Method of tempering products of paraffin dehydration reaction in counterflow reactor
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processes of paraffin dehydration. A method for the regulation of temperatures in a dehydration reactor includes the supply of a catalyst into the dehydration reactor in such a way that the catalyst flows downwards via the reactor, supply of the flow, enriched with paraffins, into the dehydration reactor in such a way that the flow passes upwards via the reactor with the formation of a technological flow, which contains the catalyst and dehydrated hydrocarbons, as well as a certain amount of non-converted paraffins, separation of a vapour phase from the technological flow with the formation of a flow of products, supplying the flow of products into a cooling unit with the formation of a cooled flow of products and the supply of a part of the cooled flow of products into the technological flow.
EFFECT: invention provides the effective and economical dehydration process with the prevention of undesirable side reactions.
10 cl, 1 dwg
This application claims priority from patent application U.S. No. 12/824640, which was filed on June 28, 2010
The technical field to which the invention relates.
The present invention encompasses processes for the dehydrogenation of paraffins. In terms of processes formed the hot product stream, and the invention relates to the cooling of the hot product stream.
The level of technology
Getting lower olefins, in particular ethylene and propylene, is important for the production of many plastics, as well as to obtain industrially important monomers. Plastics include polyethylene and polypropylene, and the monomers include vinyl chloride, ethylbenzene, ethylene oxide and some alcohols. Lower olefins traditionally produced by cracking (as steam and catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons containing heavier hydrocarbons. Sources of raw materials include naphtha and other threads heavier hydrocarbons.
The traditional method of producing olefins is the cracking of petroleum feedstock to olefins. The cracking of crude oil is carried out in the form of catalytic cracking, steam cracking or any combination of these two methods. The resulting olefins, as a rule, are lower olefins such as ethylene and propylene. There is a large market is Issa olefinic products, ethylene and propylene. As in the case of crude oil derived from crude oil, are faced with rising prices, it is advisable to incorporate other sources of ethylene and propylene. It is also known that olefins can be obtained from oxygenates. The most common way of converting oxygenates to olefins is getting lower olefins from methanol, the methanol can be obtained from other sources, including biomass and natural gas.
The ethylene plant is a very complex combination of systems implementation of the reaction and extract the gas. The raw material is fed into the cracking zone in the presence of steam in thermal conditions effective to obtain facing the gas mixture of the pyrolysis reactor. Facing the gas mixture of the pyrolysis reactor stabilize peeled and separated into components through a number of stages cryogenic and conventional fractionation. Typical site selection ethylene ethylene installation, which includes a stage and a cryogenic and conventional fractionation to retrieve the ethylene product with a purity of ethylene in excess of 99.5%, described by the authors V. Kaiser and M. Picciotti in the article titled ”Better Ethylene Separation Unit. The article appeared in the journal "Hydrocarbon Processing Magazine, November 1988, pp. 57-61, and is hereby incorporated here by reference.
Known methods of increasing the conversion of certain components, p is the FL ethylene production through a process of cracking in the presence of zeolite with the aim of producing more propylene by disproportionation or metathesis of olefins. Such methods are disclosed in U.S. patents 5026935 and 5026936 in which stage metathesis reaction used in combination with stage catalytic cracking unit in order to obtain a larger amount of propylene by metathesis With2and C4-olefins obtained in terms of cracking. At the stage of catalytic cracking using zeolite catalyst to transform the stream of hydrocarbons containing 4 or more carbon atoms in the molecule, to obtain olefins with a smaller number of carbon atoms in the molecule. The hydrocarbon stream of raw material supplied to the zeolite catalyst usually contains a mixture of from 40 to 100 wt%, paraffins containing 4 or more carbon atoms in the molecule, and 0 to 60 wt%, olefins containing 4 or more carbon atoms in the molecule. In U.S. patent 5043522 revealed that the preferred catalyst for this method of cracking in the presence of zeolite is acid zeolite, the examples include a number of zeolites of type ZSM or borosilicates. Of the zeolites of type ZSM preferred was ZSM-5. It was revealed that other zeolites containing materials that can be used in the cracking process to produce ethylene and propylene, include zeolite A, zeolite X, zeolite Y, zeolite ZK-5, zeolite ZK-4, synthetic mordenite, dealuminated mordenite and zeolites of natural origin, on the tea chabazite, pajazit, mordenite and the like. Preferred was zeolites, which was subjected to ion exchange to replace the alkali metal present in the zeolite. Preferred replacement of alkali metal cations represented hydrogen, ammonium, rare earth metals and mixtures thereof.
