold water of the Arctic imposes significant restrictions.
The present invention consists in the expansion of the means of development of underwater oil or gas, the environmental security, the creation of comfortable conditions for staff working in conditions of cold and extremely cold climate, the ability to work regardless of ice conditions on the surface of the ocean, the ability to work offshore in the deep ocean up to 500 meters and at any distance from the mainland, and in the further development of technology deep dives and at a greater depth.
The solution of this problem provides a development system of an underwater oil or gas, which contains:
at least one shaft module located under water at the bottom of the ocean, the Central node with depth in the bottom of the ocean vertical shaft and, IU the greater extent, one lock chamber for supplying duty shifts of workers, materials and equipment;
at least one drill site, a vertical shaft extending from a Central hub and including a horizontal tunnel, sloping plot for supply of drilling pipes and vertical part at the bottom of which is located the mouth of the at least one well;
- connected to the shaft module power cable and control system and having a protective shell pipeline to transport oil or gas.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the airlock consists of:
- upper and lower chambers;
the upper horizontal gate separating the upper chamber from the ocean;
- the bottom horizontal gate that separates the upper and lower chambers;
Central vertical gate that separates the lower chamber from a Central hub;
- lifting mechanism.
The lifting mechanism is located in the upper chamber and contains a retractable support elements for the location drop to the bottom of germoline with workers or container materials or equipment, and two located opposite node synchronous vertical movement, each node horizontal movement with the carriage having two mooring farm with grips made interoperable with what armakuni with the workers or with the container with materials or equipment for its mounting on the lifting mechanism.
Generally, the system contains at least one rig, placed at the bottom of the vertical section.
In the best embodiment of the invention, the shaft-module equipped with a second lock chamber.
Mine-module can be provided with a device of the soil erosion and pumping the resulting water-soil slurry into the ocean.
The Central node may include placed under the floor and is accessible through hatches technical passages, channels for communication and the Department of pumping station.
In a preferred embodiment, in a horizontal tunnel mounted main and emergency pipeline, and the pipeline for passing gases, linking well with the pumping station.
In a horizontal tunnel can be floor mounted, is arranged to move parallel with and located beneath the floor of the emergency capacity to collect spilled oil, waterproof walls with gates that separates the Central node located at intervals along the length of the horizontal tunnel.
Mine is a module may contain an output compartment, through which the pipeline to transport oil or gas is connected to the pumping station.
The possibility of carrying out the invention shown in the examples illustrated in diagrams:
- Fig.1 shows a plan of the mine-m is a module with three drilling sites;
- Fig.2 shows a plan of the mine-module with three drilling sites, underground oil or gas storage facility and the storage of associated gas;
- Fig.3 shows a development system of an underwater oil or gas with mine-module, drilling site and transportation of oil or gas on the mainland side of the plan;
- Fig.4 shows a plan development of an underwater oil or gas from several mines modules with multiple drilling sites every system of transportation of oil or gas on the mainland;
- Fig.5 shows a cross section of the pipeline to transport oil or gas from the protective sheath;
- Fig.6 shows the scheme of the construction of the Central node using bells;
- Fig.7 and 8 shows the plan of the Central node with two sluice chambers, Fig.7 is a top view, Fig.8 is a section along a-a in Fig.7;
- Fig.9-12 shows the airlock, Fig.9 is a top view of the closed upper horizontal gate, Fig.10 is a side view, a longitudinal section of the Fig.11 is a side view, cross-section of Fig.12 is a top view with the open upper horizontal gate;
- Fig.13-21 presents the schema of the stages of a rotary chamber with a pressurized cabin, Fig.13 - orientation germoline prior to installation on the lock chamber, side view, Fig.14 - orientation germoline set before vcoi on the lock chamber with an open upper horizontal gate, side view, Fig.15 - airlock open upper horizontal gates and lifting mechanism, prepared for making germoline, side view, Fig.16 - airlock with captured lifting mechanism pressurized cockpit on the upper horizontal gates, side view, Fig.17 - airlock with captured lifting mechanism pressurized cockpit on the upper horizontal gate at the time of detaching the capture of the trip device, vehicle security, side view, Fig.18 - pressurized cabin at the top of the camera lock camera in a fixed position, side view, Fig.19 - the cabin in the upper chamber airlock before moving to the lower camera, side view, Fig.20 - position according to Fig.19, the cross-section, Fig.21 - the cabin in the lower chamber airlock, side view;
- Fig.22-24 shows the routing of the horizontal tunnel drilling site from a Central hub, Fig.22, 24, a side view, Fig.23 is a cross section of a horizontal tunnel;
- Fig.25 and 26 shows a waterproof bulkhead horizontal tunnel, Fig.25 is a front view, Fig.26 is a top view of circuit opening double doors with a door and a door for the technical passage;
- Fig.27 and 28 shows a watertight bulkhead horizontal tunnel with the location of the blank space provided for provedeniyasvobodnogo, Fig.25 is a front view, Fig.26 is a top view of circuit opening double doors with a door and a door for the technical passage;
- Fig.29, 30 shows a circuit passing through the horizontal tunnel drilling site from a Central hub mounted with concrete floors, Fig.29 is a side view, Fig.30 is a cross-section with views of the double gate waterproof partitions;
- Fig.31 shows a diagram of the horizontal tunnel and slope, side view;
- Fig.32 and 33 shows a diagram of the horizontal tunnel, an inclined and a vertical section, Fig.32 is a side view, Fig.33 is a cross section on a plane through the horizontal tunnel;
- Fig.34 shows a diagram of the drilling site during drilling operations;
- Fig.35 shows a diagram of a drilling site with a vertical section, decommissioned;
- Fig.36-38 shows a diagram of a drilling site in the development of oil fields, Fig.36 is a side view with portions of the top at the beginning and end of the horizontal tunnel, Fig.37, 38 is a cross-sectional view, respectively, of the beginning and end of the horizontal tunnel;
- Fig.39, 40 shows a diagram of the Central site in the development of oil fields; Fig.39 is a top view, Fig.40 section a-a in Fig.39;
- Fig.41 and 42 shown watertight bulkhead separating a horizontal tunnel from the centre of Lenogo node in the development of oil fields, Fig.41 is a front view, Fig.42 is a top view of circuit opening double doors with door;
- Fig.43-45 shows a diagram of a drilling site in the development of the gas field, Fig.43 is a side view with portions of the top at the beginning and end of the horizontal tunnel, Fig.44, 45 is a cross-sectional view, respectively, of the beginning and end of the horizontal tunnel;
- Fig.46, 47 shows a diagram of the Central site when the development of gas fields; Fig.46 is a top view, Fig.47 section a-a in Fig.46;
- Fig.48 and 49 shown watertight bulkhead separating a horizontal tunnel from the Central node during the development of gas fields, Fig.48 is a front view, Fig.49 is a top view of circuit opening double doors with door;
- Fig.50 shows a circuit structure of the output compartment using bells;
- Fig.51 and 52 shows a diagram of the output compartment, side view, Fig.51 - with the location of partitions, Fig.52 - with the location of the power cable and control system and piping;
- Fig.53 and 54 shows a diagram of the input into the output compartment, Fig.53 is a front view, Fig.54 is a top view of;
- Fig.55 shows a diagram of the drilling site with the Central unit and the output of the pipeline to the mainland, side view;
- Fig.56 shows a diagram of the coastal base of the Deposit.