In European patent No. 109059 B1 discovered a way of turning in propylene flow of feedstock containing olefins with the number of carbon atoms in the molecule from 4 to 12, the contacting of the flow of raw materials with zeolite ZSM-5 or ZSM-11, characterized by the atomic ratio of silicon dioxide to aluminum oxide is about 300 or less, at a temperature of from 400 to 600°C. the Zeolite ZSM-5 or ZSM-11 is subjected to exchange with a cation, hydrogen or ammonium. The reference also revealed that, although the degree of transformation in propylene increases in the recycling of any olefins with the number of carbon atoms in the molecule is less than 4, paraffins, which do not react, tend to accumulate in the recycle stream. In the method mentioned references provide additional stage of oligomerization, which olefins of 4 carbon atoms is subjected to oligomerization to facilitate the removal of paraffins such as butane and particularly isobutane, which are difficult to separate from the C4-olefins conventional fractionation. In the related European patent No. V opened the way into the I of butenes to propylene. The method includes contacting of butenes with a zeolite compound selected from the group consisting of silicalite, moralitv, chromosomique and those of zeolites ZSM-5 and ZSM-11, in which the molar ratio of silicon dioxide to aluminum oxide is 350 or more. The transformation is carried out at a temperature from 500°C to 600°C and a flow rate of 5 to 200 kg/h of butenes per kg of pure zeolite compounds. In European patent No. 109060 B1 discloses the use of silicalite-1 ion-exchange, whether or soosaipillai form with the modifying element selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium.
The dehydrogenation of paraffins is an alternate route of obtaining lower olefins and it is described in U.S. patent 3978150 and in other documents. It is important is the way in terms of its conditions provided by regulation by the choice of the flow of raw materials. Can be selectively degidrirovanii the flow of raw materials, initially containing the preferred paraffin, such as, for example, to convert propane to propylene. However, there are problems regarding the conversion of paraffins and undesirable side reactions, which have an impact on the yields of products, and, consequently, affect the economy of the obtain of lower olefins by dehydrogenation of paraffins.
Disclosure of inventions
The invention relative is seeking for a new way to regulate the temperature of the process stream, effluent from the dehydrogenation reactor. The method includes passing the hot catalyst in the dehydrogenation reactor, the catalyst flows downward through the reactor. Enriched paraffin stream is passed into a dehydrogenation reactor, while paraffin stream passes upward through the reactor, contacting the catalyst and forming process stream. This process stream contains olefins and carries with it some very fine catalyst particles from the reaction section of the reactor. The catalyst and fine particles are separated from the process stream with the aim of obtaining the product stream. The product stream is cooled and subjected to compression to obtain a cooled product stream. Part of the cooled product stream is passed into the reactor for dehydrogenation annealing process stream. The specified portion of the cooled product stream is passed in position is in close proximity to the upper part of the catalytic reaction section of the reactor.
The invention relates to the cooling of the process stream to prevent unwanted side reactions, not contributing in the way dehydrogenation additional costs allocation or complexity. In particular, it is used for obtaining lower olefins and, more specifically, to prewash is of propane to propylene.
For information on additional goals, ways of implementation and details of the present invention can be obtained from the following drawing and detailed description of the invention.
Brief description of drawing
The figure represents a schematic diagram of the method of dehydrogenation of the present invention.
The implementation of the invention
Obtaining propylene is important for the production of polypropylene. An important aspect in the economy of the production process is the selectivity. The method includes the high-temperature reaction and its implementation can lead to leakage of unwanted side effects, which reduces the amount of propylene. One aspect is the duration of the process stream in the hot condition before the product stream leaves the reactor. Duration of stay in the hot condition during separation of the catalyst from the process stream leads to non-selective cracking. Improving the quality of the product ensures to minimize the length of stay in the hot condition, which can be done by quenching the hot process stream. The usual method of hardening involves the injection of steam or inert gas or even hydrogen. However, each of these substances for the temper and brings problems and can lead to higher costs by adding additional separation of the sections. The present invention provides a cooling, or quenching, the process stream and this leads to the reduction or prevention of undesirable cracking, thereby improving the outputs of propylene.
The present invention is illustrated in the figure, showing the technological route of regulating the temperature of the product effluent from the dehydrogenation reactor. The method includes passing the catalyst in the dehydrogenation reactor 10 through inlet port 12 to the catalyst. The catalyst is subjected to recirculation through the reactor and the regenerator. The reactor may be a bubble reactor or other type of reactor in which the catalyst flows through the reactor and is characterized by an average length of stay before recirculatory in the regenerator. In one of the embodiments of the invention the catalyst is distributed according to the system of plates with holes to allow the catalyst to flow down through the section 14 of the reactor. Enriched paraffin stream is passed into a dehydrogenation reactor 10 through the inlet channel 16 for the flow of raw materials. In section 14 of the reactor is formed process stream containing dehydrogenated hydrocarbons, some neprivrednih paraffins and some catalyst, which enjoys the process stream. utilizator separated from the process stream in the separating section 18, thus forming the thread 22 products containing dehydrogenated hydrocarbons. Thread 22 product is cooled and a portion of the cooled product stream 24 is again passed into the reactor 10 to be mixed with the process stream.
Preferably, the cooled product stream 24 is passed into position just above the catalyst in the reactor 10, or located in close proximity to the upper part of the section 14 of the reactor 10. The catalyst, which reactor 10, preferably passed through a dispenser for essentially uniform placement of the catalyst in the upper part of the section 14' of the reactor. The cooled product stream 24 is preferably passed in position above the distributor of the catalyst.
In one embodiment, the implementation of stream 22 products passed through a heat exchanger 26 for the combined raw materials, in which the thread 22 product is cooled, and the combined raw material containing hydrogen and paraffins, is preheated before passing enriched paraffin flow of raw materials into the reactor 10 dehydrogenation. The cooled stream 30 products may be additionally cooled by means of contact heat exchanger 32 for additional cooling of the product stream and remove any fine particles of catalyst. In one embodiment, the implementation of contact heat exchanger 32 isone direct liquid contact the fridge. The cooled stream 34 products are compressed to obtain a compressed stream 36 products. Compressed stream 36 products additionally cooled to remove the heat of compression and get cooled compressed air stream 38 products. Then the part 24 of the compressed cooled stream 38 products pass into the dehydrogenation reactor 10.
One of the ways of regulating the degree of cooling can be done by setting the compression level of the product stream. The product stream can be compressed to a level above the pressure in the reactor, and the expansion of the compressed and cooled product stream at the inlet of the reactor can provide some additional cooling. The quantity of the product stream supplied to the quenching process stream, is determined by the cooling load needed to reduce the temperature of the process stream to values below the typical temperature cracking.
The reactor is designed for the processing of raw materials with a linear speed ranging from 0.1 to 1.4 m/s Separation section 18 of the reactor is also designed in accordance with the sizes to maintain the linear velocity of the process stream and return the cooled product stream is equal to from 0.1 to 1.4 m/s In this regard, the separating section has a larger diameter relative to the diameter of the reaction section to maintain linear with whom oresti within the rated range. In the preferred method is more rigidly controlled so that the linear velocity was in the range of from 0.2 to 1 m/s, and more preferably in the range of from 0.3 to 0.8 m/s, and most preferably, the linear velocity is 0.6 m/S.
The term ”linear velocity” means the velocity of the gas during the flow through the vessel. Linear speed is usually determined by dividing the volumetric flow rate of gas to the cross-sectional area of the vessel. The design of the vessel is such that the separating zone has a diameter larger than the diameter of the reaction vessel in the area of catalyst. The initial expansion creates an opportunity for sedimentation of the catalyst from the process stream substantially. The diameter of the vessel increases to accommodate the gas flow is increased due to the recycle of cooled product stream, with the objective of maintaining the linear velocity in the desired range.
The catalyst flows through the section 14 of the reactor 10 and goes to the 40 regeneration. The catalyst was recovered by burning carbon that accumulates on the catalyst during the dehydrogenation process. The carbon is burned to heat the catalyst compressed air 42 in the regenerator 40. To control the combustion in the regenerator 40, you can add more fuel 44. Then regenerated rolled the ATOR is supplied from the regenerator 40 in the dehydrogenation reactor 10.