The structural unit of the system development submarine deposits of the nave and or gas is mine-module 1 (Fig.1, 2, 3, 4) with multiple wells. The system may include one or more mines modules 1.
Mine-module 1 is under water at the bottom of the ocean and has a Central node 2, deep in the bottom of the ocean vertical shaft 3 (Fig.3) and two lock chambers 4, 5 for the filing of duty workers (mainly during construction), materials and equipment.
The system includes at least one drilling site, extending from the vertical shaft 3 of the Central node 2 and including a horizontal tunnel 6, the inclined section 7 for supply of drill pipe (diagrams not shown) and a vertical part 8, a bottom 9 which is located the mouth of the at least one well. From the vertical section 8 may be drilled several wells.
To mine-module 1 connected to the cable 10 power supply and control system and having a protective shell 11 (Fig.5) the pipeline 12 for transporting oil or gas.
First built lock chambers 4, 5 for filing duty shifts of workers, the tunneling shield, pipes and other equipment. When designing the airlock and the calculation of its strength according to SNiP II-23-81* and SNiP 2.01.07-85* it is necessary to take into account the hydrostatic pressure, which will it be on the calculated depth according to the formula p=ρgh, where p is the pressure of the fluid layer, PA; ρ - density of fluid is STI, kg/m3; g - factor, N/kg; h - the height of the liquid layer, m
To minimize underwater work during construction is proposed to use reinforced concrete bell 13 (Fig.6), which consists of several segments 14.
The segments 14 of the bell 13 is made on the Bank according to SNiP 2.06.08-87 the depths of the ocean, where it will be. Then finish the segments 14 of the bell 13 and the sea are delivered to the construction site and assembled at the bottom in a single structure.
Transportation of goods is done according to transport regulations sea transport (RD 31.10.10-89). Underwater technical works should be carried out according to SNiP 3.07.02-87 (p. 3) and according to RD 31.84.01-90 and RD 39.121.92.
The bell 13 has its own airlock 15, through which it falls builders and all necessary equipment.
Electricity and air is accomplished using a cable and hose lines 16 from the ship's software according to RD 31.84.01-90 and RD 39.121.92, which are attached to the connector 17 on the bell 13.
Dive and work in the bell 13 may be, for example, in saturation mode using a deck of diving equipment. This method is currently gaining ground in the conduct of various deep-water operations.
The organization runs is with abuses. During the whole period of the research the builders live in the chamber, placed on ensuring a vessel (diagrams not shown). It is supported by the pressure corresponding to the pressure in the bell 13. Before descending to join a chamber pressurized cabin. After establishing in it a pressure equal to the pressure in the pressure chamber, the builders move in a pressurized cabin and delivered to the bell 13. After the specified time in the bell 13, builders make the return journey (the rise in the pressurized cabin - coupling - transition in the pressure chamber) at the same constant pressure of the gas in the breathing mixture. Decompression builders is performed only once after the scheduled underwater works. The complex provides a series of "saturation" normal functioning builders, working in two shifts, with a maximum cycle of a saturated immersion in 29 days. In case of any unforeseen circumstances, the group of builders may be substituted with one group may not work, and the other, replaced undergo decompression in the other chamber.
The organization of the dives are very effective. It provides a high level of productivity, economic profitability underwater works and their high reliability. Existing deck complexes allow to work on bol is our depths. In particular, one of the American complexes of this type MK-1 is used for operations at depths of 260 to 300 meters And there are already systems to work at depths up to 500 m
After the construction of the locks chambers 4, 5 begin construction of the Central node 2 (Fig.7, 8). In it under the floor place technical passages 18, which can be accessed through hatches 19 and the channels 20 for routing communications. Also under the floor is constructed compartment 21 for mounting the pumping station. Upon completion of construction of the Central node 2 bell 13 is removed, and the cable and hose line 16 is attached to the same connector 22 (Fig.6) on one of the locks chambers 4, 5.
Each airlock 4, 5 consists of the upper 23 and lower 24 cameras (Fig.10, 11), the upper horizontal gate 25 which separates the upper chamber 23 from the ocean, and the lower gate 26 that separates the top 23 and bottom 24 of the chamber, a Central vertical gate 27, which separates the lower chamber 24 from a Central hub 2, and a lifting mechanism 28, which is located in the upper chamber 23.