The catalyst can be skipped in any reactor design, which allows the catalyst to flow through the reactor, the catalyst is recovered and passed to a regenerator. One of such structures is a reactor with a fluidized bed, the catalyst is added in the upper part of the section of the reactor and exits from the lower section of the reactor. Another design is the use of the internal components of the reactor for the distribution of the catalyst in the transverse direction and then providing opportunities for the catalyst to flow down from one internal section of the reactor to another. An example of the inclusion of the relevant internal components of the reactor is the use of plates or grids with small holes or slits, or slots for the passage of the steam flow up, and large holes to allow catalyst to flow down. Larger holes are located at such a distance that through the plate or grid formed catalyst stream, whole or in part, and the lower plate have larger holes oriented in the transverse direction relative to the position of the larger holes on the plate installed above. Plates may also include areas that do not have slots to ensure distribution of the Ares, flowing through the plates. The use of plates for flow of catalyst through the reactor is preferred in the entire series, bubbling reactor, as in the bubble reactor for separating the greater part of the catalyst required space above each layer. The space above the bubble layers causes an undesirable residence time of the diluted phase, i.e. the phase with the lowest ratio of catalyst to hydrocarbon. This space has the disadvantage contribute to length of stay hot dilute phase and contributes to the reduction of selectivity. The design of the present invention reduces the length of stay hot dilute phase through the hardening process stream during the separation of the catalyst from the process stream.
In one embodiment, the implementation of the dehydrogenation reactor may include a variety of devices for feeding catalyst into section 14 of the reactor. In the specified embodiment, the catalyst is sent via the inlet channel above each plate with catalyst and distribute the catalyst on each plate. Then the catalyst flows downward through the section 14 of the reactor.
The dehydrogenation reactor 10 includes section 14 of the reactor, in which the conditions for flow of catalyst down across the section 14 of the reactor. It covers various reactor design, as for example, a reactor with a fluidized bed. The preferred construction of section 14 of the reactor includes a perforated plate with large holes, in which the punched holes provide the ability to process flow of vapor to pass upward through the reactor. Large holes allow the flow of catalyst to paricipates with some plates on the plate below. In one of the structures of the plates have the kind of sites with large holes along the length of the plates, and the plates are placed so that the large holes on the perforated sections of the plates overlap so that the catalyst will flow in the transverse direction through each plate to overflow to the next plate below.
In one of the embodiments, the method includes passing the catalyst in the dehydrogenation reactor, at least one inlet channel to the catalyst. The inlet channel to the catalyst flexibly connected to the collector of the distribution of the catalyst to put the latest on the top plate of the catalyst. The flow of raw materials containing propane, is passed into the dehydrogenation reactor through a distributor at the bottom of the reactor. This flow of raw material passes through the section of the reactor and obrazu the process stream, containing lower olefins and catalyst. Lower olefins in the process stream composed mainly of propylene. The catalyst is separated from the process stream to obtain a stream of products and return to the section of the reactor. The product stream is passed into the cooling unit, thus forming a cooled product stream. The cooled product stream flow for mixing with the process stream in position above the distribution manifold catalyst, tempering thus the process stream and limiting the flow it further thermal reactions such as thermal cracking.
The preferred embodiment is the dehydrogenation reactor, comprising a plate for distribution of catalyst and the flow of catalyst through the plate and down through the reactor. In an alternative configuration, the catalyst is passed into a dehydrogenation reactor through multiple inlet channels to the catalyst. Each inlet channel connected to the collector of the distribution of the catalyst, and using each collector distribution of the catalyst is the last place on a separate plate. In the embodiment, with multiple inlet channels to the catalyst cooled product stream is passed into position above the top of the manifold u is adelene catalyst. In a preferred embodiment, the cooled product stream is passed in close proximity to the upper manifold distribution of catalyst in position above the solar collector. The position of the entry specified chilled product is near the bottom of the upper separation section of the dehydrogenation reactor.
Although the invention has been described with what is presently considered to be preferred variant implementation, it should be understood that the invention is not limited to the disclosed variant implementation, and covers various modifications and equivalent configurations are included within the scope of the attached claims.
1. The method of regulating the temperature in the dehydrogenation reactor, comprising a stage on which:
the catalyst is passed into a dehydrogenation reactor so that the catalyst flows downward through the reactor;
enriched paraffin stream is passed into a dehydrogenation reactor, so enriched paraffin stream passes upward through the reactor, thus forming a process stream containing the catalyst and dehydrogenated hydrocarbons, as well as a number is not converted paraffins;
separated steam phase from the process stream, thus forming a flow of the product is in;
the product stream is passed into the cooling unit, forming through this cooled product stream; and
miss part of the cooled product stream into the process stream.
2. The method according to p. 1, in which the cooled product stream is passed into the process stream above the point of entry of the catalyst in the dehydrogenation reactor.
3. The method according to p. 1, in which the node cooling the product stream is passed through the contact of the refrigerator.
4. The method according to p. 1, in which the product stream is cooled, thereby creating a cooled product stream;
the cooled product stream is subjected to compression, thus forming a compressed stream of products;
the compressed product stream is cooled, thereby creating a compressed cooled product stream; and
a part of the compressed cooled product stream is mixed with the process stream.
5. The method according to p. 1, in which the linear velocity of the process stream is in the range from 0.1 to 1.4 m/S.
6. The method according to p. 5, in which the linear velocity of the process stream is in the range from 0.2 to 1 m/S.
7. The method according to p. 1, in which the cooled product stream is passed into the process stream at the position located in the immediate vicinity of the upper part of the upper catalyst layer.
8. The method according to p. 1, in which the cooling unit is from the second heat exchanger for combined raw materials.
9. The method according to p. 1, in which the dehydrogenation reactor includes internal elements of the reactor for distribution of catalyst and the flow of catalyst through the plate and down through the reactor.
10. The method according to p. 1, in which the dehydrogenation reactor includes a bottom section for contacting enriched paraffin stream with the catalyst and the upper section for separating the process stream from the catalyst.
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention covers a new olefins cracking catalyst. This catalyst comprises zeolite characterised by the silicon dioxide-to-aluminium oxide ratio of 400 or more and subjected to ion exchange for the decreasing of the content of alkaline and alkaline-earth metals to below 100 ppm and, then subjected to flushing by steam and acid.
EFFECT: catalyst is characterised by better selectivity relative to the propylene yield, decreased amount of aromatic compounds and methane.
7 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalytic cracking with a fluidised bed. The invention deals with a method which includes the following stages: a) functioning of a reaction zone, which contains at least one standpipe under conditions, contributing to obtaining olefins, and into the said at least one standpipe supplied are: i) the first raw material with a boiling temperature from 180 to 800°C; ii) the second raw material, which contains one or more C4 +-olefins, containing butanes; and iii) the third raw material, containing oligomerised light olefins or a ligroin flow, which contains from 20 to 70 wt % of one or more C5-C10-olefins; b) conversion of olefins in the second raw material into propylene; c) separation of the mixture from one or more reaction products in the separation zone; and d) extraction of one or more products in the division zone.
EFFECT: increased output of light olefins, in particular propylene.
10 cl, 7 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to methods (versions) and apparatus (versions) for converting olefins, mixed with paraffins, into compounds with a higher molecular weight. Heavier compounds can be fed for recirculation into a reactor for carrying out an FCC process or are fed into a separate apparatus for carrying out an FCC process. The method includes transporting C4 olefins and paraffins and C5-C7 olefins and paraffins into a conversion zone for converting C4 olefins into compounds derived from C4, having a higher molecular weight, via oligomerisation or alkylation of C4 olefins with aromatic compounds, and converting C5-C7 olefins into compounds derived from C5-C7, having a higher molecular weight, via alkylation of C5-C7 olefins with aromatic compounds; separating the compounds derived from C4 from C4 olefins and paraffins; separating the compounds derived from C5-C7 from C5-C7 olefins and paraffins; and feeding the compounds derived from C4 and compounds derived from C5-C7 into a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) reactor. The apparatus comprises a fractionation column; an aromatic compound alkylation reactor; a second conversion zone for converting C4 olefins into compounds derived from C4, having a higher molecular weight; a stripping column for the product; and a pipe for the still residue of said stripping column for the product, which is linked to the FCC reactor.
EFFECT: easy separation of olefins from paraffins contained in a product stream.
10 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalytic conversion of biorenewable material. The method for fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) of material containing at least one source of biorenewable material comprises the following steps: contacting material containing at least one hydrocarbon fraction and at least one source of biorenewable material with a cracking catalyst in FCC conditions, where said catalyst contains zeolite, having catalytic cracking activity, a matrix and at least 1% rare-earth metal oxide per total weight of the catalyst, wherein said catalyst is characterised by the ratio of zeolite surface area to matrix surface area of at least 2.
EFFECT: obtaining a cracked hydrocarbon product.
17 cl, 6 dwg, 4 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to a combined method of conversion of oil-derived hydrocarbon fractions into high-quality hydrocarbon mixtures as fuel, which includes catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon fraction in catalyst fluidised bed with catalyst containing ERS-10 zeolite, where the specified catalyst contains at least two components, where the specified components represent: (a) a component containing one or more catalytic cracking catalysts in fluidised, and (b) a component containing ERS-10 zeolite for obtaining Light Cycle Gas Oil (LCGO), hydrotreatment of light cycle gas oil, interaction of hydrotreated light cycle gas oil obtained at the previous stage of hydrotreatment in presence of hydrogen with catalytic system. The invention also touches the method of catalytic cracking and a stage of catalytic cracking in fluidised bed.