The lifting mechanism 28 (Fig.10-12) contains two located opposite the site 29 synchronous vertical movement of the wheels of the gear 30 (Fig.12) moving along the rails 31, which is mounted in the wall, each node horizontal displacement of two monorail beams 32 slide 33 having two mooring f is RMI 34 with grippers 35, made interoperable with pressurized cabin 36 (Fig.13) with the workers or with the container with materials or equipment for its mounting on the lifting mechanism 28.
On the lifting mechanism 28 includes two guides 40 (Fig.10, 11, 12) which move the slats 41 with attached carriage 33. On the carriage 33 are two mooring farm 34 and the mast 42 for supplying a pressurized cabin 36 air and electricity. The hooks 35 on the mooring farms 34 along the guide rails 43 (Fig.10, 12) are moved using rails 44 (Fig.10) in the frontal plane.
Operates the lifting mechanism 28 as follows.
When receiving or germoline 36 with the workers, or containers of materials and equipment (Fig.13), which are the attachment 45 to grips 35 and the connectors 46 and 47, the upper chamber 23 airlock 4 or 5 is filled with water and open the sash, the upper horizontal gate 25 (Fig.14).
Then the lifting mechanism 28 monorail beams 32 is raised to its extreme upper position (Fig.15). After that Reiki 41 with the carriage 33 along the guide rails 40 are also raised to its extreme upper position and the carriage 33 are disclosed mooring farm 34 and the mast 42. The lower part 48 of the rails 41 (Fig.10, 11, 12), folded at an angle of 90°, are retractable support elements for germoline 36 with the workers or container with the materials or about what adowanie.
The operator trip unit (SPU) vehicle maintenance (diagrams not shown), having a pressurized cabin 36 or container to lock the camera 4 or 5, receiving data from the sensors spatial orientation and checking the lights on the sluice chambers 4 or 5 using video cameras with lighted by spotlights (diagrams not shown) located on each side of germoline 36, puts it in the correct position relative to the airlock 4 or 5, and places on the lower part 48 of the rails 41, after which the operator airlock 4, 5 (gateway can be operated with mine, and ship support) closes mooring farm 34, fixing the pressurized cabin 36 or container with placed them on the hooks 35.
Efforts mooring farms 34 enough in case you need to relocate the pressurized cabin 36 or container in the horizontal direction to fully capture all attachment 45 for grabs 35.
The operator then pristykovyvayas the mast 42 provide a connector 46 (Fig.17). Connector 46 is located on the roof of germoline 36 to ensure that in case of failure of the main hose line or power cable to it from the ship you can attach emergency. Make sure using video cameras, the floodlights, and receiving data from the sensors that the container is securely attached all the hooks 35, the operator from tychoway from his grip 49 SDA (Fig.17) (operator SDA avoid accidents independently undock capture 49 from germoline 36). Capture 49 you can undock only by joining the connector 46. In case of an emergency, the operator SPU can do with a stand-alone emergency console, smashing the protective glass. The movement of the lifting mechanism 28 will also be blocked until undocked capture 49 SPU. Once undocked capture 49 SDA operator gateway lowers the pressurized cabin 36 in the upper chamber 23 (Fig.18).
The upper horizontal gate 25 airlock 4 or 5 are closed, and from the upper chamber 23 is pumped out all the water, open the bottom horizontal gate 26 (Fig.19), reveals the lower part 48 of the rails 41 (Fig.19, 20). And Reiki 41 together with the carriages 33 and secured them in a pressurized cabin 36 along the guide rails 40 are lowered into the lower chamber 24 (Fig.21). Next, the carriage 33 along the rails 41 (Fig.21) go down and put a pressurized cabin 36 or container, respectively, on the floor or platform trolley.
Displays the pressurized cabin 36 or container of the airlock 4 or 5 in reverse order. When the pressurized cabin 36 will be at the top, the operator SDA under the control of the video camera, located on the grip 49 SDA, using thruster propellers sums capture 49 to the pressurized cabin 36 and attaches to the connector 47. Convinced of the reliability of the connection with the camera and readings from the sensors, the operator SDA opens the grippers 35 mooring farms 34 and removes mooring farm 34, and then p is melting the mast 42. After using the cameras with illuminated lights located on each side of germoline 36 that mooring farm 34 and the supply mast 42 away and lifting nothing prevents the operator SPU begins to rise germoline 36 or container on ship maintenance.
Work on the descent or ascent of germoline 36 or container can be made in an automatic mode under the control of the operator. Airlock 15 bell 13 works in a similar way, but of smaller size.
Instead of two identical locks chambers 4, 5 can be used lock chambers 4, 5 of different designs, only one of which is adapted for making germoline 36 or container cargo. Two lock chambers 4, 5 are provided for safety reasons and maintenance. In case of failure of one airlock 4 or 5 in the mine can be accessed through the other. Lock chambers 4, 5 are the only link of mine-module 1 with the outside world.
Given that the lock chambers 4, 5 are working in a hostile environment (sea water), from time to time will need to carry out various preventive work and to periodically replace worn-out mechanisms, because the lock chambers 4, 5 will not work one year. And when on prevention will be one airlock 4 or 5 in the mine can be accessed through the other. Also p is power running airlock 4 or 5 in the mine-module 1, you can submit parts for another repaired or serviced airlock.
After the construction of the locks chambers 4, 5 and the Central node 2 start laying horizontal tunnel 6, the inclined 7 and 8 vertical sections. Horizontal tunnel 6 (Fig.22) is constructed using a tunnel shield 50 (e.g., collapsible shield with a closed head part d 6000). Tunneling works are carried out according to SNiP 32-04-97.
Depleted soil can be removed from the mine in various ways, for example trolleys 51 is delivered from the tunneling shield 50 to the reservoir (diagrams not shown), where the soil is eroded and thrown out by a pump (for example NSH) through the discharge pipe. Rocky soil or sludge remaining after the blur in the form of stones and other non-blurry rocks, loaded into containers and rises or ship service, or by using SPU container is removed from the airlock and is discharged near the mine-module 1 on the bottom of the ocean.
The length of a horizontal tunnel 6 can be any. Concrete ring 52, intended for facing horizontal tunnel 6, must have a special hydrostatic compounds according to SNiP 32-04-97 as possible seepage of sea water through cracks in the ground.
At the beginning of the horizontal tunnel 6 is mounted waterproof wall 53 (Fig.24, 25, 26) having a double gate 54 with the door 55 and the door 56 DL the technical passage. Next, on the entire length of the horizontal tunnel 6 at a certain distance (for example, every 200 meters) is also mounted waterproof walls 57 (Fig.27, 28), which differ from waterproof walls 53 the presence of the metal bracket 58 for piping. Later in the compartments are mounted partitions 60, (figs 29, 30) separating the technical passage 18 from the emergency tank 61, if it is mine for the extraction of oil. Emergency capacity 61 are connected by a crosspiece 62. Then mounted concrete floor 59. In the concrete floor 59 there are hatches 19, which from a technical passage 18 you can get to any part of the horizontal tunnel 6, the drain manholes 63 (Fig.36) for draining spilled oil in an emergency capacity 61 and rails for trolleys 64. As construction of the horizontal section 6 and as the installation of the floor 59 in his construction of the horizontal section 6 trolleys 51 at the end of the section with the already mounted floor 59 is constructed temporary ramp 65. Rack 65 as the installation of the next section of the concrete floor 59 dismantled and carried forward. On completion of the horizontal tunnel 6 rack 65 is disassembled and taken out of the mine. Technical passage 18 are mounted all the necessary communications 66 (power cable and control system 10, the cables and ceiling lighting, gas analyzers, and so on)(Fig.30).
Horizontal tunnel 6 is laid before drilling. Then mounted crane beam 67 (Fig.31), which is vertical penetration. Initially built the inclined section 7 for the supply of pipes and after that himself vertical part 8. Upon completion of construction of the vertical section 8 (Fig.32) at its bottom 9 is the rig 68, warehouse 69 tubes, the station for the preparation of working mixtures of 70 and other accessories 71. Cartridge 72 with the pipes are delivered to the drill site using a special trolleys 73 (Fig.33). Moving cassettes 72 with pipes and other materials in vertical section 8 is carried out using a crane, 67.
For drilling most preferred is the use of a compact rig. Use the same method of directional drilling allows you to drill one vertical section 8 several dozen wells 74 in a different direction (Fig.34).
Drilling is carried out remotely, without the involvement of people from the continent - from the control center 75 (Fig.56), or supply vessel.
In case of unsuccessful (dry) drilling the well off, vertical part 8 is filled with soil to horizontal and horizontal tunnel 6 continues until the next drilling (Fig.35). This allows you to minimize costs.In case of successful mounted drilling equipment for pumping (Fig.36, 37, 38). In the vertical portion 8 and an inclined section 7 establishes the technical passage 18. Well mounted cascade of gates 76. Then on the concrete floor 59 on the racks are laid core 77 and 78 emergency pipelines, and pipeline for gas 74. At the end of the horizontal section 10 at the entrance to the Central node 3 for the partition 52 is also installed valve 80 on the main 75 and the valve 81 to 76 emergency pipelines. Emergency pipeline is installed drain pump. From emergency pipeline 78 in an emergency capacity 61 sink taps 83 for pumping of them gathered oil. The pipes 77 and 79 of the horizontal tunnel 6 is routed through a Central hub 2 through the channels 20 of laying (Fig.39, 40) to the Department of pumping station 21.
In the mine-module 1 natural gas mounted equipment for pumping gas (Fig.43, 44, 45). In the vertical portion 8 and an inclined section 7 establishes the technical passage 18. Well mounted cascade of gates 76. Then on the floor on racks laid core 77 and 78 emergency pipelines. Ceiling mounted ventilation duct 84. At the end of the horizontal tunnel 6 at the entrance to the Central node 2 for wall 57 also installed the valve 80 77 on the main and vent the l 81 78 emergency pipelines. Emergency pipe 78 is set to the pump 82. The main pipe 77 of the horizontal tunnel 6 is laid through the Central node 2 through the channels 20 of laying (Fig.46, 47) to division 21 of the pumping station.
At the final stage of construction under construction output compartment 85, for example, at an angle of 45° (Fig.50, 51, 52, 55), through which the shaft-module 1 start the power cables and control system 10 and the pipe 12. It happens this way. First, with the help of the bell 13 is constructed output compartment 85 (Fig.50). At the junction of compartment 85 with the Central unit 2 is installed partition wall 86 (Fig.51, 52, 53, 54). It includes: door 56, the drainage system 87 for pumping water from the compartment 85, closed protective casing 88, the plug 89 holes for pipe and cap 90 holes for power cables and control. Upon completion of the construction of the bell 13 is removed, and the output compartment 85 is left open (Fig.51). After which it is wound pipes and cables (Fig.52). Then place the entrance to the compartment 91 (Fig.52) can be repaired, for example, using two plates with protertymi and sealed. After sealing the compartment 85 builders using the drainage system 87 pumped the water out of it.
After you've built the output compartment 85 and to the Department of pumping station 21 will be provided with all required communications and the pipe itself is mounted pumping station.
There may be other ways of laying pipes, such as under the floor or on the wall.
From mines modules 1 oil and gas can be transported in two ways:
1. On 12 pipelines oil and gas are transported to the mainland (Fig.1, 3, 4).
2. Shipment of oil or gas from mines modules 1 is carried out using a single point mooring device 92 (Fig.2), for example, the type of CALM, SALM, SAL on tankers.