EFFECT: production of high-quality hydrocarbons, conversion increase.
21 cl, 3 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mixing of recovered catalyst with carbonised catalyst. Besides, it relates to the device designed to bring recovered catalyst in contact with hydrocarbon stock. This device comprises riser reactor wherein hydrocarbon stock contacts with catalyst particles for catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons in said hydrocarbon stock. This results in light-end product composed of lighter hydrocarbons and carbonised catalyst. Besides it includes stock distributor, reactor vessel, recovery vessel, recovered catalyst pipeline, recovered catalyst baffle and carbonised catalyst pipeline. Besides, it relates to the device designed to bring recovered catalyst in contact with hydrocarbon stock.
EFFECT: higher quality of hydrocarbon product.
9 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention describes method and device where sulfiding chemical is added to catalytic conversion reactor in order to prevent coke formation catalysed by metal. Method of fluidised-bed catalytic cracking includes delivery of hydrocarbon feed material to reactor; delivery of catalyst to the above reactor; introduction of the above feed material into contact with the above catalyst; delivery of sulfiding chemical which is separated from the feed material upwards in the above reactor; adding of the above sulfiding chemical to the reactor; cracking of the above hydrocarbon feed material with production of hydrocarbon products with less molecular weight; and separation of the above hydrocarbon products from the above catalyst. Device contains, in particular, sulfiding chemical feed line, which is different from hydrocarbon material feed line; it is communicated with riser which is communicated with the reactor.
EFFECT: regulation of coke formation using flow generated in cracking process.
10 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method of benzene production and propylene coproduction in which catalyst cracker is used with catalyst regeneration area and reaction area with two raising systems operating in parallel in modes of different severity, at that catalyst is circulated between catalyst regeneration area and reaction area through two parallel circuits: one circuit, which is a main circuit, contains the first external system of catalyst cooling and the second circuit containing the second external system of catalyst cooling.
EFFECT: effective adjusting of catalyst temperature at input to each raising system and optimising benzene production and propylene coproduction.
9 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device for injection of stock in dispersion of moving catalyst particles in reactor. Proposed device comprises: multiple external pipelines, each being provided with nozzles at their inlets and outlets communicated with the first liquid stock. Note here that every said nozzle has multiple orifices to inject stock into reactor and said nozzles form a set of nozzles and multiple internal pipelines. Every said internal pipeline has inlet that enters one of external pipelines and outlet communicated with second liquid stock.
EFFECT: higher yield, simplified replacement of injector nozzles.
10 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 6 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat recovery of waste gases discharged from a catalyst regenerator. The invention relates to a device for catalytic conversion of hydrocarbon raw materials, comprising a reactor for contact of hydrocarbon raw materials with the catalyst to produce cracking products and the coked catalyst; a line of raw materials supply that communicates with a reactor; a pipeline for a catalyst designed for transportation of the regenerated catalyst to the specified reactor; a generator for coke burning from the coked catalyst with production of the regenerated catalyst and waste gases; a pipeline for the coked catalyst communicating with the specified reactor and the specified regenerator, a line for transportation of waste gases serving for transportation of waste gases from the regenerator; and a heat exchanger of preliminary heating of raw materials, the first side of which communicates with the line of waste gas transportation, and the second side communicates with the specified line of raw materials supply, designed for implementation of heat exchange of waste gases with hydrocarbon raw materials. The invention also relates to the method of catalytic conversion of hydrocarbon materials.
EFFECT: improved heat recovery of waste gases discharged from a catalyst regenerator, reduced quantity of coke and formation of carbon dioxide.
10 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of carrying out reactions of dehydration with further absorption purification of gases, with the absorption gas purification followed by a stage of pressure release in a reservoir of high pressure flash evaporation, provided by mass-exchange elements, with the said stage being carried out with the application of combustible gas, flowing through the mass-exchange elements towards gravity direction, which passes through the high-pressure flash evaporation reservoir in a counterflow with respect to a solvent, subjected to pressure release, so that the absorbed hydrocarbons are absorbed by combustible gas. Combustible gas is represented by fuel gas, used for heating the dehydration reactor and which, for instance, is natural gas. To increase the process efficiency the flow of carbohydrates, separated from acid-forming gases, can be returned back into a channel of technological gas before absorption purification of gases.