In Arctic conditions most preferred pop-up mooring device type SAL. When shipped from the single point mooring devices 92 oil or gas is first injected into a subterranean oil or gas reservoir 93 and associated gas during oil extraction in underground gas storage 94, and then using the pop-up loading system 92 are shipped in tankers. The storage facilities should be built with the help of tunneling shields two additional tunnel 95.
An important issue when working on the Arctic shelf is the conclusion of communications with the sea on dry land, as in shallow water hummocks and icebergs likely can damage them. To solve this problem by using tunneling shields can be drilled from land to the deep part of the sea several output shafts 96 (Fig.3, 4, 56) and through them all pipes and cables.
Inland pipe 12 is wound, for example, as follows - rope from the land passed through you is adnie shaft 96 and is served on the ship pipelayer. Then, as the welding of pipe using the winch cables are drawn in the output shaft 96 to a level just above the water level. Then dry the mine laid before the pumping station 97. Or, for example, over the weekend compartments mines 98 (Fig.3), which are then sealed similarly to the sealing of the output compartments 85 mine-module 1, then output compartments mines 98 pumped out the water and pipes in dry mine laid to the shore, to the pumping station 97. Further, the oil or gas is transported by overland pipeline system 100. Power cables and control 10 may appear in the sea in the same way.
When the field in case of an accident in any mine-module 1 automatic closes the valves 76 and 80 and stops the flow of oil or gas in the main pipe.
Then in the mine-module 1 oil opens the shutoff valve 81 at the emergency pipeline and using the pump 82, the oil is pumped from the emergency tank 61 into the main pipeline 77 above the shutoff valve 80.
In case of breakage of the pipe 77, as the vertical tunnel 6 using partitions 57 (Fig.41, 42) is divided into compartments and separated from the Central node 2 by a partition wall 53 (Fig.25), the oil will not spread throughout the mine module 1, but only in one compartment of one horizontal tunnel 6. The door 55 udoynyh gate 54 also double each opens to the inside of your compartment (Fig.41, 42, 25).
In the gas mine gas is squeezed out from the mine-module 1 air supplied by the ventilation duct 84, and is pumped out through the emergency pipe 78 with the pump 82. Similar to the above, thanks to waterproof the walls 57 (Fig.48, 49) in the event of an accident, the gas will not spread throughout the mine module 1, but only in one compartment of one horizontal tunnel 6.
This will minimize loss of oil or gas in the accident and prevent them in the environment.
After the oil or gas will be reverted to the removal of the breakout start of the emergency team.
The delivery of the emergency team to the module is as follows.
Ship maintenance, going to the module that attaches the cable cable and hose line 16 to the connector 22 airlock 4 or 5 and blows mine-module 1 fresh air, and then through the lock chamber 4 or 5 in the mine-module 1 descends emergency team and proceeds to eliminate accidents. Also with ship security served in the mine-module 1 with all the necessary tools and materials.
Horizontal tunnel 6 spare tubes and the necessary materials are moved using trucks. In case of failure of the automatic emergency team can reach the cascade of gates 76 and ve is the til 80 technical passages 18 and close them manually.
At the coastal base of the Deposit in addition to the dispatch center 75 also includes: pumping station 97, household sector 99 for the rest of the work shift and helipad 101. Dispatch center 75 is connected to the household sector 99 cloisters 102.
In the implementation of major projects on the Arctic shelf must take into account the lack of any infrastructure, which is a very important issue in this connection to provide electricity field, you can use floating nuclear power station 103 icebreaking. Privatelaw several of these power stations 103 in the protected Harbor 104 and connecting them underwater cables through the lead mines 96 mines modules 1, it is possible to completely solve the problem of energy supply.
Staff: the people on the field during construction and later during maintenance work by rotation method. The watch is delivered to the place of work ship security accompanied by an icebreaker. Builders working in the mine-module 1 clock. People fall through the lock chamber 4, 5 in mine-module 1, as mentioned above, only one shift, after which return to the ship, and the new change is lowered into the mine-module 1. The ship on the time watch is used by the recreation and welfare, he served in the mine-module 1 air and electricity. At the end of wach is s, when the module is suitable second ship software with the new change, the ship with the old watch otstykovyvatsya from mine-module 1 and is returned to its home port, and its place is occupied by the newly arrived ship maintenance and so On of shore base field staff also arrives shifts at the ship security accompanied by an icebreaker. For emergencies on base there is a helipad 101.
The development system of an underwater oil or gas in accordance with the invention avoids the drawbacks present in known technologies (fixed and floating platforms, systems, underwater drilling and pumping, and so on). Mine drilling for oil and gas production occurs in a confined space and in case of accidents oil or gas outside of the mine-module does not spread, and the spread in the mine-module oil or filled her gas will be collected and pumped out with the help of built-in alarm systems. The system allows the equipment and people to work in relatively comfortable conditions inside the mine-module constant zero temperature. Work can be carried out independently from the ice and hydrometeorological conditions, as the main works are under the earth, beneath the seabed, and does not require any work on the surface of the ocean. Sist the mA allows you to extract oil and gas offshore in the deep ocean up to 500 meters and at any distance from the mainland, and in the further development of technology deep dives and at a greater depth.
Thus, development of an underwater oil or gas described above mine way compared with other known methods of drilling is the most preferable conditions of the Arctic and has a number of advantages from both an economic and a technological and from an environmental point of view. Examples of the invention are not exhaustive. Possible other ways of practical implementation of the invention, which will correspond to the volume of patent rights.
1. The development system of an underwater oil or gas containing at least one shaft module located under water at the bottom of the ocean, the Central node with depth in the bottom of the ocean vertical shaft and at least one lock chamber for supplying duty shifts of workers, materials and equipment, at least one drill site, a vertical shaft extending from a Central hub and including a horizontal tunnel, sloping plot for supply of drilling pipes and vertical part at the bottom of which is located the mouth of the at least one well, and connected to the shaft module power cable and control system and having a protective shell pipeline DL the transportation of oil or gas.
2. The system under item 1, characterized in that airlock consists of the upper and lower chambers, the upper horizontal gate separating the upper chamber from the ocean bottom horizontal gate that separates the upper and lower chambers, a Central vertical gate that separates the lower chamber from a Central hub, a lifting mechanism, which is located in the upper chamber and contains a retractable support elements for the location drop to the bottom of germoline with workers or container materials or equipment, and two located opposite, node synchronous vertical movement, each node horizontal movement with the carriage, with two mooring farm with grips made with the possibility of interaction with pressurized cabin with the workers or with the container with materials or equipment for its mounting on the lifting mechanism.
3. The system under item 2, characterized in that it contains at least one rig, placed at the bottom of the vertical section.
4. System according to any one of paragraphs.1-3, characterized in that the mine-module equipped with a second lock chamber.
5. The system under item 4, characterized in that the mine-module equipped with a device of the soil erosion and pumping the resulting water-soil slurry into the ocean.
6. The system under item 5, characterized in that the Central node on the em placed under the floor and is accessible through hatches technical passages, channels for communication and the Department of pumping station.
7. The system under item 6, characterized in that the horizontal tunnel mounted main and emergency pipeline, and the pipeline for passing gases, linking well with the pumping station.
8. The system under item 7, characterized in that the horizontal tunnel floor mounted, is arranged to move the trolleys and rack for movement from a vertical section on the floor of the horizontal tunnel, located under the floor of the emergency capacity to collect spilled oil, waterproof walls with gates that separates the Central node located at intervals along the length of the horizontal tunnel.
9. The system under item 8, characterized in that the mine-module contains an output compartment, through which the pipeline to transport oil or gas is connected to the pumping station.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises mineral feed pipe aligned inside hollow pipe with funnel at its bottom, and coolant feed pipeline. Additionally, this device comprises coolant feed pipelines distributed uniformly over hollow pipe perimeter, in funnel walls and in extra struts of said funnel. Hollow pipe is located at the level of funnel strut. Funnel strut inner walls are perforated. At the level of funnel, hollow pipe has vertical cut-outs furnished with plugs from top and bottom. Funnel strut top parts are also equipped with plugs.
EFFECT: continuous mining, lower power consumption and extraction costs, minimised negative effects on contamination of environments.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for development of methane hydrates is based on their breaking by water jets at a temperature of more than 285K with the rate more than 1 m/s in a pulse mode with a frequency in the range from 1 up to 200 Hz, gasification and lifting from the seabed. A device for development of methane hydrates contains a floating device, handling equipment, a power generating unit, pipelines, a control unit and an underwater methane hydrate development unit in which body there is an installed infrared heater, a water-jet monitor with pressurised water feed equipment and a gas bleeder.
EFFECT: improvement of energy efficiency for underwater development of methane hydrates and their lifting to the floating device.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises an underwater vessel with atmospheric pressure of air, a trolley, a pulp line with a cone-shaped mixer and a jacket, a bracket with a trolley and a jacket, a vertically arranged working organ with a hydraulic motor, its shaft and tillers. On the shaft of the hydraulic motor there is a conical body, tillers are made in the form of cutters and fixed on the conical body. On the side surface of the conical body there are through holes with transverse size of not less than concretion size. The conical body with cutters is installed below the horizontal input section of the mixer. The bracket is connected with the trolley by means of a rotary hydraulic cylinder with the vertical axis of rotation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of a soil intake device due to achievement of continuity of the process for production of minerals at the specified area of the water reservoir bottom.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method and plant for sapropel production from the bottom of water reservoirs includes its mining with the help of spiral knives on a cone head of auger transport, its lifting to the reducer with two randomly round-directed output shafts, where jackets of two augers are connected with the help of a corrugated reinforced hose, transportation by another auger into floating containers for filling, towing of containers in a bunch by a boat to piers, their lifting along the trestle on a special trolley upwards, and their emptying by tilting onto a vibration sieve for removal of foreign objects (bottles, stones, plants, etc.), collection of sapropel in a hopper - accumulator for transportation to consumers.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of production of organic sapropel and cleaning of water reservoir.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: furrows are cut on ice surface adjoining the pit lane that hinders slime processing to feed heat carrier to defrost and to make cutouts in layer body and cavities under ice body bottom surface. Floating hydraulic gun is used to jet lower layers above ice surface edged by cutouts. Then, ice is broken and thawed while exposed underlying soils are jetted by hydraulic gun and sucked by dredger as pulp to using equipment.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, lower costs at low ambient temperatures.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: method involves lifting of elements of underwater mineral deposits consisting of flow of transporting medium, transportation of hydraulic fluid in supply airlift pipeline, supply of compressed air to mixer of lifting pipeline, creation of multicomponent mixture after compressed air is supplied to hydraulic fluid mixture and transportation of multicomponent mixture flow in lifting airlift pipeline. At that, first, phantom cross section is chosen in the flow intended for transportation of elements of underwater mineral deposits, and for chosen phantom cross section there specified is the range of change of pressure value. Flows of water and air-and-water mixture are created in supply and lifting pipelines by supplying compressed air with the compressor to mixer of lifting pipeline Value of actual pressure is monitored in the chosen phantom cross section, as well as actual range of change of the monitored value is determined. Compliance of the certain actual range to the specified one is checked, and elements of underwater mineral deposits are supplied to water flow of supply airlift pipeline in case certain actual range belongs to the specified one.
EFFECT: increasing development efficiency of underwater mineral deposits at big marine depths due to shortening the total start-up time of airlift plant; avoiding the disturbance of transportation of solid material and gumming of pipelines during airlift start-up.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves creation of the main and additional water flows, obtaining of hydraulic fluid flow after addition of elements of natural resources of underwater deposits as part of rock mass to the main water flow and transportation of hydraulic fluid flow. Besides, increase in operation efficiency of transportation process of mineral resources of underground deposits is provided from high depths in process chain of development of underwater deposits of mineral resources due to stabilisation of concentration value of solid particles in hydraulic fluid flow that is transported from multi-purpose system for continuous collection of mineral resources of underwater deposits to base floating means located on water reservoir surface, at rational configuration of technical means.