EFFECT: method provides a possibility of an improved separation of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons in the process of removal of acid-forming gases.
13 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of propane dehydrogenation, which includes passing of a preliminarily heated initial propane flow into a dehydrogenation reactor, mixing and interaction of the initial propane flow with a non-metallic fluidised catalyst, which contains zirconium oxide, in the dehydrogenation reactor, which represents a reactor of fast fluidisation with formation of a flow of a propylene-containing product. The catalyst is in the reactor with the average time of presence from 15 to 45 minutes; passing of a waste catalyst into a catalyst regeneration unit with formation of a flow of a regenerated catalyst; and passing the flow of the regenerated catalyst into the dehydrogenation reactor.
EFFECT: application of the claimed method makes it possible to increase the passing capability of the system.
8 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a mesoporous carbon-supported copper-based catalyst, a method for production and use thereof in catalytic dehydrogenation of a compound with a C2-C12 alkyl chain to convert said compound to a compound with a corresponding alkenyl chain. The catalyst contains mesoporous carbon, a copper component and an auxiliary element supported on said mesoporous carbon. One or more auxiliary elements (in form of oxides) are selected from a group consisting of V2O5, Li2O, MgO, CaO, Ga2O3, ZnO, Al2O3, CeO2, La2O3, SnO2 and K2O. The amount of the copper component (calculated as CuO) is 2-20 wt % based on the total weight of the catalyst. The amount of the auxiliary element (calculated as said oxide) is 0-3 wt %. The amount of the mesoporous carbon is 77.1-98 wt % based on the total weight of the catalyst. The method of producing the catalyst involves: (1) a step of contacting a copper component precursor, auxiliary element precursor and mesoporous carbon in a given ratio to form an intermediate product and (2) a step of calcining the intermediate product to obtain the mesoporous carbon-supported copper-based catalyst.
EFFECT: catalyst is cheap, environmentally safe and has high thermal stability and caking resistance with considerably high and relatively stable catalytic activity.
19 cl, 47 ex
SUBSTANCE: described is a method of producing C3-C5 olefin hydrocarbons via dehydrogenation of corresponding C3-C5 paraffin hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst which contains chromium oxide, zinc oxide, aluminium oxide and additionally a aluminium-magnesium spinel and at least tin oxide in amount of 0.1-3.0 wt %. Before the regeneration step, reaction products are removed from the catalyst by first passing C1-C5 hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof and then nitrogen through the catalyst. The catalyst contains chromium oxide, zinc oxide, aluminium oxide, aluminium-magnesium spinel and tin oxide, with the following ratio of components in terms of oxides, wt %: Cr2O3 - 10.0-30.0, ZnO - 10.0-40.0, SnO2 - 0.1-3.0, MgO - 1.0-25.0, Al2O3 - the balance. The catalyst can further contain a manganese compound in amount of 0.05-5.0 wt %.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the process of producing olefin hydrocarbons.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 11 ex
SUBSTANCE: method is characterised by contacting a gas stream containing at least one of said hydrocarbons with a dehydrogenation catalyst containing gallium and platinum and deposited on a support made of aluminium oxide or aluminium oxide and silicon dioxide, at reaction temperature in a direct-flow, upward stream with weight ratio of catalyst to hydrocarbon of 5 to 100 in a dehydrogenation reactor, wherein the average contact time of the hydrocarbon with the catalyst in the zone of the dehydrogenation reactor ranges from 1 s to 4 s, and temperature and pressure in the dehydrogenation reactor range from 570 to 750°C and from 41.4 (6.0) to 308 (44.7) kPa (psia); and moving the hydrocarbon and the catalyst from the dehydrogenation reactor into a separation device, wherein the average contact time of the hydrocarbon with the catalyst at reaction temperature in the separation device is less than 5 s, and the full average contact time between the hydrocarbon, catalyst and the formed hydrocarbons is less than 10 s; and moving the catalyst from the separation device into a regenerator, where the catalyst is brought into contact with an oxygen-containing regenerating stream and additional fuel.
EFFECT: method has short contact time between the hydrocarbon and the catalyst.