EFFECT: stabilisation of concentration value of solid particles in hydraulic fluid flow.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device includes underwater vessel with atmospheric pressure, trolley, pulp line, operating element in composition of a catcher, hydraulic motor with shaft, shroud and ripper. Operating element is connected to the trolley via bracket, and pulp line is hydraulically connected to vessel with atmospheric pressure. The shroud has cylindrical shape and is mounted vertically and rigidly connected to pulp line via upper face end and to catcher via lower face end, the catcher is done in a form of confuser with circular input. Hydraulic motor of bottom-hole type is concentrically built-in the shroud cavity and rigidly connected to it via radial ribs with formation of annular through channel, and ripper is attached to the shaft of this hydraulic motor. The bracket is equipped with two joints and two hydraulic cylinders capable of moving the operating element in vertical and horizontal plains. There is a cab on the trolley that is equipped with oil pump with hydraulic rotary mechanism working on pressure drop, viewport and lamp with isolated power source. Bottom-hole motor of operating element is done with pressure and drainage channels in the housing and swinging spring-loaded dampers.
EFFECT: increase of device productivity and reliability, reduction of risk of water body contamination by ripping products.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: complex comprises a basic vessel, which is kinematically connected to a production tool, comprising a rolling capture device installed on skis, a transportation device, which connects a production tool with basic vessel. The rolling capture device of the production set is made in the form of a drum equipped with blades, fixed on a horizontal axis kinematically connected to a drive. Blades are arranged with minimum gaps relative to an inner surface of a cylindrical shape jacket. The upper cylindrical part of the jacket is made with an opening. The axis is installed with the possibility of its rotation in a central part of side walls of the jacket, which in its lower part is equipped with a cut of rectangular form in plan with the possibility of displacement of blades in it and their introduction in thickness of the mineral. Blades are made forked and with flexures. Flexures of blades during their location in the lower part of a jacket are aligned towards the side opposite to direction of production tool displacement. At the same time the distance between forks of the blades is adopted as less than the minimum cross size of produced nodules. The cut in the jacket is made so that its edges are placed above useful thickness of a mineral. The jacket with the help of a receiving tray of narrowing cross section is connected to a suction nozzle of a soil pump. The soil pump is installed on cross beams of skis at the side of the jacket opposite to direction of production set displacement. The injection nozzle of the soil pump is connected to a perforated section of a pipeline fixed on a jacket and arranged above it, with the possibility of connection with a flexible discharge pipeline. The discharge pipeline is aligned in plan coaxially with an injection nozzle of a soil pump along a longitudinal axis of jacket symmetry. The production set is balanced in a transverse direction. Skis are fixed at two sides on side walls of the jacket and are made as V-shaped in cross section. The flexible pipeline is made from a combination of rigid rectilinear pipes and flexible inserts from elastic material with connection of adjacent pipes arranged along the perimetre of each pipe with round-link chains that perceive stretching forces.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of a complex, its simplified design, reduced material intensity, power intensity and cost, increased reliability of complex operation.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in destruction of the bottom layer with sharp edges of buckets fixed on vertical conveyor belt; conveyor moves along the reservoir bottom by means of caterpillar drive relative to which the conveyor belt moves vertically with possibility of penetration into the bottom. At that, gaseous hydrate is lifted to the zone isolated from water with surface of turned-over funnel, where it is heated, and evolved gas subject to additional heating is transported to the surface by means of the hose fixed on the funnel top. Also, device for the method's implementation is proposed.
EFFECT: increase in production of gaseous hydrated hydrocarbons.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes deepening and installation of an underwater part of the structure into bottom deposits, fixed fastening of a hollow board to it, made in the form of a ball segment with perforated surface. During assembly of the board its upper part is placed above the surface of the ice cover, and the base is submerged into water. Supply-and-exhaust shafts and tight hatches are placed into the cavity of the board. The underwater part of the platform is equipped with transition gateways and joint assemblies. A tunnel is installed from the platform to the coast, and in it they install a pipe canal, tight partitions, additionally it is equipped with transition gateways, joint assemblies. The tunnel is used as a permanent transport link and moorage for underwater vessels.
EFFECT: increased reliability of operation of hydraulic engineering structures of island type in Arctic seas.
SUBSTANCE: self-moving drilling ship has hull made capable to rotate relative to turret mounted in it with vessel mooring system, deck, accommodations, drilling well under turret, technological drilling facilities and drilling rig with drill string passing through turret and well placed on the main deck, propelling-steering complex, power plant located in the hull. Drilling rig with underrig space, technological drilling facilities, deck walkways and accommodations of vessel are winterized - protected against adverse environmental conditions by safety cages with heating system. Around lower part of drilling well, ring-shaped guard is installed to prevent ice entering. Turret, drilling well and drilling rig with drill string are located in fore part relative to midship section, and accommodations are located in aft part of vessel. The vessel is provided with helicopter deck, system for personnel safe emergency vessel escape in icy conditions, as well as with dynamic positioning system.
EFFECT: improved operational characteristics of drilling ship during prospecting and exploratory drilling on arctic shelf.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: platform consists of a cylinder-shaped semisubmersible hull placed vertically above and below the sea level. The platform hull has a concave part, which reduces its cross-section area. The concave part is formed discretely at the outside peripheral surface of the platform hull, at that the depth of the platform submersion is regulated so that in extreme sea conditions the water line is at the concave part level.
EFFECT: preventing vertical resonance of the platform in extreme sea conditions due to increase of free oscillation period for the platform heaving.