7 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of determining resistance of an alkyl aromatic hydrocarbon dehydrogenation catalyst to catalyst poisons, said catalyst containing an alkali metal, the method involving treating the catalyst with a mixture which contains an alkyl aromatic hydrocarbon and 1-10% aqueous hydrochloric acid solution in ratio of 1:2…1:3, at temperature of 550-650°C, holding the sample for 3 hours; in order to dehydrogenate the alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons, the dealkylisation degree is determined using the formula:
EFFECT: method for rapid determination of resistance of an alkyl aromatic hydrocarbon dehydrogenation catalyst, which contains an alkali metal, to catalytic poisons.
1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: initial hydrocarbon raw material is initially separated and first part of initial raw material is introduced into first zone of dehydration reaction, which functions without oxidation re-heating, and obtained as a result output flow is introduced into second zone of dehydration reaction, which functions without oxidation re-heating. Obtained as a result output flow from second zone of dehydration reaction, together with second part of initial raw material is introduced into third zone of dehydration reaction, which functions with oxidation re-heating.
EFFECT: increased method productivity.
10 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a catalyst and a method for continuous oxidative dehydrogenation of paraffins to corresponding olefins, specifically ethane to ethylene. Described is a catalyst for continuous oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene, which contains a mixed oxide catalyst phase which contains ions of metals such as vanadium, molybdenum, niobium, tellurium or antimony, deposited on a support in form of an inert gas-permeable porous ceramic membrane with a deposited mixed oxide catalyst phase on the outer side of the membrane surface. Described also is a method for continuous oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene in the presence of the disclosed catalyst by feeding an ethane-containing gas onto the outer side of the membrane surface coated with catalyst, and an oxygen-containing gas is fed onto the inner side of the membrane surface which is not coated with catalyst at temperature of 300°C-550°C, pressure ranging from atmospheric pressure to 10 MPa and volume rate of feeding material of 500-2000 h-1.
EFFECT: increase in ethylene selectivity to 98% and output of the process from 800 to 1400-2240 g/h per kg catalyst, high process safety since it enables to separate the hydrocarbon stream from the stream of oxygen-containing gas, thereby minimising the probability of their mixing, thus preventing formation of explosive mixtures.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of controlling activity of a catalyst for dehydrogenation of higher n-paraffins. The method involves controlling catalyst activity by increasing the rate of feeding water into a reactor and is characterised by that, the flow rate of water is further adjusted depending on the type of catalyst, wherein the ratio of the equilibrium constant when varying the process temperature to the equilibrium constant at the initial temperature must equal to one:
EFFECT: high efficiency of the process.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a material which is suitable as a support for an alkane dehydrogenation catalyst, a method of producing said material and a method for catalytic dehydrogenation of alkane-containing gas mixtures. Described is a material for catalytic dehydrogenation of gas mixtures which contain C2-C6 alkanes and may contain hydrogen, water vapour, oxygen or any mixture of said gases, wherein primarily alkenes and hydrogen, and additionally water vapour, can be obtained, which: a) consists of ceramic foam obtained from oxide or non-oxide ceramic materials or a mixture of oxide and non-oxide ceramic materials, b) wherein the oxide ceramic materials used are calcium aluminate, silicon dioxide, tin dioxide or zinc aluminate or a mixture of said substances, c) to provide catalytic activity, the material is saturated with at least one catalytically active substance and d) the catalytically active material contains platinum, tin or chromium or mixtures thereof. Described is a method of producing said material by applying a starting ceramic substance, mixed during production with a suitable additive as an auxiliary agent, in form of a suspension onto a prepared starting polyurethane material, after which the obtained material is sintered and saturated with catalytically active material. Described is a method of dehydrogenating alkane-containing gas mixtures (versions) using the disclosed material.
EFFECT: considerable reduction in hydraulic resistance of the catalyst, significant improvement in availability of catalytically active material, increase in thermal and mechanical stability of the material.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalyst regeneration and specifically to a catalyst regenerator. The disclosed regenerator comprises: a housing having an inlet opening for the catalyst and combustion gas, an outlet opening for the regenerated catalyst, an outlet opening for feeding the catalyst into the cooler and an outlet opening for effluent gas; a catalyst cooler, having an inlet opening for a hot catalyst, linked to the outlet opening of said regenerator housing, which serves to feed the catalyst into the cooler, a gas distributor, an air vent, an outlet opening for the cooled catalyst and a plurality of heat-exchange pipes therein for carrying the coolant; and an air pipe which links said air vent with said regenerator housing. The invention also relates to a method for catalyst regeneration in said regenerator.
EFFECT: disclosed catalyst regenerator and regeneration method using same enable to efficiently use air for fluidising a hot catalyst in catalyst coolers equipped with regenerators.
10 cl, 1 dwg