7 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises use of marine technological complex comprising an offshore platform, subsea satellites and coastal technological base interconnected by technological communications. The drilling process is resupplied with robotic means of oil spill response at all possible stages of an emergency process. The wellbore fluid is pumped to the onshore processing facilities made in the form of a group of interconnected underground tanks. When pumping the wellbore fluid the energy of terrastatic pressure is used, if necessary, using the booster compressor station. Disposal of oil-field water is carried out by the method of geological purification by pumping into the absorbing deep ground, and only in case of critical terrastatic pressure drop is heated and used as liquid washing oil from the rocks of the productive formation. All the technological units of marine technological complex are supplied with electricity from the power unit of a nuclear reactor. The objects of the coastal technological base are electrically connected to the power unit of the nuclear reactor by means of the power cable.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and safety of development of hydrocarbon deposits of the Arctic shelf.
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to deep water drilling oil and gas platform designed for operation at arctic shelf. Semi-submersible catamaran-type drilling platform is arranged at two pontoons, platform hull being supported by stabiliser columns and tensioned vertical mooring, with computer-aided dynamic positioning with the help of underwater propulsors. Surface deck superstructures are composed of drilling, processing, power production and functional modules. Integrated control and safety systems are equipped with production equipment conditions monitoring means and emergency elimination means to actuate by remote means at well fluid flowing the device of static electricity charges elimination at drilling platform.
EFFECT: higher survivability of drilling platform at well fluid flowing.
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compensators for vertical displacements of sea platform caused by roll. Device 100 serves to damp the forces between two interconnected parts in pipe string. Bottom part 101 is connected with top end of string element 105, 3a extending into underwater well 5. Top part 103 is suspended from self-floating surface plant 1 with the help of suspension element 3b extending to said surface plant. Device 100 is arranged pipe string above element 3a extending into said underwater well and above at least one part of said suspension element 3b. Device 100 comprises top and bottom sections 109, 111. Said sections can vertically displace relative to each other to cause pliancy to impact forces between said interconnected top and bottom parts 103, 101. Said impact forces are caused by roll of suspension elements 3b displacing relative to string element 3a.
EFFECT: efficient damping and protection of thread extreme turns.
15 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: underwater structure (US) operates at depth in the range from 100 to 120 m from sea level. At the same time the US comprises a support-bearing underwater complex and a drilling complex or a production complex. The support-bearing underwater complex includes a support-bearing plate and a wellhead complex. The support-bearing plate, in its turn, comprises a wellhead block, an energy block, a residential block, and also a life support block, internal and external circular corridors, radial transitions, sectioned ballast pontoons of circular shape and propelling agents. Retention of the underwater structure in the vertical position at the specified point for the whole period of stay is provided by control of filling of ballast pontoon sections, at the same time retention in the horizontal plane is done due to operation of the propelling agents. The inner surface of the body of the drilling complex and the production complex is congruent to the external surface of the wellhead complex, and the lower surface of the body of the drilling complex and the production complex is congruent to the upper surface of the support-bearing plate.
EFFECT: increased safety, reliability and quality of performed works.
13 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: submerged structure operates at a depth within the range of 70 up to 120 m of the sea level. At that the base of the submerged structure is represented by a circular bearing plate/deck with process modules in the form of sectors; wells are located in the centre of the circular bearing plate/deck in the mouth module. At the base around the mouth modules in the sectors there are free moving vertical modules: living, drilling, operational, processing, power supply and conditioning ones. Inside the base of bearing plate/deck around the mouth module there are corridors: an inner and outer, at that the inner and outer corridors are interconnected by mutually perpendicular passages. Between the inner and outer corridors there is a circular ballasting container; under the outer corridor there are mutually perpendicular electric propulsion units. The method ensures operation of the above universal submersible structure.
EFFECT: improving safety and quality of performed operations both in process of well drilling and operation.
11 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: device includes pipeline (24) for transfer of fluid medium, tower (16), floating barge (18) installed so that it can be turned around tower (16) about rotation axis (A-A'). Pipeline (24) includes section (150) of a hose, which is wound about rotation axis (A-A') and retained with intermediate structure (20) installed between tower (16) and barge (18) between a configuration of joint rotation together with barge (18) about the rotation axis and a configuration of retention with tower (16) during rotation about rotation axis (A-A'). At the stage of connection of pipeline (24) intermediate structure (20) is installed into one of the configuration of rotation or retention; with that, the disconnection stage of pipeline (24) includes a transition piece of intermediate structure (20) to the other configuration of either rotation or retention.
EFFECT: quick and reliable disconnection so that quick repeated connection of a transfer pipeline is provided.
18 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: according to the invention, inside the housing of a drilling ship mooring turret, which has a cylindrical housing with a drilling shaft and an anchor retention system of the ship, in its lower part there installed is an annular cylindrical structure with ballast compartments, which can move vertically along guides below the main plane of the drilling ship. Inside the shaft there arranged are deflectors located along the perimeter of the shaft on its walls above the ship waterline.
EFFECT: invention of a drilling ship mooring turret structure allows protecting a riser pipe at drilling operations under ice conditions and protecting against flooding of an upper deck of the drilling ship through the drilling shaft at stormy drift or at transition of the drilling ship under conditions of considerable disturbance, especially at negative air temperature contributing to formation of ice on deck structures of the drilling ship.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the flexible ascendant pipelines designed for working in waters encumbered with ice. The ascendant pipeline is equipped with the protection device against the shock caused by waves and drifting ice. The protection device covers at least the upper part of the pipeline and can be removed to the non-operation position at the sea bottom or on board. The protection device is formed by the multitude of separate hollow elements of the blunt-nosed cone shape, which are hanged to one another with chains or wire ropes. When the pipeline is in the removed position, the separate hollow elements can be laid one atop another. The protection device must protect at least the upper part of the ascendant pipeline going from the sea bottom to the floating vessel.
EFFECT: creating the protection device for flexible ascendant pipelines used in waters encumbered with ice.
16 cl, 6 dwg